W. F. (William Forsell) Kirby.

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The Marbled Clover is a common Moth in most parts of
Europe and Northern Africa, as well as in Northern and
Western Asia. It expands about an inch and a quarter.

The ground-colour of the fore-wings is usually pale greenish-
yellow, but specimens in which the green predominates, or
which are rusty yellow, with the markings suffused, are by
no means unfrequently met with. The head and thorax are
generally greenish-yellow, the former being a little darker,
while the abdomen is greyish-yellow, almost white beneath,
with some ferruginous hairs in the anal tuft. The antennae
are rusty brown, and the legs white, suffused with brown.

In distinctly marked specimens both the half-line and the
first transverse line are brown or black. A broad dark central
band crosses the wings over the reniform stigma, which is dark



HELIOTHIS. 83

grey. Beyond this is the second transverse line, which is
indicated by a few dots on a pale ground. The marginal
band contains a row of dots on the nervures, and an ill-defined
zig-zag line, tending to rusty brown, separates it from the area
preceding the fringes. The fringes are ferruginous brown,
with a row of black spots at the base. The hind-wings are
yellowish-white, with a broad black central lunule, and a broad
black marginal band, containing a rather large white spot,
divided by a dark nervure. The fringes are bisected by a
brown line. Sometimes the markings of the hind-wings run
together, leaving the yellowish-white markings clouded or
broken up, and more rarely only two yellowish spots remain on
the wing.

The female is smaller than the male, and is usually duller
in colour.

The larva feeds on yellow snap-dragon (Linaria), chicory,
plantain, red campion, and a variety of other low plants. It
is elongated, and tapers at both extremities. The larva is
straw-coloured, heavily streaked with reddish brown, with a
broad continuous violet-brown dorsal line. The sub-dorsal
line is straw-coloured, and is bordered below by a broad
sinuous violet-brown band. The spiracular line is yellow, also
bordered below with brown. On each segment is a reddish
transverse band. The head is paler than the body, and is
covered with black dots. It is found in July and August.

The pupa is dark brown, slightly glossy, dusted with
bluish. It is slender, attenuated towards the head, and has
a small tubercle on the front, and two stiff points at the
extremity.

The moth is double-brooded, being found in May and the
beginning of June, and again in July and August. It hovers
in the sun over flowering thistle-heads, clover, &c.

G 2



84 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

GENUS ANARTA,

Anarta., Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 30 (1816) ;
Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 220 (1822 ?) ; Treitschke,
Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p. 200 (1826) ; Guenee, Spec. Gen.
Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 189 (1852).

Antennae slender, slightly pubescent. Palpi short, straight,
pilose. Head small ; front narrow, convex. Thorax and
abdomen short and pilose, the latter stout in the female. Legs
short; tibiae pilose, without spines or spurs. Wings thick,
densely scaled ; hind-wings usually white or yellow.

Larvae short, cylindrical, naked, living exposed upon low
shrubs. They form cocoons of silk, mixed with fragments
of earth, &c.

The moths fly rapidly by day, and many species are Alpine
or Arctic in habitat.

THE BEAUTIFUL YELLOW UNDERWING. ANARTA MYRTILLI.

Noctua myrtilli, Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 311, no. 1168
(1761); Esper, Schmett. iv. (2), p. 582, Taf. 165, figs.
1-3 (1793 ?) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. iv. fig. 98 (1799?).

Anarta myrtilli, Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p. 201
(1826) ; Curtis, Brit. Ent. pi. 145 (1826); Stephens, 111.
Brit. Ent. Haust. iii. p. in (1830); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies
and Moths, p. 258 (1881) ; Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid.
vi. pi. ioo, figs. 3, 3 a (1895).

The Beautiful Yellow Underwing is common in most parts
of Europe. It measures about an inch across the wings.

The head is brown, and the collar reddish-brown, striped
with yellowish -white, and so is the crested thorax. The
abdomen is black, dusted with yellow, and with yellowish- white
incisions. At the sides and extremity it is covered with



ANARTA. 85

reddish-brown hair. The antennae are dark brown ; and the
legs are yellow, spotted with black. The fore-wings are straight
on the costa, and produced, but hardly pointed at the apex.
They are bright reddish-brown, marbled with white. The half-
line, the two transverse lines, and the sub-marginal line are all
distinctly white, and somewhat broad. From the base to the
first transverse line are a few whitish patches, suffused with
yellow. In the central area is a somewhat triangular white
spot. The greater part of the orbicular stigma is contained in
this spot, and is ringed with darker, with a dark spot in the




The Beautiful Yellow Underwing.

centre. The reniform stigma is beyond the white spot, and
from it extend several white rays as far as the second trans-
verse line. The sub-marginal line is very distinct, and
beyond it the wings are uniform reddish-brown as far as the
fringes, which are dark reddish-brown, and spotted with white.
The hind-wings are bright yellow towards the base, with a small
black lunule, and a broad velvety-black marginal band.

The larva lives on bilberry ( Vacdnium myrtillus) and heath
(Calluna vulgaris). It is of a beautiful grass-green, with a
bluish head, and numerous whitish markings. The dorcal line
is formed of a row of elongated spots, and on each skle is a



86 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

row of nearly semi-circular spots, whilst a third series of spots
forms a zig-zag spiracular line. The spiracles are white, ringed
with black. It is found at the end of July, and in August.

The pupa is short and dark brown, and lies among fallen
portions of the food-plant in its cocoon.

The moth is generally developed in the same year, but
sometimes passes the winter in the pupa and emerges in April
or May of the following year. It flies by day on heaths.



FAMILY XLIII.

The " Minores " of Guenee include five families, all of which
are represented in Britain except the Hcemero slide?. For the
present I am inclined to unite the first four under the name of
Acontiid<z\ the fifth, the Phalcenoidce or Brephidce, is very
distinct from the others, and will be noticed later on.

Larva. Resembles that of the Geometridce or Tortrices. Soli-
tary, smooth, without protuberances, with from ten to sixteen
legs, and feeding on low plants.

Pupa. Contained in a slight cocoon under the surface of the
ground.

Imago. Of small size, varied colour, and often flying by day ;
the body is slender, and scaly rather than downy; the pro-
boscis is moderately long. The abdomen is rarely crested, and
the legs are long, slender, and unarmed. The fore-wings are
broad, and are often provided with an accessory cell; the hind-
wings are broad, and frequently coloured more or less like the
fore-wings. In repose they are somewhat sloping, and are not
entirely covered by the fore-wings.

GENUS EROTYLA.
Erotyla, Htibner, Tentamen, p. 2 (1810?).



EROTYLA. 87

Emmelia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 254 (1822 ?).
Agrophila, Boisduval, Gen. Ind. Meth. p. 175 (1840) ; Guenee,
Spec. Gen. Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 204 (1852), nom. prceocc.

Antennae short, slender, setaceous ; palpi short, straight ; eyes
large. Thorax round, scaly ; collar rather large. Abdomen
rather long, slender, sub-conical, and carinated in the male.
Legs bare, rather stout. Wings entire, with long fringes ; fore-
wings oblong, smooth and silky, with the fringes unicolorous ;
hind-wings unicolorous above.

Larva long, smooth, with only two pairs of pro-legs. It
lives on low plants in dry places. The pupae are enclosed in
small earthen cocoons.



THE SPOTTED SULPHUR MOTH. EROTYLA TRABEALIS.

Pyralis trabealis, Scopoli, Ent. Carniol. p. 40, no 610 (1763).
Noctua sulphuralis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.), i. (2),

p. 881, no. 333 (1766).

Noctua arabica, Hufnagel, Berlin. Mag. iii. p. 142, no. 95 (1767).
Noctua sulphured, Denis & Schiffermtiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett.

Wien. p. 93, no. 6 (1776) ; Esper, Schmett. iv. (2) i. p. 576,

Taf. 164, fig. 6 (i 793 ?) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. iv. fig. 291

(1799?).
Erastria sulphured, Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p 251

(1826).
Erastria sulphuralis, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. iii.

p. 117 (1830).
Emmelia trabealis, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 279

(1881).
Agrophila sulphuralis, Hellins, Entom. Monthly Mag. iv.

p. 115 (1867); Buckler, Lepid. Brit. Isl. vi. p. 89, pi. 100,

fi gs. 5-5 c (1895).



88 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY

This Moth is common in Central Europe, Asia Minor, and
Siberia, but is local and rather scarce in Britain. It expands
from three-quarters of an inch to nearly an inch.

The pattern consists of a mixture of brownish-black and
sulphur-yellow. The head, collar and tegulse are sulphur-
yellow, bordered with brownish-black, and the thorax is black,
with yellow spots. The antennae are black. The abdomen
is brownish-grey with yellowish incisions, and the legs are
brown, yellowish beneath.




The Spotted Sulphur Moth.

The narrow fore-wings are sulphur-yellow, with five black
spots along the costa, from the fourth of which runs a narrow
blackish band transversely across the wings. This is some-
times dusted with yellow, and has a slight metallic lustre.
From the base to this line run two straight black bars across
the wings, one along the inner margin, and the other above
and parallel with the first. The stigmatal area is marked with
black spots. Beyond the transverse band is an undulating
yellow stripe, and in front of the fringes, which are brownish-
black varied with yellow, runs a straight yellow line. The
hind-wings are unicolorous brownish-black with white fringes.

The larva feeds on bind-weed {Convolvulus arvensis). It is
usually grass-green, sometimes brown, with a black dorsal line, and
a double white line above the legs. The incisions are dark green.



EROTYLA. 89

The following very interesting description of the brown variety
of the larva is given by Mr. J. Hellins in the " Entomologists'
Monthly Magazine," and is quoted in Mr. Buckler's work :

" Hiibner's figures of this species leave me little that is new
to say about it. Still, I feel much indebted to Mr. Brown for
enabling me to rear a larva which Mr. Buckler has figured.

" Unluckily, although the moth had laid several eggs, they
all perished in the Post Office save one, and the single larva
did not live to become a pupa, having been hatched on June
25th, and dying on August i5th.

" I potted for it a small plant of Convolvulus arvensts, and
on two little shoots of this, bearing in all not more than five or
six very small leaves, it fed and grew and moulted con-
tentedly during the first half of its fifty days' life, its longest
journey all that time not exceeding an inch and an half.

" Had the other eggs escaped squashing on their journey,
probably I might have had the pleasure of seeing both the
varieties which Hiibner figures, but the green one yet remains a
desideratum. My single larva was of the brown variety.

" When first hatched, it was a dingy grey little looper, with
a black transverse dorsal hump on each of the four middle
segments ; but at each moult these humps became less, till at
last there remained nothing but the usual dorsal dots, black
and distinct, and these too afterwards disappeared.

" When full-grown the larva is about an inch long ; the legs
twelve; the body cylindrical, thickest at the fourth segment;
the segmental divisions deeply indented. When at rest the
middle segments are generally arched, and the head bent
down. The colour is rich chocolate-brown ; dorsal line rather
darker, and edged with very fine paler lines ; sub-dorsal line
also darker, but scarcely visible ; spiracular stripe broad, of a
pale yellow, and with a fine brown thread running throughout
its length, immediately after the last moult. There were some



QO LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

rich yellow and orange spots also in it, but these disappeared
in time, and the whole stripe grew paler."

The pupa is reddish brown, and is placed, in its cocoon,
between blades of grass.

The moth appears in May and June, and again in August.
It flies in dry open places in the sunshine.

GENUS TARACHE.

Tarache, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 261 (1822?).

Acontici) pt. Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 91 (1816);
Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3) p. 237 (1826; nee
Hiibner); Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 214(1852).

This genus includes a considerable number of pretty little
day-flying species, found in various parts of the world. It is
generally called Acontia ; but Hiibner restricted that name to
A. malvcz (Esper), a yellow moth, an inch and a half in
expanse, which is found in South Europe.

In Tarache the head is small, with the front convex, the
antennae short, cylindrical, almost smooth, the palpi short,
scaly, raised, and approximating; the third joint distinct. Pro-
boscis moderately long. Thorax round, smooth, clothed with
large smooth scales. Abdomen smooth, rather slender, cylin-
drical, and carinated. Wings entire, the fringes usually long
and bicolorous ; fore-wings thick, squamose, marbled with
black and white ; hind-wings with the hind margin waved.

The larvae, which have only two pairs of pro-legs, are very
long and slender, and feed on low plants. The pupae are
enclosed in small earthen cocoons.

Several exotic species have yellow hind-wings, as is the case
with the one we have figured.



CANNA. 91

TARACHE DISPAR.
(Plate C XX VI II., Fig. I.)

Acontia dispar, Walker, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 790,
no. 21 (1857).

This species is a native of South Africa.

"Male. White. Head brown; palpi obliquely ascending;
third joint black, not more than one-fourth of the length of the
second. Abdomen luteous. Fore-wings brown, with a glaucous
tinge, and varied with dark brown ; some indistinct and in-
complete whitish undulating bands, and a large white costal
patch, which is beyond the middle, and contains a brown
costal spot and a black mark, the latter indicating the reniform
spot ; marginal lunules black. Hind-wings luteous ; discal
spot, discal band, and border brown. Length of the body five
lines ; of the wings twelve lines." ( Walker.}

GENUS CANNA.

Canna, Walker, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. xxxiii. p. 790 (1865).
The antennae are simple, and the palpi are stout, pilose, and
ascending, with the third joint very short; the proboscis is
well developed. The abdomen is tapering, much more slender
than the thorax, and not extending beyond the hind -wings ; it
has a small tuft at the extremity. The legs are stout and
hairy, with strong spurs, and the tarsi spiny beneath. The
wings are broad and entire, and the fore-wings are rectangular
at the apex.

CANNA MALACHITES.

(Pla'e CXXVIIL, Fig. 3.)

Telesilla malachites, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. v. p. 80, pi. 3,

fig. 9 (1880).

Canna splendens, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 412 ;
Butler, 111. Lepid. Heter. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 59, pi. 128,
fig. 4 (1889).



92 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

Diphthera malachites, Hampson, Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths, ii.
p. 294 (1894).

This is a beautiful Moth, which was first brought from the
Island of Askold, near the mouth of the Amoor, but it has
since been found in Northern India.

The head and front of the thorax are green ; the antennae
and the hinder part of the thorax are rufous, and the abdomen
is white, with a tuft of stiff black hairs on the middle of the
back. The fore-wings are green, with the half-line, and the
two transverse lines white, more or less bordered with black.
The basal and central areas are rufous, the former marked below
with a black spot, and the latter containing a green spot on a
dusky ring near the costa, and greatly extended in the inner
margin. Towards the hind margin are two black spots con-
taining a white dot, and bordered inside with white, and out-
side with buff. The hind-wings are brown, more or less
clouded towards the hind margin.

GENUS BANKIA.
Bankia, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 231 (1852).

Antennae hardly ciliated; palpi slightly ascending, thickly
scaled ; proboscis very slender. Thorax globular, thickly scaled.
Abdomen long, and thicker and more obtuse in the female
than in the male. Legs slender, almost bare, with rather long
scales. Fore-wings oblong; hind-wings broad, rounded, the
lower discoidal nervule as thick as the sub-median nervules,
and rising above them from the discoidal, which is equally
thick.

THE SILVER-BARRED MOTH. BANKIA OLIVANA.

Tortrix olivana, Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett.

Wien. p. 126, no. i (1776).
Pyralis bankiana^ Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. p. 275, no i (1781)



BANKIA. 93

Noctua argentula, Esper, Schmett. iv. (2) i, p. 559, Taf. 163,

fig. 3 (1792 ?).

Noctua olivea, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. iv. fig. 292 (1799?).
Erastria argentula^ Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p. 255

(1826) ; Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 278 (1881).
Erastria bankiana, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. p. 1 17 (1830).
Bankia bankiana, Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. vi. p. 94,

pi. 101, figs. 4, 4a (1895).




The Silver-barred Moth.

The Silver-barred Moth is found in Central Europe, and in
Asia Minor and Siberia. It expands about an inch.

The head and thorax are olive-green varied with white.
The collar is golden yellow. The antennae are rusty brown,
and the legs and abdomen brownish-grey, the latter with a
yellowish anal tuft.

The fore- wings are dark olive-green, approaching brown,
with two oblique silvery transverse lines, the first of which has
a silvery hook representing the orbicular stigma, and the
second a slight prominence representing the reniform stigma,
In front of the fringes is a straight silvery line, and a small
dull comma-like mark may be seen near the apex of the wings.
The hind-wings are grey.

The larva feeds on various grasses, especially annual



94 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

meadow-grass (Poa annua). It is yellowish green, with a light
green head. There is a dark green dorsal line, and a yellow
sub-dorsal line, whilst the spiracles are flesh-coloured.

The pupa is short and stout, with two fine points at the
extremity. It is at first shining drab, but by the follow-
ing spring has become dark brownish-green. It is placed
in a cocoon close to the ground.

The moth is found from June to August.

Pyralis bankiana, described by Fabricus in 1781, is certainly
the present species, and is represented by a specimen in the
existing Banksian Collection ; but the insect which he origin-
ally described under the same name in his " Systema Entomo-
logiae" (1775) is something quite different.

GENUS GALGULA.

Galgida, Guenee, Spec. Gen. Ldpid. Noct. ii. p. 239 (1852);
Walker, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 817 (1857).

Antennae smooth, but a little thickened in the male. Palpi
short, ascending, the last joint distinct and pointed. Thorax
and abdomen scaly, the former long, and the latter short, and
pointed at the tip in the female. Legs, slender, bare. Wings
entire, smooth, silky, with rather short fringes ; the markings
rather indistinct. There is no accessory cell, the sub-costal
nervure forming two bifurcations opposite each other.

This genus belongs to Guenee's Anthophilida^ which is the
fourth family into which he divides his Minores.

GALGULA PARTITA.
(Plate C XX VI IT., Fig. 2.)
Galgula partita^ Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 239

(1854).

This is a little North American Moth, which measures rather
less than an inch across the wings.



EUSTROTIA. 95

The fore-wings are pale grey, with the margins marked with
reddish, and the two central lines slightly visible, curved, and
brownish on the inner side. Before the first line, and after the
second, run rows of small black dots. The two upper stigmata
are faintly visible ; they are slightly darker than the ground-
colour, and surrounded with paler, and they are separated by
a large square mark which extends to the costa. The hind-
wings are pale grey, with the borders and nervures indistinctly
blackish, and the fringes paler. The under side is tinged with
pale brick-red.

GENUS EUSTROTIA.

Eustrotia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 253 (1822?).
Hydrelici) Guenee, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v. p. 227 (1841);
id. Spec. Gen. Lepid. Noct. ii. p. 234 (1882).

Antennae short, hardly pubescent ; palpi short, arched, scaly,
and divergent ; proboscis short. Thorax short, rounded, and
thickly scaled. Abdomen obtuse and carinated in the males,
thicker and rounded in the females. Legs stout with long
spurs. Wing entire, rounded, with long close fringes ; fore-wings
distinctly marked, with no accessory cell ; hind- wings broad,
unicolorous, with the hind margin slightly waved.

Larva slender, feeding on plants growing in swampy places.
Pupa contained in a slight web among grass and moss.

THE SILVER HOOK MOTH. EUSTROTIA UNCULA.

Phaltzna uncula^ Clerck, Icones, pi. 3, fig. 7 (1759).

Tortrix uncana^ Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 342, no. 1305

(1761).
Noctua unca, Denis & Schiffermiiiler, Syst. Verz. Schmett.

Wien. p. 91, no. 4 (1776); Esper, Schmett. iv. (2) i.

p. 580, Taf. 164, fig. 7 (1793?); Hiibner, Eur. Schn^tt

iv. fig. 293 (1799?;-



96 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY

Erastria unca, Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p. 253 (1826) ;

Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust iii. p. 117 (1830).
Erastria uncula, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 278

(1881).
Hydrelia uncana. Buckler, Larvae of Brit, Lepid. vi. p. 96,

pi. 101, fig. 5 (1895).




The Silver Hook Moth.

The Silver Hook Moth is common in Central and Northern
Europe, Asia Minor, and Siberia. It expands about an inch.

The head and collar are reddish-grey, and the rest of the
body is uniform ashy-grey. The antennae are dark brown and
filiform, and the legs are grey. The thorax is not crested.

The fore-wings are nearly triangular, with the hind margin
somewhat curved outwards, and the apex rather acute. The
costa is narrowly ashy-grey, below which is a broad, yellowish,
almost flesh-coloured, band, which runs to the apex, where it
terminates in a dark spot. The inner margin also is narrowly
bordered with grey, to which succeeds a flesh-coloured band.
The central area is shining brown. At the base of the wings
is a white nervure, usually filled up with silvery, which touches
a large silvery spot with a dark nucleus in the middle of the
wings. A broad transverse line, shaded with brown and silver,
stretches in front of the brownish fringes, up to which the
surface is uniform brown, but separated from them, first by a
dark line, and then by a white one. The hind-wings are
reddish ashy-grey with whitish fringes, enclosed by a double
ashy-grey line.



ANTHOPHILA. 97

The moth flies in damp meadows in June and July, and is
very plentiful at Killarney, and is also found in some localities
in Devonshire and Cornwall.

The larva lives on grass, and especially on sedge (Carex).
It rests, stretched out at full length, upon the blades of grass,
and loops in walking. When young, it is a tiny greenish
creature, with brown dots, each bearing a small fine hair.
After each moult the green colour becomes more intense, and
when full-grown it is slender, cylindrical, and about an inch in
length. It is then velvety-green, with a yellowish-green head.
There is a dark dorsal line, and a fine pale green sub-dorsal
line. The spiracular line is light yellow, and broad, and on it
the spiracles show brownish. The last segments are the palest,
and the ventral surface is also paler.

GENUS ANTHOPHILA.

Antophila, Hiibner, Tentamen, p. 2 (1810?)

Anthophila, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 93 (1816);

Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. v. (3), p. 273 (1826); nee

Haworth ; nee Guenee^ restr.

Eromene, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 256 (1822?).
Micra, Guene*e, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, x. p. 224 (1841) ;

id. Spec. Gen. Lpid. Noct. ii. p. 241 (1852), nom prceocc.
Thalpochares, Lederer, Noct. Eur. p. 43 (1857).

These are small day-flying Nocfua, which are usually scarce
in collections, rather because they are likely to be over-
looked than from their actual rarity. They are found flying
in weedy places. The type of the genus is A. purpurina
(Den. & Schiff.), a South European Moth ; an allied species is
noticed below.

The antennae are short, and finely ciliated in the male.
Palpi rather short, ascending, scaly, with the last joint distinct
16 H



98 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY.

The proboscis is long, and the eyes large and prominent.


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