W. Gwynne Hughes.

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54



THE HILL TRACTS OF ABAKAN.



lighter in both senses of the word, and the leaves considerably
thinner, to meet with anything like a demand. Should the
German Government, however, come to a satisfactory decision
with regard to tobacco duty, then we would feel rather more
inchnecf to speak for a small consignment, and we wdsh to know
whether the tobacco would be shipped in casks or bales. "

Messrs. Ernsthausen and Oesterley, Merchants, Calcutta, writ-
ing on another sample, under date April 10th, 1879, note thus : —

" We have examined the tobacco forwarded us from the Myouk-
toung Farm in the Arakan Hill tracts. We find the leaves to
be of large size, but somewhat indifferent in cure, and of an
agreeable, mild flavour : this tobacco being unknown here, we
propose to send the same to the Austrian Government for report
of the Regie Office in Vienna if permitted by you. The value
is uncertain ; we estimate the same at 4:d or 5d. a pound in bond if
shipped to England. "

These extracts prove, I think, that there is a sufficient prospect
of success to any one judiciously embarking capital and enterprise
on this farm. It has now passed its experimental stage, and, with
skilled curers from America or the centres of the tobacco industries
of the West Indies, the most favourable results might be achieved.
Hitherto the farm has gone through many vicissitudes of the nature
incidental to most experiments in a new country, and one of these
has been the inability of Government to procure a really competent
curer. Nevertheless the objects attained under but indifferent
curing have estabhshed a very strong case in favour of Arakan
bemg considered as a probable future exporter of this valuable
article of commerce. Cotton also forms a considerable item of the
export trade from the hihs, and in 1877-78 10,000 maunds was
calculated as the approximate yield. It is all exported in a raw
state, and generally averages from 7s. to Ss. amaundof 82 pounds.
The season for its sale commences in December and ends in Febru-
ary ; while that for tobacco commences in June and ends in
August. Experiments undertaken a few years back with teak and
cinchona prove that both, and especially the former, can be raised
most successfully in the hills. As to mineral wealth, in the absence
of any geological information, it is unsafe to hazard an opinion.
Petroleum oil and coal have both been discovered, and the coal
was pronounced by the late Mr. Mark Fryar, Mining Geologist,
•' a carbonaceous shale associated with a small quantity of a kind
•' of coal which w^ould, I think, be a useful fuel."

It has been noted in the body of this pamphlet that more
remote trans-frontier tribes abutting on Upper Burma have
been induced recently to bring down India-rubber in considerable



THE HILL TRACTS OF ABAKAN. 55

quantity. I am much afraid, however, that the magic Hne which
is said to bound the habitat of this valuable product (latitude 24")
will under existing circumstances preclude its forming an important
item of our export industries, as the present administrative frontier
does not go beyond 21° 30' north latitude. Gentlemen whose
experience has been gained in Assam, Cachar, and Ceylon, who have
visited me in the previous two years, give it as their opinion that
most of the estabhshed products which European energy have
opened out in those parts, with the exception of coffee, should
flourish well in the Arakan hills. For coffee, the hills are said to
be too far north. On this point, however, I am not at all satisfied,
inasmuch as very fine coffee plants, which gained a prize at the
Vienna Exhibition for the size and quality of their berry, are grown
successfully by a tea planter in the adjoining district to this —
Chittagong — which is considerably north of these hills.

In Akyab, a port surpassed by few in India, Arakan possesses
a splendid outlet for her industries, which only require popula-
tion and capital for their development. As the population
within the hiUs is exceedingly sparse, and the tribes too lazy
and independent to work, labour of a hardy character must be
imported. Probably the introduction of labourers from Chota
Nagpore could be effected at least as cheaply as from that division
to Assam. However, enough has, I think, been said to show that
the capacities, large, varied, and comparatively undeveloped, of
these hills offer sufficiently reasonable prospects of success to the
mercantile public to make it worth their while to turn some atten-
tion to this part. With the contingency of China and East Africa
becoming formidable rivals in the growth of opium, it is some
satisfaction to think that, from the favourable reports on the
tobacco grown and cured roughly in the hills, we have grounds
for believing that this part of Burma will supply its quota towards
what may hereafter become a very important source of revenue.

That Burma should be to the English, and even to the Indian,
public one of the least known of the provinces of the Indian empire
is a matter of regret, especially to those whose interests connect
them with this the most promising appendage of the Crown. In
official life it has been denounced by an eminent writer as the
" grave of fame," and in order that such a term should not attach
itself to mercantile hfe in Arakan, it is more than ever desirable
that spirited efforts be made to open out those new industries
which have recently largely attracted public attention, and which
are capable of great expansion.



APPENDIX.



' \



VOCABULARY.



m.



English.



I.— WOKDS RELATING TO THE HUMAN BODY.
Chin. Shandoo or Pooee.



Man


..Hklap,


. . Tsan-sah


..Noung-pasow.


Woman


. . Gnoo-mee


. . Tsah-noung


. . Noung-parir,


Head


..Kah-loo


..Loo


..Loo.


Neck


. . Kah-awe


. . Kaw-hmee


. . Gun-noung.


Chest


;:-..Kah-hkan


..'Isa-fsoo-hna


..Pa-loon.


Stomach


..Kah-kmi


..Pa-wa


.. . Ga-yaw.


Thigh


. . Kah-och-hkan


..Ban


Y.Pai.


Leg


. . Kum-tan


..Ngai-lang


..Kouk.


Hand


. . Kah-goot-deen '


. . Koo


..Ken.


Arm


v'.Kah-hpan


. . l3o-pee


.i..Paway


Frog


..Koup-roonie


.VTsa-oo


. . Kouug-can


Gecko


..


..T-hoopan


..Tow-kay
..Pa-way-ayan


Cobra


. . Tsouk


..Tso'-hpoa


Python


..Nga-gah


. . Pree-pee


, . Pa-way-gul-loon


Ant


..Myeen


..Hlike-ai


. . Pal-lain


Fly


..Pee


..Ma-hto


..Pa-tow


Ant (white)




..Lay -raw


. . Kaw-ran


Bee


..Kyoi


..Hkee


..Coy


Maggot


..Ti'nget


..Along-ahklo


..Gulloon


Centipede


..Mrohoh


. . Kee-paree


. . Poay-putty


Scorpion


. . Um-raw






Butterfly


..Pah-lak


..Balah


..



English.



VOCABULAEY.

VI,— TREES AND PLANTS.

CniN. Shandoo or Pooee.



Kamee.



Tree


..Yeen


.'.Htein-koung


..Din-koung.


Yam


..Kbah


..Ber^r


..How.


Wild yam


j..Bai


. . Bai-liay


. . How-wai.


Capsicum


. . Sam-paw


. . Me-yow


. . Tsam-ruuy.


Brinjal




. . Meito-kouk


. . Meng-tow.


Tobacco


..Tsee


..Omab-kouk


. . Say-rok.


Bamboo


..Raw


„ .Ra-mu


,..W-woo.


Cotton


..Nah-bmgoon


V.Palab


(/ ..Hpullow.


Rice


: ..Tsan


. . Suppir


. . Suunay.


Grass


. . Luke-su


..Tai-nar-day


. .Asa


Ginger


..Tee


..A-tsain


. . Kus-seen


Gourd


..


..Tee-oung


..Actung


Pumpkin


. . Tsan-my


..Omare


. . Amai


Cucumber


..Pah-su


..Eb-btsa-kouk


.,


Paddy


..Tsa


..Tsabow


..Sow


Wood


/..Tee


..Ab-tsab




Bark


..Teiu-houk


..A-koo-a




Flower


. . Um-roi


C/.Apa


. . Ka-tsoung


Fruit


..Uk-teit


..A-btai


'..Ab-tai



VII.— WORDS RELATING TO THE EARTH, &c.



Fire


..Mee


..Mee


..Mai


Air


..Rob-cbee


. .Lee-pee


..Alee


Water


..Twee


, ..Lee


..Twee


Fuel


..Tee


..Htain


..Tain


Village


..Nam


..Hka


. . Awung


Hill


. . Msoon


..Klo-pee


..Mboi


Road


^..Tiam,


■ ..Lo-kblouk


.-..Leam.


Plain


..Gum .


..Ban -pee




Jungle


..Koi


..Ro-lai


..Die-see,


Toungya


..Lab-oo


..Hlouk-loe


..Hlow.


River bank


..Myaee


. . Haw-soor


..Ban-wai.


River


..Mooi


..Tsavab-pee


..Tawow.


Rain


V.Kaw


..Evean


. . Gunne.


Streamlet


..Hklung-sah


..Vab-pya


. . Tawow-^sow.




vni-


-METATiS, WEAPONS, &c.




Iron


;.Um-tee


V..Htee-wab


..Tammow.


Silver


..Dingah


..Toe-ka


..Dinga.
/


Lead


..Um-sat


..Kan


;-•. .Key-ma,


Rock


..Tseni


i.Ai-louk


..Loon-soung-pin.


Flint


..Kob-loon


..Mee-btai-louk


..Loon-to.


Gun


,.Mai-pouk


..Mee-btai


..Maib-pow.



VI.



EXGUSH,



VOCABULARY.
Vm.— METALS WEAPONS, &c.—co7icluded.
Chin. Shandoo ob Pooee.



Kamee.



Dagger


. . See-plan


. . Chee-yow


..Alisow,


Spear


,.Tsai


V:.Ee-see


..Tawhe.


Ear-ring


..Nah-mour


..Na-ko


. . Gimnow.


\/ Eartheu-pot


..Aim


..Bai


..La-om.


Saltpetre


..


..Yai-tsee ■




Sulpbiir




..Eai


..Kai.


Gunpowder


..Yam


..Yai


..Maiporse.


Salt


..Pway-ai


..Ai-loixng


V:.Pulllioi.


Ashes


..Mee-ait


. . Mee-pwah


..Tham-twee.



IX.— COMMON WOEDS.



Name


. . Guam-meen


. . A-mie


. . Amie.


House


..Enie


..Tye


..Oum.


Boat


. . Mloung


^CBalan ^


. . Pul-loung.


Padaie


..Yat


i.Ba-lan-haima


..Tap-pai.


Casting-net


. . Umbuay-buai


..Ba-loke


..PuUao.


Fish-hook


..Um-kille


..Eai-pa


..Tuk-koy.


Line


. . Um-kike-revee


..Hree


..Whay.


Bed


. . Duuig


. . Ai-yai (Bur-aik-yah)


..Enab.


PiUow


..Eum-km-


..La-hooa


..Lu-kloung.


Mat


..Paw


..Ee-hpya (Bui'-hpyah)


..Bu.


Turban


..Loo-ban


..Loo-bu


. . Lupoung.


Jacket


..Hplau


..Vai-kan-hrai


..Bassu.


Basket


..Lak-oo


. . Ka-tsoo


..Din-comb.


Meat


..Tha (as ooScoO









pig flesh


..Htsa-klouk


. . Mooy.


Dry fish


. . Gna-kyeit


..Nga-tsa-pan


. . Gna-koy.


Skin


..Kah-win


..Htsah-pouk


. . Ahoou.


White "^'^ ..A-hbank


. . Ah-ngoo


. . Kam-loou.


Black


..A-lay


. . Apa-nouk


. . Kam-iibim.


Bed


..A-sbin


..Ah-klitsai


..Kam-lain.


Sore


..An-ua-au


^.A-hma


. . An-whoy.


Wound


..Kum-nay


..A-hma


..Au-whoy.


Dead


..Uk-tee


..A-doe


..Day-bow.


Live


..Yay-tee


..A-khla


..Ahane.


Burmau


..Ooke-sa


..Maroe


..Eay-tha.


Mro


. . Mbroo


..Law-hoo


..Mro.


Hkamie


. . Sangai


..Ma-too


..


Loosway


..Looshay


..Kli-kwa


. . Lunger-say.


Chm


..Chin


. . Amike-hmai


..Palouug.


Grandfather


..Kah-poo-pah


. . Mie-pa


..Amsee.


Grandmother


. . Ka-bwee


. . Ma-noung


. . Amun-tow.


Father


..Ka-bah


,.A-pa


..Ampow.



VOCABULAKY.



YU.





IX.-COMMON yVOBDS-continued.


m^


English.


Chin.


Shandoo or Pooee.


Kamee.


Mother


..Rah-nuna '^


..Anoa


.'.Amnu.


Uncle


..


..Oo-pa


. . Ampow-mow.


Son


'..Kai-sah


..A-htsab ,


..Tsup-pow.


Daughter


..Rai-sah-mh-hoo-mee


. . A-btsah-tsa-noung


.. . Tsun-nu.


Brother-in-law


,.Pah-mee


. . Atoo-pa


. .Nai-tsa.


Friend


. . Eoung-hein


. . Tson-pee


:..Ahoi.


Enemy


. . Come-lone-seet-tee


..Vai-tsa-rai


. . Ka-yow.


Chief


. . T-yah-kan-nah-mah


-..Eh-bai ,


..Arain.


Warrior


,.A.rai


4 . Kar-rai


..Lawai-Tsai.


Slave


..Myrar


..A-tsaik


..Mer-shoung.


Sun


..


..Mie


. . Guune.


Moon


..Pee-Hla


. . Kbla-pah


..Low.


Star


..I-shee


..A-tsee


..Ka-se.


Brother


..Reik-tie


..W-tapir


. . Amyow.


Sister


..Keik-noon


. . Sittam-noung


. . Tussow.


Good


..Douk-tee


.'.Apha


..Hoi.


Bad


..Um-lane


..Hpa-wai


..Hoi-ir.


Sweet


..Swo-tee ^/i^' ^
..Rak-tee ''/,U'^


,*.A-klilon


.'.Twe-pai.


Sour


f.A-htoo


. . Tow-pai.


Bitter


"'• . . Um-tee-tee


;.A-hka (Bnr-hkah)


..Kolai.


Long


. . Ouk-san


..A-htsee (Burra-shay)


..Ashang.


Short


..Ouk-toi


..Alsea


..Anindwe.


Stout


..Um-bak-tee


..Alai


..Leen-pai.


Thirsty


. . Twee-ank-twee-awan


..Edo-ehpee


. . Twee-nai.


Hungry


. rHboo-ka-soit


..Enouk-edoo


. . Brf-nai.


Sick


..Um-hat-ai


. . Klean-wow


. . Goung-now,


Drunk


..Yam-wik-tee


..Parn


. . Paive.


Lazy


. . Uk-sai "" . . A-htah-seah


. . Atow-se-pai.


Dirty


..Lake-e-tee


..Apooa


..Punuu-krai.


Clean


..Pouk-tee


..A-pah-tai


..Ahoi.


Pretty


. . Tsai-a-tee


', .A-hpa


..Hoi-brai.


Ugly


. . Um-daw ^


..Hpa-vai (wow)


..Aku-se-pai.


Sharp


. . Um-soon


'l..Atsa-hra


..Tsupa.


Blunt


..Um-kait


..Atsa-houk


..Tsu-ir.


Young


. . Par-me-sak


\.Tai-htsa


..Tsan-ir.


Old


..Pak-sai


. . Papee


. . Metoung.


Wise


..Lein-mar-tee


..Apa-hlo


..Alain.


Round


..A-boom-loom


..A-hloiik


..Kautukn.


Flat


..A-par-tet-leip


..A-hpai-kla


. . Purmai-Ian.


Hard


..Um-zoon


..A-tsean


..Atan-lai.


Soft


..A-htee-sah


..Aueh


:..Naw.


Strong


. . Um-boi-tee


. . Ahta-an


..Malai.


Weak


. . Um-bc-num


. . A-hta-a-moc


..Atoom-bii'.


. Bravo


. . Gree-tee


..A-rai-a-hpa


..Yce-ir.


Cowardly


..Ree-et-tce


..A-tsee


..Yee-pai.


Large


..Um-baktce


..EU-lai


!.'. Leen-pai,



Vlll.



English.



VOCABULARY.

IX.— COMMON \\0'RDS.— concluded.

Chin. Shandoo ok Pooee.



'^



Kamee.



Small


..A-kee-sah V


. .A-tsan


..Guttan.


Tutrid


..Louk-tee ^
..0uk-tie/.-7 i^l'


..A.htoo


..A-mwe-pa.


New


;.A-hlea


V . Kantar.


Old


. . Ouk-hkeim


.A-pron


. . Ka-uhum.


Dry


. .Um-soi-vee


..A-tsah


..A-nai.


Wet


. . Ouk-tsee


. .Te-pus-se


. . Twe-Vhouk.


f Dark


. . Koim-tah-tee


..A-yike


..Kaween.


") Light


i/.Voite-tee


,' . A-pa-vae


. . Ku-toi.


^Heavy


^.Eee-et-tee


..A-hioo


i.Yee-pai."^


Deep


.' /Ouk-too


;'.A-htoo


. . A-nhum.


ShaUow


. . Ouk-zoot


. .A-hpon


..Kan-pai.


Hollow


..Ar-poh-soot


. . Or- way


..Bir.


Smooth


. . Platt-tee


.^A-pa-hnai


... Punnai-pai.


Tame


..Douk-tee


..A-nge


..Km - pai.


WUd


..Igeit-tee


..A-tsea




Lame


..Ar-koh-koh


i.A-hpai


..Ler-pay-ou-ir.


Straight


. . A-ploona


. . A-pa-klan


. . Taw-pai.


Crooked


..A-hkoh


..A-kouk


..A-koy.


Angi-y


. . Eom-loon-seit-ee


..A-roo-htsouk


. . Guddow-touk.


Mad


..A-eet


..A-pa-maw


. . Kamtu.


Hot


..Loo-m6ni


J . Nga-pay-law


V.Pai-tai


i'.Pay-te.


Take


..Set


i.Lah-tai


^Low-te.


Come


..In-nar-lwah


..Veh-vaw-tai


..Ler-te, >


Hear


..Naug-yah-aue


. . Nah-khlea-tai


LTai-te.


See


. . Kah-hoon


..Mon-maw-te


,. . Nhu-to.


Eat, drink


..Boo-aye, Twee'-ka-auk


..Ngya-tai


K . Bw-sa-twe-uhai


Sleep


i.A-eip-tee


. . Mouug-tay


(..E-te.


; Get up


..Toe


..Hto


. . An-tow.


Speak


..Uk-hklee


..Htson


. . Twc-tc.


Bleed


..Tee-eitee


..A-hteea-htoa


..Tee-'towk.


V Shoot


:.A.hka


k Mc-tai-kar


..Mai-pow-kow.


Beat


. . A-pio ^''- . .Too-tai (Bur- too)


. . Puk-kow.


Cut (chop)


..A-choom


^..Htia-tai


. . Cow-tse.


Cry (weep)


..Ouk-yi .'


..Ah-tsa


. . Awow.


kLaugh


i.Ar-ri


.VApa-hnai


.\. Punuohe.


Run


. . Ouk-seen


..Eh-ro-tai


... Au-preng.


Cook


. . Auk-koon


..Htsou


..Bu-toung.



I



VOCABULARY.
X.—YEBBS— concluded.



IX.



English.


Chin.


Shandoo ok Poc


)EE. 1










Cough


..Um-koo


. . Apa-hkoo


..Puk-kao,


Sneezo


..Um-=ee


. . Apa-htsoo


..Apa-say.


Lie


. . Ouk-hlay


..Tsa-tsan-tai


..Akomai.


Sink


'/nioot-tee


..Pa-boo


. .Akoon.


Steal


. . Um-roope


. . Aproo


. . Apawow.


Kill


..A-tay


. . Hteea-tai


..Day-sow.


Break


. . Ouk-et


kHklaik-hta




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Online LibraryW. Gwynne HughesThe hill tracts of Arakan → online text (page 7 of 7)