W. F. (William Forsell) Kirby.

A handbook to the order Lepidoptera (Volume 3) online

. (page 3 of 22)
Online LibraryW. F. (William Forsell) KirbyA handbook to the order Lepidoptera (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 22)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

found in damp as well as in dry woods; but T. tages prefers
dry banks and lanes, where it flies close to the ground, on
which it often settles. It has been found by several good
observers at rest with the wings folded over its back in the
exact position of a Noctua, and Mr. Barrett figures a specimen
which shows this very clearly.

Section A.

ANTENN/E : Very varied, never much hooked, and usually
sharply pointed. In all the genera in which the tip of the
antennae is blunt, the epiphysis on the fore tibiae is wanting, ex-
cepting in one or two Australian forms.

PALPI: Third joint usually short and inconspicuous, in some
few genera long and slender ; in these it is also always erect,
and never porrected horizontally in front ot the face.

FORE-WINGS : Cell always less than two-thirds of length of
costa ; vein 5 slightly nearer to 4 than to 6, except in some
aberrant Australian forms, in which it is slightly nearer to 6.
Hind-wing never with a conspicuous tail or tooth, though fre-
quently more or less lobate ; vein 5 never well developed.

Male never with a costal fold, and only comparatively sel-
dom with a discal stigma on the fore-wing ; frequently with
glandular patches and tufts of hair on the wings ; never with a
tuft on the hind tibiae.

The epiphysis on the fore tibioe and the medial pair of spurs
on the hind tibiae are occasionally wanting.

Confined almost entirely to the Old World. As far as is
known the species of this group rest with their wings raised
over their backs, assuming that position immediately on
settling. (Watson.)



Eric/nota, Mabille, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxi. p. 34 (1878);

Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 393 (1886).

The species of this, and one or two allied genera, are con-
fined to the Indian Region, and are (with the exception of one
African species) the largest Hesperiidce known.


(Plate LXIX. Fig. 4.)

Papilio thrax. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.) i. (2) p. 794, no. 260

(1767); Donovan, Ins. Ind. pi. 49, fig. 2 (1800).
Hesperia thrax, Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 748, no. 53

Erionota thrax, Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 393, pi. 34, fig. 17

p. 367, figs, in (transf.) (1886).
Casyapa thrax, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 291, pi. 98


This species, which sometimes measures nearly three inches
in expanse, is brown, with three pale yellow spots on the fore-
wings, one large square one before the end of the cell, a
larger oblong one obliquely below it, between the two lowest
median nervules; and a third smaller one, transverse, and
placed between the two upper median nervules nearer the
hind-margin ; the under side is paler.

The larva, which feeds in Java on the "Pisang" (Musa
paradisaica\ is white, with long white woolly hair. It also
feeds on Platanus. The p -1 P a is yellowish-white.

This species is found in most parts of the Indo- Malayan
Region, and extends beyond it into Celebes.

Another species, closely resembling this, and equally com-
mon in India, Ceylon, Malacca, and Java, is Gangara thyrsis
(Fabricius), a larger and darker insect, with broader hind-


wings. The spots are more widely separated, and of a deeper
ochreous-yellow, and there are two or three small ones towards
the tip of the fore-wings


Pamphila, Fabricius, Illiger, Mag. f. Insect, vi. p. 287 (1807).
CyclopideS) pt. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. no (1816).
Carteroctphalus, Lederer, Verh, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, ii. pp.
26, 49 (1852).

As now restricted, this genus, formerly employed almost as
synonymous with Flesperia, or at least to include the great
bulk of the tawny Skippers, is now restricted to two European
species, one of which is British ; one Siberian ; and two or
three North American species. This is the only genus of
tawny Skippers found in Britain in which there is no patch of
raised scales on the fore-wings of the male.


(Plate LXX. Fig. 3.)

Papilio f alamort, Pallas, Reise, i. p. 471 (1771).
Papilio panisaiS) Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 531, no. 377 (1775) ;

Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 322, pi. 28, fig. 2 (1777); i. (2)

p. 14, pi. 95, % 5 (i 788).
Papilio brontes, Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett.

Wien. p. 160, no. 6 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i.

figs. 475, 476 (1803?).
Hesperiz paniscus, Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 773, no. 126

(1823); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 171 (1881).
Pamphila paniscus, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p, 100

Cyclopides palamon> Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 64


* Famphila pan iscus on plate.


Carterocephahis palczmon^ Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 556, pi.

82, fig 5 ; pi. 80, fi^. 4 (transf.) (1884).
Steropes tianisats, Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 129,

194, pi. 17, fig. i (1886).

Cydopidcs paniscus, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 298, pi. 40,
figs, r, 10-^(1893).

This Butterfly is common in many places in Central Europe,
but in North Germany and Denmark it is absent, reappearing
in England and Finland. Eastwards it occurs throughout
Northern and Central Asia. I do not remember having taken
it except at Heidelberg, where it was not very common. In
England it is a very local insect, appearing at the end of May
and June, in woods. It has been recorded from seven or
eight counties of England, chiefly in the eastern and east
midland counties, though it has also been met with in Hamp-
shire and Devon. " Its principal haunts in this country appear
now to be the larger woods of Northamptonshire and Lincoln-
shire." (Barrett^) Its occurrence in Devon is one of a series
of observations which suggest some affinity between the speci-
ally Midland Fauna, and that of the south-western counties.
The distribution of Polyommatus arion points in the same

The Chequered Skipper, which measures an inch or rather
more in expanse, is brown, with yellow fringes, and a row of
sub-marginal spots of pale fulvous. The fore-wings have an
oblique fulvous band on the disc, a fulvous spot above it on
the costa, and some fulvous spots in the cell, and towards the
base. On the hind-wings there are several pale fulvous spots
towards the base, and the sub-marginal spots are larger than
on the fore-wings. In the female, the sub-marginal spots are
smaller, there are fewer spots towards the base of the fore-
wings, and those on the hind-wings are much paler than in the
male, being almost cream-colour or white. On the under


side of the fore-wings the fulvous markings are extended to
cover much of the surface, and the hind-wings are yellowish-
brown, with large tawny spots towards the base, and four large
white spots on the middle of the wing (there is a smaller spot
between the two outer ones), and some smaller white spots
nearer the hind-margin. The larva is dark brown on the back,
with the sides paler, and there are two yellow longitudinal stripes.
The head is black, and there is an orange-coloured collar. It
feeds on Plantago major in September. The pupa is white,
with brown and buff lines ; a sharp spike between the eyes,
and another flat projection, spined at the end, at the other
extremity of the body. The larvae hibernate in a silk-lined
tube in a rolled-up leaf. Hellius observed them leave the
cases, and attach themselves by the tail and a belt round the
body, but thought that if undisturbed, they might have turned
to pupae in the cases in which they had hibernated. This is a
point which requires further investigation. (See Buckler's
" Larvae," cited above.)


Section B.

ANTENNA very varied, but never hooked ; the club either
entirely without, or with, a crook of varying length. PALPI : third
joint of several genera long, slender, and curving over the vertex,
a character never found in the Hesperiina ; in most of the
other genera the third joint is minute, only very rarely being
horizontally porrected, and when this is the case, it is always

FORE-WING : Cell invariably less than two-thirds the length
of costa; vein 5 curves downwards at its base, and conse-
quently arises considerably nearer to 4 than to 6 ; the
middle disco-cellular considerably longer than the lower


one, frequently more than twice as long as it. HIND-WING :
usually rather elongate, but never with a conspicuous tail or
tooth ; vein 5 very rarely developed.

The male is frequently furnished with a discal stigma on the
fore-wing, and never with a costal fold. Both pairs of spurs
are invariably present on the hind tibiae, and there never is a
tuft of hair on the tibiae in the male. The epiphysis on the fore
tibiae is invariably present.

This group is of world-wide distribution; the South American
forms, however, are comparatively few.

The majority of the species, when sunning themselves on a
leaf, depress their hind-wings, and elevate their fore-wings, an
attitude peculiar to this section. When in a complete state of
repose, both pairs of wings are raised till they meet over the
back. ( Watson.)

This section includes all the British tawny Skippers except
Pamphila palcemon, and in all our species the black stripe of
raised scales on the fore-wings of the males is more or less


) pt. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 1 13 (1816).
^ Billberg, Enum. Ins. p. 81 (1820); Watson, Proc.
Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 98.

We have three British species belonging to this genus, two of
which are very local with us. The name Thymelicus is now
restricted to a different genus, the type of which is the West
Indian T. vibex, Hiibner. The type of Adopcea is A. thaumas
(Hufnagel), a species figured by Barbut under the name of
Urbicola comma. As, however, A. thaumas is not a Linnean
species, it cannot be allowed to be the type of Urbicola, and
we are therefore spared the immediate necessity of considering

C 2


whether Urbicola (which must date from Linnaeus, and not
from Barbut, if used at all) is admissible as a generic name.


(Plate LXX. Fig. 4; pi. LXXL Fig. I.)

Papilio thaiimas, Hufnagel, Berl. Mag. ii. p. 62, no. 10 (1766) ;
Von Rottenberg, Naturf. vi. p. 4 (1775) ; Espcr, Schmett.
i. (i) p. 344, pi. 36, figs. 2, 3 (1777) ; i. (2) p. 25, pi. 98, figs.

Papilio linea, Denis & SchirTermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett.
Wien.p. 160, no. 5 (1776) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs.
9 Papilio venula, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 666, 669


Pamphila tinea, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 101 (1828) ;

Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 175, pi. 38, figs, i, la-e

(1893); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 139, 195,

pi. 1 7, fig. 3(1886).

Pamphila thaumas, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 66,

pi. 15, fig. 14 (1879).
Hesperia thaumas, Lang, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 350,

pi. 81, fig. 9 ; pi. 80, fig. 5 (transf.) (1884).
The Small Skipper measures from an inch to an inch and a
quarter across the wings, which are of a light fulvous or tawny
above, with a black line at the base of the pale fringes ; on the
fore-wings of the male is generally a rather broad black streak.
The hind-wings are greenish ash-colour beneath, broadly tinged
with fulvous along the inner-margin. The antennae are blackish,
ringed with pale yellow, and yellowish beneath ; the tip of the
club is fulvous.

The larva is green, with a darker dorsal stripe divided by a
pale thread, and two yellowish-white lines on the sides ; it feeds
on grass. The pupa is yellowish-green.




1. Adopcea tJtcuunias. 3_ S.Aagiadej sylvanus'.

2. t , lineolcL 6^8.Adopwa,

S.Eiynras comma*.


This species, which appears in summer and autumn, is found
over Jie greater part of Europe, the Mediterranean Region,
and Western Asia, frequenting meadows, lanes, open places in
woods, and similar localities, and is generally common, though
somewhat local, in Britain. It is, however, met with (commonly,
where it occurs) in many places in England and Wales, and in
several parts of Ireland. Duncan says : " The fly appears
in July, and is frequent in many parts of the country, both in
England and Scotland ; " but its presence in Scotland does
not seem to have been confirmed by recent observers.

(Plate LXXL Fig. 2.)

Papilio lineola, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 230


Papilio virgula, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 660-661 (1818?).
Hesperia lineola, Latreille, Enc. Method, ix. p. 771, no. 119

(1823); Duponchel, Lepid. France, Suppl. i. p. 253, pi.

41, figs, i, 2 (1832); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 35i,pl. 81,

fig. 10 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 279, pi. 38,

figs. 2, 2^-^(1893).
Pamphila lineoh^ Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 86


This species is very similar to the last, and is of about the
same size. It is darker, and the black line on the wings of
the male is narrower, and generally longer. There are two
characters by which it may be distinguished at once; the hind-
wings are of a uniform greenish ash-colour, not shading into
fulvous on the inner-margin, as in A. thaumas; and the tip of
the antennae is black.

The larva is pale yellowish-green, with yellowish-white lines
on the back and sides; the head is reddish. It feeds on grass


in June, and the Butterfly appears in July. " Pupa long and
rather slender, yellowish-green. In an open network cocoon
among grass-stems. About four days before emergence the
wing-cases of the pupa assume a golden-brown colour, and the
eye-covers a brilliant crimson, changing in two days to black ;
the tips of the antennae-cases also black. Attached to a carpet
of silk by a silken girth and the anal hooks, within the chamber
formed by the larva among the grass stems." (Barrett.}

This Butterfly is common throughout the greater part of
Central and Southern Europe, the Mediterranean Region, and
Northern and Central Asia. It is found in dry grassy places,
along the edges of corn-fields, &c. It has been taken casually
in England for some years, but was always confounded with
A. thaumaS) until 1888, when Mr. F. W. Hawes took a series
^f both species in Essex, and recognised specimens of A.
lineola among them. It appears to be met with here and there
in most of the counties on the South Coast of England, as
well as in Cambridgeshire and Nottinghamshire, but chiefly in
Essex and Suffolk. In Germany I have generally found it at
least as abundant as A. than mas , if not more so.


(Plate LXXI. Figs. 6. 8 rf ; 7 ? .)

Papilla acf&on, Von Rottenberg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 30,
no. 18 (1775) ; Esper, Schmett. i. (i), p. 345, pi. 36, fig.
4 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 488-490 (1803).
Vesperia acicwn, Latreille, Enc. Method, ix. p. 772, no. 120
(1823); Curtis, Brit. Ent. x. pi. 442 (1833); Newman,
Brit. Butterflies, ii. p. 173 (1881); Lang, Butterflies Kur.
p. 352, pi. Si, fig. ii (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i.
p. 283, pi. 37, figs. 2, 2a-d (1893).

Pamphila actceon, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. iv. p. 383
(1835) ; Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 66 (1879).


This Butterfly closely resembles the two last species, but is
darker, and of a smaller average size. The wings are of a
dark greenish fulvous, with a narrow curved black line in the
male. The female has a fulvous stripe in the cell (slightly
indicated in the male), and a curved row of fulvous spots
on the upper part of the disc beyond. The wings are pale
fulvous beneath, glossed with greenish; the antennae are black
above, and fulvous below.

The larva is pale green, with a darker dorsal line, edged with
yellowish, and divided by a pale central line, and with two
yellow lines on the sides. It feeds on Calamagrostis epigejos
and Arundo phragmites on the Continent ; in England its
principal food appears to be Brachypodium pinnatum. It is
full fed in June, the Butterfly appearing a little later. The
pupa is pale greenish, and becomes pink before the Butterfly
emerges. Like the other species of the genus, the larvae form
themselves silk-lined galleries among grass-blades, in which
they live, and finally assume the pupa-state in them.

This is a rather sluggish, gregarious, and extremely local
insect in Central Europe ; in the Mediterranean district it
appears to be much more generally distributed. It is, how-
ever, generally abundant wherever it is met with. It is found
in sunny weedy places, and has some preference for a chalky
soil. In Britain, so far as is known, it appears to be absolutely
confined to a few localities along the coast of Dorset, Devon,
and Cornwall, the two principal ones, and those longest known,
being the Burning Cliff and Lulworth Cove in Dorsetshire. It
was first discovered in the last locality (from which it derives its
name) by the late Mr. J. C. Dale in 1832. It has been reported
to have been taken at Shenstone, near Lichfield, and near Strat-
ford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire ; but these accounts have not
been confirmed, and are now discredited. Yet, with the curious
connection between the Faunae, to which I have called atten-


tion eisewhere (antea, p. 17), I am inclined to believe that
the occurrence of (his Butterfly in the Midland Counties is
less improbable than Mr. Barrett thinks. The form which is
found in the Canaries, and which has been supposed to be
identical with this, is now considered by Dr. Rebel to be a
distinct species, which he calls Thymelicus christi.


Erynnis, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i)p. 157 (1801); Watson,

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 99.

This genus and Augiades include larger species than Ado-
pcea, and the fore-wings are longer and more pointed, while the
bar of raised black scales on the fore-wings of the male is much
more conspicuous and strongly developed. The antennae are
hooked at the tips in both genera. There is but one European
species each of Erynnis and Augiades, both of which occur in
Britain. The present genus may be distinguished at once by
the distinct white spots on the under side of the hind-wings.


(Plate LXXL Fig. 9.)
Papilio comma, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 464, no. 162 (1758)

id. Faun. Suec. p. 285 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p.

300, pi. 23, figs, la, b (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs.

479-481 (1803 ?).
Hespei ia comma, Latreille, Enc. Method, ix. p. 769, no. 116

(1823); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 172 (1881); Lang,

Butterflies Eur. p. 353, pi. 82, fig. 2 (1884); Barrett, Lepid.

Brit. Isl. i. p. 294, pi. 39, figs. 2, 20-^(1893).
Pamphila comma, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 102

(1828); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 65, pi. 15,

fig. 12 (1879); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 142,

198 (1886).


The Pearl Skipper measures from an inch and a quarter to
an inch and a half across the wings, which are greenish-brown
above, with fulvous markings. On the fore-wings there is a
fulvous streak filling up the cell, and, in the male, extending
over the costal area ; below the cell is an oblique black bar of
raised scales in the male, which is sometimes intersected by a
slender silvery line, and beyond is a row of fulvous spots,
mostly contiguous to each other, three small ones below the

Pearl Skipper, male.

Pearl Skipper, female.

costa, two moderate-sized square ones set back towards the
inner margin, and then a row of three or four larger ones run-
ning obliquely to the inner margin. On the hind-wings there
is a large fulvous blotch towards the base, and a more or less
extended curved row of fulvous spots on the disc. The under
side is yellowish-green, dusted with black, or sometimes brighter
green ; the fulvous markings on the fore-wings as above, but to-
wards the tip there are some square white spots on a green
ground; the hind-wings are greenish, with a row of square
white spots across the disc, and several others towards the base.
The fringes are pale, spotted with brown at the base.


The larva is dull green, varied with red, with rows of black
dots on the back and sides ; the head is black, and the collar
white ; it feeds on Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, c., in
June and July, and the Butterfly appears in August.

Generally speaking, this is one of the most abundant species
of the Family throughout Europe and Northern and Western
Asia, frequenting meadows and hill-sides. In England it is a
local insect, but abundant in many places in the southern
counties, especially preferring dry chalky districts, where the
grass is short. In the Midland and Northern counties it is
still more local, and its reported occurrence in Scotland has not
been confirmed by recent observers.


Hykphila, Billberg, Enum. Ins. p. 101 (1820); Scudder, But-
terflies East U. S. p. 1625 (1889); Watson, Proc. Zool. Soc.
Lond. 1893, p. 101.

Euthymus, Scudder, Rep. Peabody Acad. iv. p. 77 (1872).

The type of this genus is


Papilio phylauS) Drury, 111. Exot. Ent. i. pi. 13, figs. 4, 5


Papliio colon, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 541, no. 376 (1775).
Hesperia phylaiis, Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 723 (1823) ; Bois-

duval & Leconte, Lepid. Amer. Sept. pi. 78 (1833).
Pamphila bucephalus, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 102

note ; pi. 10, figs, i, 2 (1828).
Hylephila phylaus^ Scudder, Butterflies East U. S. p. 1630


This is a very common species in both North and South
America, and it is mentioned here because two specimens are


said to have been taken near Barnstaple towards the beginning
of the century, and the species was described and figured by
Stephens as Pamphila bucephalus, though he did not believe it
to be British. About the same time several North American
Butterflies and Moths seem to have been accidentally intro-
duced into England, but they did not establish themselves;
and, with one or two exceptions, appear not to have revisited
our shores.

The Great-headed Skipper is not unlike Augiades sylvanns,
Esper, but is a stouter insect, with a much larger head,strongl>
tufted above, and shorter and more strongly clubbed antennae.
The black oblique stripe of raised scales on the fore-wings of the
male is bordered below with a blackish patch, and the brown
border runs up into the tawny part of the wings of the male in
large curves. In the female, the tawny markings are reduced
to an irregular row of large tawny spots. The under side is
more uniformly coloured than in A. sylvanus. It has no pale
spots, but is marked with a row of black spots beyond the
middle. The larva is said to feed on crab-grass (Panicum
sanguinak) Linn.).


Atigiades, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett p. 112 (1816); Wat-
son, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 101.
The single European species of this genus much resembles
Erynnis com/na, from which it may be at once distinguished by
the absence of clear white spots on the under surface of the


(Plate LXXL Figs. 3^, 4^,5 underside.)

Papilio sylvamiS) Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 343, pi. 36, fig. i
(1778?); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 482-484 (1803 ?).


Hesperia sylvanus^ Latreille, Enc. Method, ix. p. 770, no. 117
(1823); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 172 (1881); Lang,
Butterflies Eur. p. 352, pi. 82, fig. i (1884); Barrett,
Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 294, pi. 39, figs, i, 1^-^(1893).
Pamphila sylvanus, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 101
(1828); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 65, pi. 15,
fig. 13 (1879); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 141,
196, pi. 17, fig. 4(1886).

This species, which is of about the same size as Erynnis
comma, is greenish-brown, with large fulvous markings. On
the fore-wings this colour is much extended, the greater part
of the cell, and the portion of the wing above and below
being fulvous, clouded with brown at the base, and (in the
male) separated by an oblique black streak of raised scales
running up to the outer part of the cell from an oblique band
on the disc. This, beyond the cell, turns inwards along the
costa, where it is cut by the nervures. In the female the black
bar is absent, but the fulvous band on the disc is continued
upwards, being separated from the costa by a broad brown

1 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Online LibraryW. F. (William Forsell) KirbyA handbook to the order Lepidoptera (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 22)