UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
MRS. MARY WOLFSOHN
IN MEMORY OF
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UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA;
DISCOVERY OF THE WESTERN WORLD TO THE PRESENT DAY.
BY W. H. BAETLETT,
AUTHOR OF "WALKS ABOUT JERUSALEM," "FOOTSTEPS OF OUR LORD AND HIS APOSTLES.
"FORTY DAYS IN THE DESERT," "THE NILE BOAT," "GLEANINGS ON THE OVEK-
LAND ROUTE," " PICTURES FROM SICILY," &C., &C.
B. B. WOODWARD, B. A,, F.S.A.
AUTHOR OP " THE HISTORY OF WALES/ &C.
VIRTUE, & YORSTON,
12 DEY STREET.
NEXT after the study of Revealed Truth, that of History has been wisely affirmed to be
the duty of every man who would discipline his understanding, and enlarge his sympathies,
and from the loftiest point of view which it is permitted to mortals to attain, see the furthest
over the wide domain of human affairs. It would not be difficult to gather from Holy Writ
the clear assurance, that the lessons of History are the teachings of the Great God him
self, given, age after age, to men. The worth of historic studies, thus regarded as a
preparation for the business of life, and as a means of popular education and elevation, it is
impossible to exaggerate.
How forcibly these remarks, which relate to the Annals of the entire world, ancient
as well as modern, apply to the record of events which are of living interest, must be mani
fest to all. And a series which should include the uprise of a nation from those weak and
small beginnings, which are most frequently disguised and magnified by the mists of an
tiquity, to the stalwart manhood of unquestioned power ; presenting the various phases
of its growth in their bare simplicity ; would furnish an actually Encyclopedian course of
reading for all who desired either the ethical or the political wisdom, which we are assured
may be won from this source. Whilst, if the story be that of one s own country, and the
nation whose progress is traced be that to which the reader, either by birth, or adoption,
belongs, the influence is enhanced a thousand-fold ; although the difficulty of gaining and
preserving the spirit of honest fairness, in this case, is proverbially great.
These are some of the recommendations of the History of the United States ; which
has superadded to all such, the profound and stirring interest of scenes of romantic adven
ture, of the cultivation of the love of liberty until the endurance of the very name of
" subject " was felt to be a treason against humanity, of the achievement of national in
dependence on the glorious battle-field, and of the maturing of that conquest by the arms
and the arts of peace. And, for all who love to attempt the solution of that complicated
enigma Society ; in this nation, and consequently in its history, are found co-existing with
a glowing passion for liberty, the most inconsistent species of limitation of its exercise-
that imposed upon the expression of opinion; and the most flagrantly wrong and injurious
form of bondage, by which an entire race was ever oppressed.
Not one of these various incentives to historical study has been overlooked in the compo
sition of this work, which has been especially undertaken as a popular and complete History
of the great American republic. The materials employed have been, in good part, the letters,
state-papers, records, &c., &c., which are the original sources for the various periods ; and
for the rest, care has been taken that they should be authentic and trustworthy.
It must be very particularly observed that this is not a Party-History. The proceedings
of all parties are related with strict impartiality, and canvassed and discussed with a view
to their rightness alone. Hence it differs widely from other works of a similar character;
and in the extent of its range not less than in its general tone and spirit.
The first volume narrates the discovery and colonization of the country, and the earlier
and more momentous disputes respecting the possession of it ; the arbitrary rule of the im
perial government of Great Britain, by which, just as with England herself by the absolutism
of Queen Elizabeth, the desire and the capacity for political liberty were nurtured, the events
of the war by which the Independence of the United States was effected, the unsettled
period which immediately succeeded the peace, and the formation of the Federal Con
The second volume contains the history of the Administrations of Washington, John
Adams, and Jefferson, and of the Home Affairs of Madison s Administration. It treats of
that period in the existence of the Union during which the leading idea for interpreting the
Constitution, and putting it into operation, as an instrument of government for the nation,
And the third volume traces the progress and fortunes of the Great Republic of the West,
from " the Second War," down to our own times. The attainment and carrying out of a
national policy, it will be seen, is the prevailing principle of the period surveyed in this part
of the work : which concludes at the point where the widely different tasks of the Historian
and the Journalist meet, and historic candour and impartiality begin to experience the per
turbing influences of the politics and passions of the passing hour.
The first three books in the first volume are from the pen of Mr. Bartlett ; the remainder
of the work is by the continuator of his labours,
B. B. WOODWARD.
FROM THE DISCOVERY OF THE CONTINENT OF AMERICA, TO THE FIRST
I. EARLIEST DISCOVERIES IN NORTH AMERICA. SEBASTIAN CABOT. VEREZZANI. COHTEREAL.
WlLLOUGHBY AND CHANCELOUH. CARTIER AND THE FRENCH IN CANADA. DISCOVERY OF
THE MISSISSIPPI BY SoTO. THE HUGUENOTS AND CATHOLICS IN FLORIDA.
II. GILBERT S EXPEDITION TO NEWFOUNDLAND. DISCOVERY OF VIRGINIA, AND FIRST ATTEMPTS
AT ITS COLONIZATION. GOSNOLD S VOYAGES.
III. SETTLEMENT OF NEW FRANCE. THE JESUITS AT MOUNT DESERT ISLAND. DISCOVERIES
OF CHAMPLAIN. FOUNDATION OF QUEBEC. DESTRUCTION OF PORT ROYAL.
IV. VOYAGES AND DISCOVERY OF HENRY HUDSON. SETTLEMENT OF NEW NETHERLANDS.
V. THE PILGRIM FATHERS. ROBINSON AND HIS CHURCH IN ENGLAND AND AT LEYDEN.
NEGOCIATIONS. VOYAGE OF THE MAYFLOAVER. HARDSHIPS AND MORTALITY. SETTLEMENT
VI. COLONY OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. PRELIMINARY ATTEMPTS. EMIGRATION UNDER WIN-
THROP. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE THEOCRACY. RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE. ROGER WILLIAMS
AND MRS. HUTCHINSON. FOUNDATION OF CONNECTICUT. THE PEQUOD WAR.
VII. COLONIZATION OF MARYLAND BY LORD BALTIMORE. ITS ADVANTAGES AND PROGRESS.
DISPUTE WITH CLAYBORNE. ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGIOUS TOLERATION.
VIII. THE NEW ENGLAND STATES DURING THE PARLIAMENT. PERSECUTIONS OF THE BAP-
TISTS AND QUAKERS IN MASSACHUSETTS. ELLIOT AND THE INDIANS. GENERAL PROGRESS
OF THE NORTHERN COLONIES.
IX. THE ABORIGINAL INDIANS. THEIR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CHARACTERISTICS, CUSTOMS,
MANNERS, ANTIQUITIES, AND LANGUAGES.
X. PROGRESS OF NEW NETHERLANDS. DISSOLUTION OF NEW SWEDEN. DIFFICULTIES WITH
CONNECTICUT. CAPTURE OF NEW YORK BY THE ENGLISH. RECAPTURE BY THE DUTCH, AND
FINAL CESSION TO ENGLAND.
XI. CONTINUATION OF THE HISTORY OF VIRGINIA, FROM THE DEATH OF JAMES I. TO THE
DEPOSITION OF JAMES II.
XII. FOUNDATION OF CAROLINA. LOCKE S SYSTEM OF LEGISLATION FOUND UNSUITABLE. DIF
FICULTIES WITH THE COLONISTS. ABROGATION OF THE " GRAND MODEL."
XIII. AFFAIRS OF MASSACHUSETTS, FROM THE ACCESSION OF CHARLES II. TO THE DEPOSITION
OF JAMES II. DIFFICULTIES WITH THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT. WAR WITH PHILIP OF
POKANOKET. ABROGATION OF THE CHARTER. AFFAIRS OF THE OTHER COLONIES.
XIV FOUNDATION OF PENNSYLVANIA. LIFE OF PENN. GRANT FROM CHARLES II. ESTAB
LISHMENT OF THE COLONY. DISPUTES WITH THE SETTLERS.
XV. PROGRESS OF NEW FRANCE. THE JESUITS. THEIR DISCOVERIES. DESCENT OF THB
MISSISSIPPI. EXPEDITION OF LA SALLE.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
V O L U M E I .
EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS (Frontispiece. )
VIGNETTE WASHINGTON S HEADQUARTERS, NEWBURG ( Engraved Title.}
SMITH RESCUED BY POCAHONTAS 39
THE PEQUOD WAR..." 86
THE ESCAPE OF THE DUNSTAN FAMILY 193
BATTLE OF LEXINGTON 150
THE DEATH OF GEN. WOLFE 274
DEATH OF GEN. MONTGOMERY 372
KOSCIUSKO S MONUMENT 118
GEN. BURGOYNE ADDRESSING THE INDIANS 428
MISS McCREA TAKEN BY THE INDIANS 439
TRENTON FALLS 454
GEN. MARION AND THE BRITISH OFFICER 482
VIEW FROM FORT PUTNAM.. . 499
HISTOKY OF AMERICA,
EARLIEST DISCOVERIES IX NORTH AMERICA. SEBASTIAN CABOT. VEREZZANI, CORTEREAL.
WILLOUGHBY- AND CHANCELOUR. CART1ER AND THE FRENCH IN CANADA. DISCOVERY OF THE
MISSISSIPPI UY SOTO. THE HUGUENOTS AND CATHOLICS IN FLORIDA.
ON the shores of the Mediterranean, and in the neighbouring kingdom of CHA P.
Portugal, arose, in the fifteenth century, that spirit of maritime adventure of A uy>
which the first-fruits were to be the discovery of a New World. The ma
riners compass, invented by a native of the little republic of Amalphi, had
given an impulse to navigation, and citizens of Genoa and Florence, the seats
of reviving art, science, and literature, were the principal pioneers of daring
and successful enterprise. To find a shorter path to the riches of the East,
of which Marco Polo had recently given such glowing accounts, Columbus,
steering boldly across the western ocean beyond the known limits of naviga
tion, lighted upon the verge of that vast continent, of the true nature of which
he died without entertaining a suspicion. To Amerigo Vespucci, the first
to conjecture its real import, was destined the glory of giving to it a name As
succeeding adventurers followed up the track, they were astonished at dis
covering in Mexico, and in Central and Southern America, states which had
long subsisted in a high degree of civilization and luxury ; and the accounts
of the chroniclers who accompanied them teem with expressions of surprise
at the magnificence of their monuments, the remains of which have been so
accurately brought before us by recent travellers.
Not such was then the condition of the northern half of this great continent,
which was destined to afford a lasting seat to the power and enterprise of the
Anglo-Saxon race. Along the valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries,
were scattered, indeed, at wide intervals, the vestiges of prior occupation,
mounds, partly natural and partly improved by art, walls and fortifica
tions, exclusively composed of earth, with arms, pottery, and other traces of
the former occupation of semi-civilized tribes, to which tradition but dimly
pointed. But the whole sea-board, from the shores of the Northern Ocean to
the Gulf of Mexico, was entirely destitute even of these rude vestiges, and
HISTORY OF AMERICA.
CHAP, the vast primeval forests with which it was covered were exclusively occu
pied as hunting grounds by the roaming savages of the Red Race.
Traditions of a discovery of America long anterior to that of Columbus are
contained in the ancient Chronicle of Olaus, who relates that the hardy Nor
wegian rovers who colonized Iceland as early as the year 874, left also
settlers in Greenland, who, in A. D. 982, launched westward, and finding there
a milder seat of habitation, and woody valleys overgrown with wild vines,
gave to it the name of Vinland, supposed to be identical with Massachusetts
or Rhode Island. Danish antiquaries confidently adduce elaborate, and what
they consider irrefragable, evidence of this early settlement, and of successive
visits to the same coasts ; but their opinions, though not without advocates,
are by no means generally received by American antiquaries, and cannot be
cited as a portion of authentic history.
To England justly belongs the claim to the first indisputable discovery of
the northern continent. Her hardy sailors had long acquired their character
istic nerve and sinew in buffeting the stormy seas of their own coasts and the
neighbouring continent, and even in trading voyages to Iceland. The country
was emerging from the confusion occasioned by the wars of the Roses under
the prudent and thrifty management of Henry VII. Yet the spirit of intel
lectual culture and enlightened enterprise which centred in Italy, Portugal,
and the Hanse Towns had scarcely as yet penetrated to England, and thus
we find that, after the success of Columbus had given the first impulse to
voyages of discovery, they were still for some time projected and carried out
by the agency of foreigners. " I cannot," says Charlevoix, " dispense with a
passing remark. It is very glorious to Italy, that the three powers which now
divide between them almost the whole of America, owe their first discoveries
to Italians the Spanish to Columbus, a Genoese, the English to John Cabot
and his sons, Venetians, and the French to Verezzani, a citizen of Florence."
Giovanni Gaboto or Cabot, had settled in Bristol, then the second port in
England ; and it is a singular coincidence, that this ancient city, which sent
forth the first fleet of discovery to North America, should have also
equipped the famous " Great Western " steam ship, the first expressly con
structed to shorten the communication with that continent, which the lapse
of three centuries had so astonishingly altered. At this sea-port the expedi
tion " was bound and holden only to arrive." The Commission, signed at
Westminster on the 5th of March, 1495, (in less than two years after the
(return of Columbus from America,) authorized Cabot, with his three sons,
Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancho, " to seeke out and discover whatsoever isles,
-countreys, regions, or provinces of the infidels and heathen," to set up the
royal " banners and ensigns in every village, towne, castle, isle, or continent,"
to take possession of them, and to carry on an exclusive trade with the inhabit
ants, reserving a fifth part of the profits to the crown. The British merchants
equipped four vessels ; another, on board of which John Cabot himself em
barked, with his son Sebastian, born to him at Bristol, was furnished by the
parsimonious monarch. Of their first voyage the records are but scanty but it
HISTORY OF AMERICA. 3
is certain that they were the real discoverers of the continent of America. On CHAP
the 24th of June, 1497, about five in the morning, they fell in with that land ~-
" which no man before that time had attempted." The land they called Prima
Vista, or first seen, generally regarded as part of the coast of Labrador. Shortly
after they reached an island, which, as being descried upon the day of St.
John the Baptist, they called St. John s Island. Thus England had the glory
of the first discovery of North America, and acquired such right of preoccupa
tion as this circumstance was supposed to confer.
The enterprise, but timidly encouraged by Henry, was now more vigorously
pursued. A new patent was granted, and Sebastian Cabot undertook a second
voyage, in destination and result differing little from the first, save that he is
supposed to have followed the coast as far southward as Virginia. He is
reputed to have made a third, but the accounts respecting it are not clear ;
Robertson and other writers mention but one voyage, and the details given
by Hakluyt are confused. Mr. Bancroft considers that " the main fact is
indisputable," that Cabot entered Hudson s Bay, and, still bent on the great
object ever present to the adventurers of that age, the discovery of a North
west passage to " Cathai," which is in the East, the China of which Marco
Polo had given such glowing accounts, and the " bringing of the spiceries
from India into Europe." Finding the sea still open, he continued his course
until he had advanced so far toward the North Pole, that even in the month
of July he found monstrous heaps of ice floating in the sea, when a for
tunate mutiny of his sailors, forcing him to return, in all probability saved the
intrepid adventurer from destruction. This third voyage from England of
Sebastian Cabot is supposed to have taken place after he had entered into the
service of Spain, as pilot major to Charles V., under whose auspices he made
a voyage into South America. The discovery of a passage to the Indies still
continued to be the favourite object of his hopes. He suggested to the com
pany of merchants adventurers the disastrous enterprise in which Hugh Wil-
loughby and Chancelour perished, which, though it failed in its object, led to
the discovery of Archangel. This great navigator was more fortunate than
most of the early pioneers of American enterprise. He lived to escape the
perils of many voyages, and he died full of years and honours. " Wearing
old," he says, " I give myself to rest from my travels, because there are now
many young and lustie pilots and mariners of good experience, by whose
forwardnesse I doe rejoice in the fruit of my labours." Although he founded
no colonies in the countries he discovered, he may thus be said to have formed
a school of intrepid explorers, and by his example and instructions to have
given a great impulse in England to that spirit of maritime adventure which
has since become the national characteristic.
During the long reign of Henry VIII. this spirit continued to gain
ground among the English, whose expeditions now extended from the sunny
shores of the Mediterranean to the icy seas of the North. The monarch him
self, though too much absorbed by his own selfish passions, his controversy
with the see of Rome, and the struggle between Charles V. and Francis I., to
4 HISTORY OF AMERICA.
c ii A p. take a lively interest in the progress of discovery, was not altogether ncg-
. lectful of the bold adventurers, whose courage and success had already began
4 to prompt the jealousy of Spain. To one expedition to the North-west, at least,
he lent his "good countenance," as well as some slight assistance. This
was the voyage of Hore and his companions, related by Hakluyt, from the
statements of a sole survivor of miseries, so extreme, that many perished
with hunger; and others, if his story be true, were reduced to the horrors
of cannibalism. All attempts at settlement were as yet abortive, but the
fisheries of Newfoundland, long frequented by the French mariners, were
also prosecuted by the English with activity and success, so much as to lead
to parliamentary regulations for their encouragement.
But the discovery of the passage to India still continued to be the object
that agitated the hardiest and most sanguine spirits. Sebastian Cabot, unde
terred by his oAvn fruitless attempts, had, as before observed, proposed a course
by the North-east, and a company of adventurers being formed, he was ap
pointed governor, and framed a set of instructions derived from his own
experience, the command of the expedition being given to Sir Hugh Wil-
loughby. " At the first setting forth of these North-eastern discoverers," as
Hakluyt well observes, " they were almost altogether destitute of clear lights
and inducements, or if they had an inkling at all, it was misty as they found the
northern seas, and so obscure and ambiguous, that it was meet rather to deter
than to give them encouragement. Into what dangers and difficulties they
plunged themselves," says the old chronicler, " animus meminisse horret, I
tremble to relate. For first they were to expose themselves unto the rigour
of the stern and uncouth northern seas, and to make trial of the swelling waves
and boisterous winds which there commonly do surge and blow." The " drifts
of snow and mountains of ice, even in the summer, the hideous overfalls, un-
certaine currents, darke mistes and fogs, and other fearful inconveniences,"
which the English adventurers had to encounter, he contrasts with " the milde,
lightsome, and temperate Atlantick Ocean, over which the Spaniards and
Portuguese have made so many pleasant, prosperous, and golden voyages, to
the satisfaction of their fa me- tldrsiy and gold-thirsty minds, with that reputa
tion and wealth which made all misadventures seem tolerable unto them."
Willoughby and Chancelour were divided by storms, and after doubling the
" dreadful and mistie North Cape," the terrors of a polar winter surprised
them, but with very different issue. The former sought shelter in an obscure
harbour of Lapland, to die a fearful and a lingering death. In the following
spring his retreat was discovered, the corpses of the frozen sailors lay about
the ship, Willoughby was found dead in his cabin, his journal detailing the hor
rible sufferings to which they had been reduced. Chancelour, more fortunate,
entered the White Sea, and found a secure shelter in the harbour of Archangel.
Here the astonished Muscovites received their first foreign visitors with great
hospitality, and Chancelour, on learning the vastness of the empire he had
discovered, repaired to Moscow, and presented to the czar, John Vasolowitz,
a letter with which each ship had been furnished by Edward VI. The czar
HISTORY OF AMERICA. 5
dismissed Chancelour with great respect, and by an invitation to trade with CHAP.
his subjects, opened to the English a new and promising career of commerce.
The French, as well as the English, had entered at an early period into
the pursuit of the northern fisheries. Even in 1504, the boats of the hardy
Norman and Breton mariners were in the habit of visiting the Great Bank,
and in Charlevoix s time, it was in the memory of the oldest mariners that
Denys, an inhabitant of Honfleur, had even traced a map of the Gulf of St.
Lawrence. Francis I., emulous of the additional splendour of renown and
wealth which the discoveries of the Spaniards bestowed on the kingdom of
his rival, Charles V., and desirous perhaps of giving the same encourage
ment to maritime adventure that he had bestowed on literature and art,
engaged Juan Verezzani, a Florentine, to explore, on his behalf, new regions
in the unknown West. With a single vessel, the Dolphin, this mariner
left Madeira, and was the first to fall in with the middle continent of North
America. The description of his discoveries given to the sovereign who
had sent him forth, and the earliest ever penned, has all the freshness and
vivid colouring of a first impression.
After " as sharp and terrible a tempest as ever sailors suffered, whereof
with the Divine help and merciful assistance of Almighty God, and the good
ness of our ship, accompanied with the good-hop of her fortunate name,
(the Dolphin,) we were delivered, and with a prosperous wind followed our
course west and by north, and in other twenty-five days we made above 400
leagues more, when we discovered a new land, never before seen of any,
either ancient or modern." This was the low, level coast of North Carolina,
along which, illumined at night by great fires, they sailed fifty leagues in
search of a harbour ; at length they cast anchor and sent a boat on shore.
The wondering natives at first fled to the woods, yet still would stand and
look back, beholding the ship and sailors " with great admiration," and
at the friendly signs of the latter, came down to the shore, "marvelling
greatly at their apparel, shape, and whiteness." Beyond the sandy coast,
intersected " with rivers and arms of the sea," they saw " the open country
rising in height with many fair fields and plains, full of mightie great woods,"
some dense and others more open, replenished with different trees, " as plea
sant and delectable to behold as it is possible to imagine. And your Majesty
may not think," says the Florentine, "that these are like the woods of
Hercynia, or the wild deserts of Tartary, and the northern coasts, full of
fruitless trees ; but they are full of palm trees, bay trees, and high cypress
trees, and many other sorts unknown in Europe, which yield most sweet
savours far from the shore." The land he represents as " not void of drugs or
spicery, and" (with the idea ever uppermost at that time in the minds of dis
coverers) " of other riches of gold, seeing that the colour of the land doth so
much argue it." He dwells upon the luxury of the vegetation, the wild
vines which clustered upon the ground or trailed in rich festoons from tree
to tree, the tangled roses, violets, and lilies, and sweet and odoriferous flowers,
different from those of Europe. He speaks of the wild deer in the woods,