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h !'V,



;1



'C., &'C.

IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. I.



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

LOjS'DON, new YOKK, and BOMBAY

1901



Printed at the




By Ponsonbv \ Weldrick.



Eo tije lEemorg of
Jig Jilotjjer



2060785



FOREWORD.



A SARCASTIC writer lately advised authors treating on Irish
subjects not to omit commencing their essays from the starting
point of the Biblical Deluge, so that no fact, direct or collateral,
in the matter under consideration, might escape notice. Critics
do not, as a rule, confine themselves between too narrow limits,
but the above recommendation, though good in its way, does not
give a wide enough field to work on, at least when Ancient Erin
itself is in question. The liberty, therefore, is taken of ignoring
the well-meant advice, of exceeding the prescribed limit, and the
subject is opened somewhere in the early Glacial, or perhaps in
the Tertiary period. The writer has, in fact, placed himself in
the unenviable position of the advocate who, opening his speech
with the sentence, " Before the birth of the world," was cut
short by the Judge who exclaimed, " Do you not think that we
might pass on to the Deluge? "

Many Continental writers throw back the origin of man to
even geologically distant ages, but evidences of this early
existence of our race rest on such fragile proofs that they are,
for the present, regarded with scientific scepticism by most
English authorities. On this subject the late Professor Huxley
observes, that " evidence has been adduced in favour of man's
existence in the Pliocene or even in the Miocene epoch. It does
not satisfy me ; but I have no reason to doubt that the fact may
be so, nevertheless."

Speculations on the Great Ice Age would also, at first sight.



vui FOREirORD.

seem to have little connection witli primitive reli^t^ion. The con-
sideration of the subject has, nevertheless, an important bearing
upon the antiquity of man in the British Isles ; for as almost
all parts of the world, save these Islands, have been suggested
as the cradle of the human race, man must necessarily have been
some time in existence, and must have acquired some faint
religious ideas, before he found a home on these, at that time,
icebound shores. Thus it is sought to conduct the reader through
ages so vast that, if they were represented in figures, it would
probably only confuse the imagination. All we can say is that
it is a tale of progress, slow but sure, which began at the first
appearance of life, and will probably continue until time shall be
no more.

To work one's way behind the scenes of the prehistoric
past is, undoubtedly, most interesting. Not only are the results
obtained of great importance, but the mere process of searching
for facts, and then putting them together into a consistent whole,
is a continual source of pleasure and excitement ; so that an
attempt to pierce the mist which envelops the past, and to
review, to the best of our present knowledge, the primitive faiths
of the Eld, needs no excuse, nor preface, for a preface is but a
more or less lengthened excuse.

Christianity is generally supposed to have annihilated
heathenism in Ireland. In reality it merely smoothed over and
swallowed its victim, and the contour of its prey, as in the case of
the boa-constrictor, can be distinctly traced under the glistening
colours of its beautiful skin. Paganism still exists, it is merely
inside instead of outside. In a previous work entitled " Pagan
Ireland," the writer attempted to draw a picture of the early
civilization of the country, from an archaeological standpoint, by
analysis of existing material evidence of long-past life ; in the
present work the same svabject is approached from a folklore
point of view, by th« aid of legend and tradition. These two
aspects of the question, viz., those of archeology and folklore,
blend the one into the other, so that it is almost unnecessary to



FOREWORD. IX

explain that, in many places, the same ground has to be traversed.
To avoid repetition, when this occurs, the text has been con-
densed, re-arranged, and re-written, so that it will doubtless be
regarded by readers of "Pagan Ireland," even at these points of
junction, as an almost new work.

Like a dissolving view, traditional folklore is passing away
before the eyes of the present generation. It was clear and
strong in the days of our fathers, and there is hardly a legend or
superstition narrated in the following pages for the currency of
which, amongst the peasantry, our grandfathers would not have
vouched.

The interest taken in Irish folklore is a comparatively new
phase of modern inquiry, but so much information has been
already garnered, that it is almost an impossible task to compress
an outline of the subject within the limits of a book of moderate
size. The study of folklore, greeted at first with contempt, has,
by the inevitable reaction which its acceptance into the ranks of
science occasioned, given birth to numerous extravagant and ill-
considered theories, for its study gives great scope to the imagin-
ation. But the latitude granted to the imagination should not
be based on mere guess-work, but on ascertained facts.

" Im Auslegen seyd frisch unci munterl
Legt ihr's nicht aus, so legt was unter."

A writer should carefully follow Goethe's advice as given in
the first line, and as carefully shun adopting that given in the
second line. A few of our folklore theories are at present merely
tentative, for no very definite assertion can yet be made with
regard to some points in the analysis of Irish traditional lore.
It has been remarked that, in this branch of investigation, a
theory to stand unchallenged must be more than clear ; it must
be not only in harmony with and explain facts known at the
time it is enunciated, but it must also be in harinony with
and explain new facts as they are brought, one by one, to the



X FOREWORD.

light of day, or else it must give place to a new theory which
fulfils these requirements.

Every new investigation clears some point from obscurity ; it
is hoped that this attempt may clear up many. The opinions
expressed in the text are the individual views of the writer;
should the reader not agree with them he can form views of his
own, and he may, perhaps, in some instances, arrive at more
accurate conclusions than those set forth in the following pages.
But though minor theories may be subject to modification, it is
hoped that the main deductions are sufticiently well founded to
make them incontrovertible.

The idea of giving authorities in foot-notes was abandoned
for two reasons : it seemed too pedantic, and the work would
have expanded into inconvenient bulk ; but a compromise is
made, and books and papers consulted are enumerated, in a
Bibliography, at the end of the second volume.

Many changes in the arrangements of the subjects treated of,
suggested by literary friends who kindly looked over the proofs,
have been carried out ; but if every recommendation had been
adopted the writer would have found himself in the position of
the man in the fable, who listening to and adopting all the advice
tendered by onlookers, finally destroyed his property, for, "he
labours in vain who tries to please everybody." The writer's
object has been simply to discharge the useful but humble r6lc
of presenting to the general reading public, in condensed form
and in popular shape, the many sides of a great subject. Such a
treatment should interest those who have neither time nor oppor-
tunity to study, in more complete arch;T3ological and folklore
treatises and papers, each special branch of the great whole ; for
the fields of Irish archseological research are now so many, of
such vast extent, the workers therein are so numerous, and have
left behind them such voluminous records of their labours, that
a specialist has but little time to afford himself a general view of
what is going on around him. And yet all branches of archaeo-



FOREWORD. xi

logical research are so interdependent, that it is impossible to
understand even one branch thoroughly without a sound know-
lodge of the entire series.

The present work has been also undertaken with the object of
showing that a great literary opening lies ready at hand for a
writer capable of rising to the occasion, and of doing for Irish
archaeology what a Prescott and a Motley have done for History
at large. The author wishes he could make the story as fasci-
nating to his readers as it is to himself, but he thought it was
better to have it told roughly than not told at all. Should
therefore the following pages be considered dull reading, the
failure must be attributed to want of skill rather than lack of
interesting material in the subject under review, which may be
designated the Romance of Religion in Ireland. An outline of
its development, together with a description of its stereotyped
customs and ceremonies — relics of the ancient world, still holding
their position amid the din and bustle of modern civilization — is
here presented.

The writer cannot conclude without returning thanks to the
public in general for the manner in which his previous work —
" Pagan Ireland " — was received, as well as to his numerous
critics, in particular, for their favourable and friendly criticism.
In the general purport of these notices there is indeed but one
statement to which he must take exception. Several reviewers
appear to consider that archaeological remains throw a mere side-
light on the history of Ancient Erin. Now the study of Irish
Archaeology is no mere side-light, and folk-lore is a most impor-
tant branch of Archaeology. Archaeology is the light, and the
only light, in which so-called " ancient history " must be judged
by dispassionate modern criticism. If the archaeological theories
of the present day are based on well established facts, it follows
that the reputed records of Ireland, prior to the date of the intro-
duction of Christianity, must, of necessity, be adjudged to be
mere emanations from the inner consciousness of comparatively
modern writers.



xii FOREWORD.

It should be stated tliat the greater portion of Chapters I.
and II., Volume II., appeared in the pages of the " Ulster
Journal of Archaeology," and are reprinted by kind permission
of the Editor, Mr. F. J. Bigger, m.r.i.a.

Clkvekagh, Sugo,

Scptemhir, 1901.



CONTENTS



CHAPTEE I.

PAGK

Speculative Geological Archaeology, .... 1



CHAPTEK II.

Ancient Fauna and their Exterminator, . . .31

CHAPTER III.

Early Man, ......... 78

CHAPTER IV.

Man as Author, Artist, Sculptor, .... 12G

CHAPTER V.

Some Arch.eolochcal Problems, . . . . .171

CHAPTER VI.
The Borderland ok History, 200



XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER Vll.

Advent of St. Patrick — Side-lights on PA(tANisM, . 244

CHAPTER YIII.
Ideas Regarding the Dead, ...... 285

CHAPTER IX.

Gods, Goddesses, Ghosts and Goblins. . . . 841

Additional Notes, ........ 384

Index 889



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Figure Page

ideal landscape off the north coast of ireland in thf.
TERTIARY PERIOD, ..... Frpiitispiecc.

1 MAP SHOWING AREA OF VOLCANIC ACTION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND

IRELAND DURING PART OF THE TERTIARY PERIOD, . . 5

2 SKETCH MAP SHOWING LAND AROUT 400 FEET AROVE THE SEA, . 9

3 IDEAL IRISH LANDSCAPE IN THE RUDE STONE AGE, . . .11

4 IDEAL SKETCH MAP, SHOWING APPROXIMATE OLD QUATERNARY

CONTINENT AT ITS MAXIMUM EXTENT, ..... 20

5 LIGHTING THE FAMILY FIRK. A SCENE IN THE STONE AGE, . 34

G LIGHTING THE " NEED-iaRE. " A SCENE IN THE NINETEENTH

CENTURV, .......... 35

7,8,9 BONE ARROW-HEADS, ........ 40

10 A MODERN MAKER OF FLINT ARROW-HEADS, IN THK ACT OF

FABRICATING HIS GOODS, 44

11 RECENT REPRODUCTIONS OF ANCIENT FORMS OF FLINT ARROW-

HEADS AND AXES, ........ 45

1 2 GENERAL VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE CAVE OF BALL YNAMINTRA,

FROM NEAR THE CAPPAGH RAILWAY STATION, . . . 52

13 GENERAL VIEW OF THE COUNTRY AROUND THE BALLYNAMINTRA

CAVE, SHOWING FLAT GROUND MARGINED WITH SCARPS,

REPRESENTING AN ANCIENT RIVER BED OR ESTUARY, . . 53

14 THE PREHISTORIC CAVES OF KNOCKMORE, ..... 54

15 THE POOKA AND ITS INVOLUNTARY RIDER, 56

IG " FOSSILIZKD IRISH GIANT," ....... 58

17 THE MAMMOTH. AN INHABITANT OF IRELAND DURING THE GREAT

ICE AGE, 60

18 MAMMOTH WITH CURVED TUSKS, 61

19 THE GIGANTIC IRISH DEER, OR CERVUS MEGACEROS, . . . C3



XVI L IS J ■ OJ-' IL L USTRA TIO^ 'S,

Figure Pagk

20 THE KEIXDEKU. A.N IMIAlilTANT Ol lUELANU DVUIXG THE GREAT

ICE AGE, . 66

■Jl THE DEATH OF THE GRIZZLY ]IEAU. A SCENE IN THE STONE AGE, . 67

22 RED DEER, .......... 68

23 SVPPOSED PITFALL FOR CATCHING DEER OR OTHER WILD ANIMALS, . 69

24 HEAD OF LONG-FACED IRISH FIG, . ... ... 70

25 ANCIENT BREED OF LONG-FACED IRISH FIG, ..... 71

26 CHALK CLIFFS, ANTRIM COAST RO.\D, NFAR GLEN ARM, SHOWING

UASALT COVEIUN(; THE FLINT-BEARING CHALK, ... 83

27 HAMMER-STONES AND RUDE FLINT IMFLE.MENTS OF THE PAL.liO-

LITHIC TYPE, ......... 87

28 TYPICAL FLINT FLAKE, 88

29 HAMMER-STONE, FOUND WITH ITS SURFACE BATTERED ALL OVER,

EVIDENTLY HY CONSTANT USE AS A POUNDER, ... 90

30 STONE AXE, RETAINING ITS AVOODEN HANDLE, FOUND IN PE.iT,

WHICH HAD FORMED THE RED OF A SMALL LAKE IN CUMREK-
LAND, . 90

31 SHELL-MOVNU, ISLAND OF ACHILL, . . . . . . 94

32 ANCIENT SHELL-MOUND, BROWN ISLAND, CORK HARBOUR, . . 94

33 ANCIENT SHELL-MOUND, BRICK ISLAND, CORK HARBOUR, . . 95

34 IDEAL SCENE IN AN UNDERGROUND DWELLING, .... 96

35 GRAIN-RUBBER, ......... 99

36 GRAIN-GRINDER STILL USED IN THE ARAN ISLANDS, ... 99

37 A GIFT FROM THE OCEAN. A SCENE IN THE STONE AGE, . . 100

38 CAPTURE OF A BASKING SHARK, ISLAND OF ACHILL. A SCENE IN

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY^, . . . . . .101

39 WHITEPARK BAY, I,OOKING WEST. A TYPICAL SITE OF AN .\NCIENT

SEA-SIDE SETTLEMENT, 103

40 IDE.\L SCENE. INLAND SETTLEMENT OF THE STONE AGE, . . 105

41 IMAGINARY SCENE OF OLD SEA-SIDE LIFE IN THE STONE AGE, . . 106

42 SKELETON FRAMEWORK OF KAFFIR HUT, SOUTH AFRICA, SHOWING

ROOF AND SIDE-WALLS COMPOSED OF BENT BOUGHS, . . 107

43 SKETCH -PLAN OF UNCEMENTED STONE WALL IN AN IRISH PRE-

HISTORIC SEA-SIDE SETTLEMENT : THE SAPLINGS THUS SECURED
IN POSITION FORMINf; THE FKAMKWOHK OF SIDE- WALLS AND
HOOF, lOS



LIST OF ILL USTRA TIONS. xvu

Figure Page

44 SKETCH SHOWING MANNER IN WHICH THE CAPE WAS PIIOUABLY

WORN, . .110

4-5 SEVEN FIGURES ON THE CROSS OF KILKLISPEEN, SHOWING HOODS

TO CLOAKS, . . .111

4G THREE FIGURES ON THE CROSS AT TUAM, SHOWING HOODS TO CLOAKS, 111

47 "the lUISH MUMMY," ........ 112

48 GLIBB FASHION OF WEARING THE HAIR, . . . . .112

49 TWO HUNTERS ON THE NORTH CKOSS OF CLONMACNOISE, WITH

CONICAL CAPS, 113

50 ANCIENT COSTUME, . . .114

51 " WILD IRISHMAN," ......... 114

52 " WILD IRISHWOMAN," ........ 114

53 IRISH AND HIGHLAND COSTUMES, FROM MSS. AND EARLY PRINTED

BOOKS, ...... .... 115

54 HEAD OF MAORI CHIEF, SHOWING TATOOED PATTERNS, . . .158

55 "scribbles," or "wild runes," in the LETTERED CAVE AT

KNOCKMORE, COUNTY FERMANAGH, . . . . .159

56 INSCRIPTION AS GIVEN BY TIGHE IN " STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS

ON THE CO. KILKENNY," . . . . . . .160

57 INSCRIPTION AS ORIGINALLY CUT BY E. CONIC IN A.D. 1731, . 160

58 SAME INSCllIPTION REVERSED, ....... 160

59 REVERSED INSCRIPTION ON THE TORY HILL STONE, . . . 161

60 IDEAL LANDSCAPE OFF THE WEST COAST OF IRELAND IN THE GLACIAL

PERIOD, .......... 173

61 A RELIC OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD : AN ERRATIC. CLOGHVORRA OR

THE giant's STONE, . . . . . . . .175

62 THE INITIATORY STAGE IN THE INVENTION OF THE COMB, . . 182

63 COMBS FROM THE SITES OF LAKE DWELLINGS IN THE WEST OF

IRELAND, . . . . . . . . . .183

64 AMBER BEAD, WITH OGHAM INSCRIPTION, ..... 1S5

65 FINE GOLDEN-COLOURED BRONZE BELL OF THE CLASS STYLED

" CROTALS," FOUND AT DOWRIS, NEAR BIRR, IN A LARGE
BRONZE CALDRON, TOGETHER WITH OTHER ANTIQUES, . . 196

66 ECCLESIASTICAL BELL, MADE OP IRON, ..... 19l)

67 CHART FROM " LA NAVIGATION l'iNDE ORIENTAL," 1609, ON

WHICH THE TWO ISLANDS OF BRASIL AND BRANDON ARE
MARKED, . 214

VOL. I. b



xviil LIS! OF 1LLUS7 RATIONS.

FiouRE Page

(5S CHAltT HYTHE FKKNCH GKOOUAl'HKK UOYAL, IC'Jl, ON \V!II( II T11K

ISLAND OF HHASIL IS MAUKF.D, . . . . . .215

C9 SKKTCH MAI', SHOWING TIIK AI'l'KOXIMATi: I'OSITIOX OF THF. I'OK-

CLTINE AND ItOCKHALL BANKS WITH HEGAUD TO IllELANl), . 21G

70 I'KERENT APFEAllANCE PUESENTED liY LOUGH EYES AND ITS AUTI-

FICIAL ISLETS, ......... 222

71 FOKMER APPEARANCE PRESENTED KY LOUGH EYES AND IIS ARTI-

FICIAL ISLETS. AN ATTEMPTED RESTORATION OF THE ANCIENT
SETTLEMENT, . . . . . . . . .223

72 THE BURNING OF A CLUSTER OF LAKE-DWKLI.INGS. RESTOKATIOX

OF THE ANCIENT SINGLE-PIECE WAR CANOE IN THE SCIENCE

AND ART MUSEUM, DUBLIN, ....... 224

73 HIBEUNIA SURROUNDED WITH THE I'ltlNCIPAL PP.O DUCTS OF THE

KINGDOM. TITLE-PAGE OF SIR JAMES WARe's " DE HIHERNIA

ET ANTIQUITATIBUS EJUS DISQUISITIONES," .... 227

7-1 MAP OF IVERNIA AND THE BlUTTANIC ISLES, . . \To f(lCc\ 229

75 IRELAND ACCORDING TO PTOLEMAIC GEOGRAPHY, . . . 230

7() ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP FOUND NEAR THE VILLAGE OF GOLDEN

HILL, CO. TIPPERARY ; LETTERS IN INTAGLIO AND INVERTED, 237

77 IMPRESSION PRODUCED BY ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP, . . . 237

78 ROMAN ANTiaUES FOUND NEAR COLERAINE, ..... 238

7'J ALLEGED ROMAN ANTIQUES FOUND NEAR DONAGHADEE, CO. DOWN,

ABOUT THE YEAR 1850, ....... 241

80 BILINGUAL INSCRIBED STONE AT KILLEEN CORMAC, . . . 249

81 THE TRADITIONAL GRAVE OF ST. PATRICK AT DOWNPATRICK. . 265

82 INTERIOR OF " THE CHURCH OP THE FIRE " (tEACH-NA-TEINEDH),

SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND THE POSITION OF " THE FLAG-
STONE OF THE FIRK," ......

S3 "the FLAGSTONE OF THE fire" (lEAC-NA-TEINEDH) ,

84 SCENE AT AN IRISH WAKE, ......

85 TOBACCO PIPES ON A GRAVE IN A CHUHCHYARI) IN THE WEST Ob

IRELAND, .........

S6 SYSTEMATIC ARRANGE.MENT OF CISTS IN A TUMULUS IN THE COUNTY
DOWN, .........

87 THE KEENER,

88 MARlill HANN OSCAR THE DE.VTH -SONG OF OSCAR,



278

279
300



,301



308
309
310



LIS! OF ILLUSTRAIIONS. xix

Figure Pack

89 BIKd's-EYE VIEW OF THE CASHEL OF DUN CONOR, . . . 317

90 RATHKELTAIX, A LARGE EARTHEN FORT NEAR DOWNPATRICK. . 319

91 IDEAL RESTORATION OF A RATH, . . . . . .320

92 THE CHALLENGE TO THE ORDEAL, ...... 324

93 THE KEEN, 32G

94 THE REMAINS OF A PREHISTORIC BRITOn's DINNER. HI'MAN SKULL

AND BONES ARTIFICIALLY FRACTURED FOR THE PURPOSE OF

EXTRACTING THE BRAINS AND THE MARROW, . . . 339

95 THE YOUNG AND WHITE-ROBED PAGAN SPIRIT, .... 354

96 THE OLD AND BLACK -ROBED CHRISTIAN SPIRIT, .... 355

97 THE WAIL OF THE BANSHEE. ARCHETYPE OF THE KEEN, . . 3G7



ERRATA



Pago 12, lino 7,/o)' "of tlichulls aiulof the stags" »r«f/"ot' Lulls and of stags".
81, ,, 36, /or '• embued " ?rrt(/ " imbued".

107, ,, b, for '■'■World Magazine^'' rend '■'Wide World Magazine".
132, ,, 31,/o?-"have" »r«• "gather" j-mrf "together".
322, ,, 5, for "it is " read " are ".



TRACES OF THE ELDER FAITHS
OF IRELAND.



CHAPTEE I.



SPECULATIVE GEOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY.

The unknown impressive and imposing — Tlie Glacial Period — Earliest move-
ment of the Ice Sheet a subject of controversy — The Ice Age divided by
some geologists into three distinct epochs, each of prolonged duration :
First Ice Age, Inter-Glacial Epoch, Last Ice Age — Quaternary animals —
Cave-men, Flint Implements of the gravel —Immense duration of time
covered by the Old Stone Age — Quaternary Continent — Its gradual curtail-
ment — Its Forests, Flora, and Fauna — Primeval Race — No recognizable
Crania found in Ireland — Later Period — Two distinct Races of Immigrants
— One race fair, the other dark — Hxtreme types of Crania — Abrasion of the
Teeth — The entire enigma of the past still invites solution.

The unknown is always both impressive and imposing. With
regard to the past of ancient Erin, no skilful writer yet has
arisen to lift the veil and show us the far-off days, and to depict
the many hordes of immigrants fighting for and appro})riating
the country. Whatever they were, let it be hoped tliat under
the influence of patient study they may be made, at least in
imagination, to live again, but at present, at the very best, the
process represents only a groping after truth.

Although civilized man is, in some respects, different from,
and an improvement on, the Eude Stone Age, and even on the
Polished Stone Age savage, yet that difference arises, not only
from inheritance, but also from the continual impress of his every-
day surroundings. Place a present-day infant back in the Piude
Stone Age, and his offspring Avould doubtless grow up little, if

B



2 SPECULATIVE GEOLOGICAL ARCLIyEOLOGY.

anything, better than their fellows. Merged in their environment,
the intellectual enlargement of their descendants would keep pace
with, but would not outstrip, at any rate to any appreciable degree,
the improvement of the masses which appear ever to attain,-sl()w]y
but surely, a higher level. Although general appearance and
features may, in many instances, bear strong evidence as to
parentage, yet constitution of miiuT and bent of thought are
determined and directed by environnu^nt. The Khalif Ali, the
son-in-law of Mohammed, is credited witli the profoundly philo-
sophical remark that " j\Ien are more like the times they live in
than they are like their fathers."

One school of modern evolutionists attributes the existence
and continuance of the Universe to some unknowable mystery of
which it is impossible to assert that it takes any special heed of
the existence of man. According to the other school, the evidence
producible almost compels belief in a supreme and intelligent
Being, who has created all things with a definite purpose.
Some of the Eoman poets formed a rough working sketch of evo-
lution ; but this classic philosophy was a mere speculative idea, a
fancy picture of development, not based upon observation of facts,
but wholly evolved out of their author's own inner consciousness.
It was a happy guess at the truth, but iiothing more. It is not
thus that discoveries of the truth are made which revolutionise
the train of human thought. He who would build his theory for
all time must first make sure of his foundation. Nevertheless
we find " the same ideas, the same speculations, the same plays
of fancy, reproduced generation after generation, with modifica-
tions peculiar to the time, as though they w^ere living descendants
of original ideas which were brought into being before the dawn
of history."

L'rdess it be unreservedly accepted that the first human being
was created an adult with mature intellect and possessing an
innate knowledge of multitudinous subjects, and that his partner
originated in an even more remarkable maimer, a sui)position
to which archffiology, or indeed any other science lends no con-
firmation, the inquirer can but begin at the beginning, and draw
infei'ences only from such realistic data as are at present forth-
coming. There is much to be learned, even from what are
apparently the simplest things, in the study of arclueology ; and
when an outside inquirer asks questions, it is astonishing how
little is known on the subject, even by otherwise well informed
persons. An account of the correction of mistakes would furnish
nmch amusing matter. Few archaeologists, to say nothing of the
general ))ublic, have any idea of the extent to which opinions,
witliin the last few years, have become almost imperceptibly



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