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W. J. (William Jacob) Holland.

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I






REFERENCE






NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH LIBRARIES



3 3333 05990 5493



THE
NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY



PRESENTED BY




S-S



THH BUTTERFLY ROOK






PLATE I. Frontispiece.




S Pi; I Mi IM'TTKK |.'I. I Ks.



isCardui. Linn., ' (The Painted i 2. P. Huntera, Fabr., .', (Hunter's Butterfly): 3. Crapta Interrogations Fabr. S (The Question

Sign); 4. Colias Philodice. Godt., ' ; 5. Do.. ', <The Clouded Sulphur); 6. Vanessa Antiopa. Linn., , (The Mourning Cloak).



THE BUTTERFLY BOOK



A POIMTAK

TO A KNOWN DGE o- I III W\ II KM. II S OF
NORTH \MI Kit \



BY

W. J. HOLLAND, hi. !>.. D. I).. LL. D.

THI W
TH8 CA . ^

SOCIETIES OF LONDON; MI MI



\VITH 48 PLATh- IN . I'itiR-I'MDTOGRAl'HY. KII'RH-
DUCTIi IN >R'S COL-

LECTIiiN. \MD MANY Tl XT ILLUSTRATIO .

ol- THh s-PECIES FOUND IN THb LNiTl.L) SI



Nl \V YORK
DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO.







COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY

W. J. HOLLAND.



PB-

Q



To MN GOOD WIFE
AND MY TWO BONNY BOYS,

THI-. U'MI'ANloN^ OF MY I MM 'Kl HOURS
\M> \n \ \. All' -N KAMllLES,
I DIDICAll THIS

A^KINi, I HI IK I'l



.
. ". '



PREFACE



A some time or other in the life of everv he.iltrn per-

son there appe.irs to be developed wh.it h.is been styled
"the collecting m.ini.i." Whether this tendency : the

ii.itur.il acijuiMtiveness of the hum.in race. ! .in inn.ite .ipp:
tion of the beautiful .ind the curious, or to the development of .in
instinct such .is is possessed bv the bov the magpie, .ind

the crow, which h.ive the curious h.ibit ol 'gathering together .ind
stoiiii.n .iw.iv trilles which .ire bright .ind .ittr.ictive to the ej
le.ive to students ol the mind to decide. The l.ict is p.iteiit th.it
there is no village without its youthful enthusiast whose colle
of post. ige-st. mips is de.ir to his he.irt, .ind no town in which
there .ire not .im.iteur L: .md

zoologists, whii .ue e.i-cilv bent upon the form.ition of collections
of such objects .is possess :in .ittr.iction for them.

One of the commonest pursuits of boyhood is the form.ition
of a collection of insects. The c.ireer of almost every n.itur.ilist
of renown h.is been m.irked in its e.irlv stages bv .1 propensity
to collect these lower, yet most interesting .ind instructive, forms
ol .inim.il life. Among the insects, bec.iuse of their beauty,
butterllies have alw.iys held a foremost pi. ice in the regard <>!
the amateur collector. For the lack, however, of suitable in-
struction in the art of preserving specimens, and, above all, by
reason of the almost entire lack of a convenient and well-illus-
trated manual, enabling the collector to identity, name, and
properly classify the collections which he is making, much of
the labor expended in this direction in the United States and
Canada fails to accomplish more than the furnishing of tem-
porary recreation. It is otherwise in Europe. Manuals, compre-
hensive in scope, and richly adorned with illustrations of the



Preface

leading insect forms of Great Britain and the Continent, have been
produced in great numbers in recent years in England, France,
and Germany. The result is that the youthful collector enters the
field in those countries in the possession of a vast advantage over
his less fortunate American fellow. It is to meet this want on
this side of the Atlantic that this volume has been written. Its
aim is to guide the amateur collector in right paths and to pre-
pare him by the intelligent accomplishment of his labors for the
enjoyment of still wider and more difficult researches in this and
allied fields of human knowledge. The work is confined to the
fauna of the continent of North America north of the Rio Grande
of Texas. It is essentially popular in its character. Those who
seek a more technical treatment must resort to the writings of
others.

If I shall succeed in this book in creating a more wide-spread
interest in the world of insect life and thereby diverting attention
in a measure from the persecuted birds, which 1 love, but which
are in many species threatened with extinction by the too eager
attentions which they are receiving from young naturalists, who
are going forth in increased numbers with shot-gun in hand, 1
think 1 shall render a good service to the country.

I flatter myself that 1 have possessed peculiar facilities for the
successful accomplishment of the undertaking I have proposed to
myself, because of the possession of what is admitted to be un-
doubtedly the largest and most perfect collection of the butterflies
of North America in existence, containing the types of W. H. Ed-
wards, and many of those of other authors. I have also enjoyed
access to all the other great collections of this country and Europe,
and have had at my elbow the entire literature relating to the
subject.

The successful development in recent months of the process of
reproducing in colors photographic representations of objects has
been to a certain degree the argument for the publication of this
book at the present time. A few years ago the preparation of
such a work as this at the low price at which it is sold would
have been an utter impossibility. "The Butterflies of North
America," by W. H. Edwards, published in three volumes, is
sold at one hundred and fifty dollars, and, as I know, is sold even
at this price below the cost of manufacture. " The Butterflies of
New England," by Dr. S. H. Scudder, in three volumes, is sold
at seventy-five dollars, and likewise represents at this price only



Preface

n partinl return to the learned author for the money, labor, and
time expended upon it. The present volume, while not pretend-
ing to vie in anv respect with the magnificence of the illustrations
contained in these beautiful and costly works, nevertheless pre-
sents in recogm/able tor in almost ever) figured in them,
and in addition a multitude of others, many of which have-
never before been delineated. S<> lar as possible I have em-
ploved, in making the illustrations, the original types from which
the author of the species drew his d I his lact w:l.
doubt add greatlv I" the value of the work, as it will not
serve as a popular guide, but have utilit\ ' -itilic
student.

I am under obligations to numerous friends and correspondents
who have aided me. and take the pieseiit opportunity u> extend
to them all mv heart v thanks lor the generous manner in which
thev have assisted me in mv pleasant task. 1 should fail, how-
ever, to follow the instincts of a grateful heart did I not render an
especial acknowledgment to Mr. \V. H. l-.dw.nd-. oi t
\\ M Virginia, and 1 n Samuel H. Scudder, of Cambi

chusetts. Justlv esteemed as the I

Ametka. H is mv honor to claim them as personal friends, whose
kindness lias much aided me in this labor .1 ->.ientilk love which
1 have undertaken. For the kind pe: . !>:.

Scudder to use various illustrations contained in the "Butterflies
of New England " and other works. I am profoundly grateful.

I am under obligation.- t- M :ier's Sons for

permission to use the cuts numbered
and 7;. which are taken from the work entitled " Taxidermy and

, by \V. T. Hornaday. and to the authu:

of the United States National Museum and the heirs of the late
Professor C. V. Kiley for other illustrations.

Should this book find the favor which I have reason to think it
deserves. 1 shall endeavor shortly to follow it by the preparation
of a similar work upon the moths of the United States and Canada.

OFFICE OF THE CHANCELLOR, W. J. H.

WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA,
August 10, 1898.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION

CHAP. PACE

I. THE LIFE-HISTORY ,\v <FLIES . .

Tt< i jpal



The Thor.n; The A :

The ' Ml'i-

nism and Mclai " .button o/Bul-

II. THI: CAPTURE, PK -. AND PRESERVATION OK S:

MENS :

^^H Col! The Use

oft!

the I Uerllio; BrccJr . :,J Caterpillars;

Hibernating (t.iterpir '-ring

Butterflies; Ri' miens; The I'rop.ira-

tion of Civ
liJ>; Tlu

/tit.: nets anj I : ibcl-

iniens; I: specimens;

MouKI; Repairint; Specimens; Packing and Forwarding Specimens;
Pins; The Fou

III. THE CiA-.<!iir \TiM\ OF BUTTERFLIES 58-68

The Place of Butterflies in the Animal Kingdom; The Principles of
Scientific Arrangement; The Species; The Genus; The Family, etc. ;
Scientific Names; Synonyms; Popular Names.

IV. BOOKS ABOUT NORTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES . . . 69-74

Early Writers; Later Writers; Periodicals.

^^1 ix



Table of Contents



THE BOOK

PAGE

THE BUTTERFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO.

Family I. Nympbalidcc, the Brush-footed Butterflies . . 77

Subfamily Euplocina-, the Milkweed Butterflies ... 80

Subfamily Itbomiina:, the Long-winged Butterflies . . 85

Subfamily Heliconiina', the Heliconians 91

Subfamily Nvinphaliiur, the Nymphs 93

Subfamily Satyriiur, the Satyrs, Meadow-browns, and

Arctics 197

Subfamily LibvtbehuT, the Snout-butterflies .... 226

Family II. Lemoniida: 228

Subfamily Eryciniiuv, the Metal-marks 228

Family III. Lyarnidii' 236

Subfamily Lvcicniiui', the Hair-streaks, the Blues, and

the Coppers 236

Family IV. Papilionida:, the Swallowtails and Allies . . 272
Subfamily P/en'ihr, the Whites, the Sulphurs, the

Orange-tips 272

Subfamily Papilionhnr, the Parnassians and Swallowtails 304

Family V. HesperiiJir, the Skippers . 318

Subfamily Pyrrbopygincr 319

Subfamily Hesperiiiur, the Hesperids 320

Subfamily Patnpbiliiur 339

Subfamily Megatbymincc, genus Megatbymus .... 367



DIGRESSIONS AND QUOTATIONS

PAGE

Immortality (Sigourney) . ... 57

Hugo's "Flower to Butterfly" (Translated by Eugene Field) 74

Superstitions (Frank Cowan) 90

Luther's Saddest Experience (Yale Literary Magazine, 1852) 100

A Race after a Butterfly 127

x



Table of Contents
PACE

Suspicious Conduct

<.,'llectinn in Japan

Faun;il Re^ms .

\Videlv lustributed Butterflies .

The Butterflies' Fad <tlla Wheeler Wilcox) >

Fossil Insets . . .

In the F.ice of the Cold . . .

Uncle Jotham's Boarder (Annie Trumbull Slosson)

Mimicry *

The Utility of Entomology

Size -''

Instinct ;

Red K.iin (l : rank Cowan) . .

For a D jjn of a Butterfly Resting on a Skull (Mrs.

Hcm.mx) 303

The Caterpillar and tl. .'.an Ran.

.ctiuns and Collectors ""

1 K< i ing



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

PACE

1. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, m.t^niiieJ

2. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, n.mit.il si/e ... ;

j. Egg of Papilio 1 i >, larged 4

4. liijg of Annsi.i pl< - \ip; -lilicJ 4

=,. i .1 pk'.Mppllx. M.llllt.il M/e 4

iiuii.i, mairmlii-J 4

7. Egg Of Ly< .' : i ; 1

v 1^4 of Mdit.iM phaeton, in.ii;iiilii-il ....... 4

Jeracea, in.i^iiil'u-J ... ^

I... 1 L;US ! ('ii.ipt.i Ci'iinn.i. in.iLinilii-J . =>

1 1. 1 ggs "i Vanessa anli :uiii\l =.

12. C.iti-rpil!

i }. HI'.K! .-i\-.itiTpill. .ru-il . . .

14. Hi-.id (.!' c.itcrpill. ( - J . . 6
iv Ik-.ul .'I iMU-ipiK view,

cnl.um\l 7

i". C.itcrpill.ir .! s, n.iuir.il si/c .... 7

17. l ; oi. act pill. it of\ . : 7

is. An: pill.irol'A. plcxippus . . 7

10. ' I c.itcipill.ir : -i . . 7

il.uchi.i disippus s

Ji. 1:. ui, inittcrllv 9

22. Mc.ul t' C.itcrpill.ir of I'.ipilin ti>'il>^ 9

23. C.itcrpill.ir of milkweed butterlly changing into

chrysalis 1 1

24. Chrysalis of milkweed butterfly 12

2V Chrysalis of Papilio philenor 12

20. Caterpillar and chrysalis of Pieris protodice .... 12

27. Chrysalis of Pieris oler.icea 13

xiii



List of Illustrations in Text

FIG. PAGE

28. Butterfly emerging from chrysalis 13

29. Head of milkweed butterfly, showing parts .... 14

30. Cross-section of sucking-tube of butterfly .... is

31. Longitudinal section of the head of the milkweed

butterfly is

32. Interior structure of head of milkweed butterfly . . . 16

33. Labial palpus of butterfly it>

94. Legs of butterfly 17

35. Parts of leg of butterfly 17

36. Scales on wing of butterfly 18

57. Androconia from wing of butterfly 18

38. Outline of wing of butterfly 20

39. Arrangement of scales on the wing of a butterfly . . 20

40. Figure of wing, showing names of vein-s . . . . 21

41. Internal anatomy of caterpillar of milkweed butterfly . 22

42. Internal anatomy of milkweed butterfly 23

43. Plan for folding net-ring 27

44. Insect-net 27

45. Plan for making a cheap net 27

46. Cyanide-jar 29

47. Paper cover for cyanide 29

48. Method of pinching a butterfly 30

49. Cheap form of breeding-cage 35

50. Breeding-cage 36

51. Butterfly in envelope 38

52. Method of making envelopes 38

53- Setting-board 39

54- Setting-block 39

SS. Butterfly on setting-block 39

s6. Setting-needle 40

S7- Setting-board with moth upon it 40

s8. Butterfly pinned on setting-board 41

59. Drying-box 41

60. Drying-box 42

61. Apparatus for inflating larvae 4S

62. Tip of inflating-tube 46

63. Drying-oven 46

64. Drying-oven 47

6s. Detail drawing of book-box .48

66. Detail drawing of box 48

xiv



List of Illustrations in Text
FIG.

67. Detnil drawing of box

<>x

Detail drawing of drawer for cabinet 11

70. Detail drawing lor paper b.'ttmn > take pi

of cork =.j

71. Manner of arran.mn^ specimens in cabinet i>r b>.\ . ^

72. Naphthaline Ci'iie = 5

7;. Hutteill: . shipment =.>

74. l-'oiveps

7=,. hua-ps -7

70. Antennae of butterfly M

77. Antenna.- ol moths "2

Neiiraliori of ^enus Anosia si

Sw.iim "i milkweed butterllies, photographed at ni^ht s ~

is Mechanitis

81. Neuration i>i -ratinia

Neuration of genus Dircenna

M. Fore II.-.L; "I lem.il i :;a klu.yi

S.). Neliratimi Ol lelk'i'nillS

S:,. YOU -pillar nl \'anex>a antlDpa M.J

S". N\ ;iration of .yen -

S7_ Neiiratimi ol yeinis I >i me

88. Neuration i>! ; .iptnieta

Neuratiiiii ol :tus i"i

90. Neuration of genus Brenthis

>n. Neuration <! Melita^a

u.\ Neuration of genus Phyciodes i=.i

93. Neurati m ol ' =>7

.1 ). Neuration ol ^ nchloe

0=,. Neuration of gen us G rap ta \'<i

Neuration of genus Vanessa

Neuration of genus Pyrameis

98. Neuration of genus Junonia 172

IK). N.iiration of iienus Anartia 174

100. Neuration of genus Hypanartia 17^

101. Neuration of genus Eunica 170

102. Neuration of genus Cystmeura 177

Neuration of genus Callicore 178

104. Neuration of genus Timetes 179

ios. Neuration of genus Hypolimnas 181

XV



List of Illustrations in Text

FIG. PAGE

106. Neuration of genus Basilarchia 182

107. Leaf cut away at end by the caterpillar of Basilarchia . 183

108. Hibernaculum of caterpillar of Basilarchia 183

109. Neuration of genus Adelpha 187

10. Neuration of genus Chlorippe 188

n. Neuration of genus Pyrrhansea 192

12. Neuration of genus Ageronia 193

13. Neuration of genus Victorina 19=;

14. Neuration of genus Debis . . 199

i s. Neuration of genus Satyrodes 200

16. Neuration of genus Neonympha 201

17. Neuration of genus Ccenonympha 2os

1 8. Neuration of genus Erebia 208

19. Neuration of genus Geirocheilus .211

20. Neuration of genus Neominois 212

21. Neuration of genus Satyrus .214

22. Neuration of genus CEneis .219

12;. Caterpillars of CEneis macouni 221

124. Neuration of genus Libythea 220

12=;. Neuration of base of hind wing of genus Lemonias . . 228

126. Neuration of genus Lemonias 229

127. Neuration of genus Calephelis 252

128. Neuration of genus Eumreus 237

129. Neuration of Thecla edwardsi 238

130. Neuration of Thecla melinus 242

131. Neuration of Thecla damon 246

132. Neuration of Thecla niphon . 249

133. Neuration of Thecla titus 2so

134. Neuration of genus Feniseca 2^,1

135. Neuration of genus Chrysophanus 2^2

1 96. Neuration of Lyctena pseudargiolus 267

1 37. Neuration of Lycasna comyntas 268

nS. Neuration of genus Dismorphia . 273

139. Neuration of genus Neophasia 274

140. Neuration of genus Tachyris 276

141. Neuration of genus Pieris 277

142. Neuration of genus Nathalis 281

143. Neuration of genus Euchloe 282

144. Neuration of genus Catopsilia 286

143. Neuration of genus Kricogonia 287

xvi



List of Illustrations in Text

PAGt

Neuration of genus Meganostoma 2^

1 17. Neuratii 'ii ol g< nus O>lias .....

14\ Ni-ur.ition "I uciuis Teri.is ;

i. (). Neuration of genus Parnassius ;<^

An Astronomer's Conception of an Entomologist . . ^17

\ '-.<>. I le.ul and antenna of | ' ; in

lii. Neur.ition of genus 1'yrrli - - Jig

i=,2. Neuration of genus Eudamus ^21

i=>i. Antenna and neuration of genus Plestia 122

i v|. N\ 11:. Hi. ill di vrciis ;j;

i^^. Nfur.ition <>! ^24

i -,'>. NVii;.iH"ii "I genus AJi.il. irus ;2'>

1^7. Antenna and neuration of genus Hesperia a-

i =,*<. Nciir.itinn c!

i =.M. Ni-ur.itioii i'! ; ~,d

KMI. Ni-lll.ltltHl u! . -72

M'l. Ncur.itiMii <>! ; t -s ... . . . ; 1. 1

ii'j. Nrui.itidii of LII.-IHIS I'.iniphil.i s.p

H>;. Neuration "i gei M.I ;.| -,

I'M- Ni-m.iti : is . -\ncvl. >xvph.i '.|^,

inv Nmr.ition of I:CIHI-> <

HIII. Ni-ui.iii ;^7

1117. NYur.iti' is Tlivmclicus ;^i

ins. Ncur.ition oi :><.\ii.'s -5^2

Neuration c'. 'htcs . ;=, ;

170. Neuration of genus Hylephila .... . . . . ;^

171. Nour.ition of m-iHis 1'iciu-s ;=.=.

172. Neuration of genus Calpodes ;=.=.

17-;. Neuration of genus Lerodea

174. Neuration of t^nus I.imochores ^7

17^. Neuration of ucnus Euphyes 360

176. Neuration of genus Oligoria VM

177. Neuration of genus Poanes ^o

i7N. Neuration of genus Phycanassa vo

170. Neuration of genus Atrytone

180. Neurntion of genus Lerema

181. Mega thy m us yucc.v. $ 367

182. Larva of Megathymus yuccae 368

183. Chrysalis of Megathymus yuccae 368

The Popular Conception of an Entomologist .... 369

xvii



LIST OF COLORED PLATES

I. Spring Butterflies /-Yo;j /;>/>/<-.<

II. Caterpillars ot" P.ipilionid.v and HcspcriiJ;i- ... f>

III. Caterpillars of Nymphalide 18

IV. Chrvs.iluls in Color and in Outline Nvmph.iliJ.i:
V. Chrysalids in Gil'ir and in Outline Nymph.ilid.v,

I . ei if. 1'ierin.T 44

VI. Chrvs.ilids in Color ;ind in Outline Papilon:

.inJ Hespi-riKl.i- ^s

VII. AtiMsi.i .nid B.isilau-hi.i 80

VIII. Itli.Hium.i.-. Hi-li^iinus, [)ione, Colxnis, and hup-

-.1 88

IV A'_;VMMIS

X. Aruvnriis i"l

XI. Ar.nynnis 108

XII.
XIII.

XIV. Ar^vnnis 122

\\'. Brenthis l>0

X\'l. .\U-lit.i-a MS

XVII. Melit;ca, Phyciodes, Eresia i ^

XX'III. Aruvunis, Brenthis, Melit.v.i. Phyciodes, Eresia,

jhlnc. Dcbis. Geirocheilus i-' 1

XIX. Gr.ipt.i, N'.mess.i

XX. Gr.ipt.i. Vanessa, Junonia, Anartia, Pyrameis . . 168

XXI. Timetes, Hypolimnas, Eunica, Callicore .... 178

XXII. Basilarchia, Adelpha 184

XXIII. Chlorippe 190

XXIV. Pyrrhanasa, Ageronia, Synchloe, Cystineura, Hy-

panartia, Victorina 196

xix



List of Colored Plates



FACING
PAGE



XXV. Satyrodes, Ccenonympha, Neonympha, Neomi-

nois, Erebia ............ 204

XXVI. Satvrus .......... . . 214

XXVII. CEneis 220

XXVIII. Libythea, Lemonias, Calephelis, Eumreus, Chrys-

ophanus, Feniseca .......... 228

XXIX. Chrysophanus, Thecla ......... 256

XXX. Thecla, Lycsna ... .246

XXXI. Lycaena ........ . . . 256

XXXII. Lycrena, Thecla, Nathalis, Euchloe ..... 260

XXXIII. Catopsilia, Pyrameis .......... 272

XXXIV. Euchloe, Neophasia, Pieris, Kricogonia .... 280

Tachyris, Pieris, Colias ......... 288

Meganostoma, Colias .......... 294

Terias, Dismorphia ..... . 208

Papilio ...... .302

Parnassius ............ 3 ot)



XXXV.

XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

XXXIX.
XL.



Papilio ........ .... 310

XLI. Papilio ......... 3'4

XLII. Papilio ..... ..... 3' 6

XLIII. Papilio, Colias, Pyrameis, Epargyreus . . . 318
XLIV. Papilio ..." .......... 3 22

XLV. Papilio, Pholisora, Eudamus Achalarus, Pyrrho-

pyge, Plestia, Calpodes, Thanaos ..... 350

XLVI. Hesperiidse ............. 3^

XLVII. Hesperiidae ... . . . y-,o

XLVIII. Hesperiidas and Colias eurytheme ..... 360



xx



INTRODUCTK >N



INTRODUCTION



CHAI'THR I



THF. LIKK-HKP \TOMY OF Bl'TTF.RI

" The -.tu.lv "I I" " ' i'ul fnvolity.

in~! .. D

B .Vj/ufj/n/ .'ii Ik? An;

\\ studying .my subject. it is alwavs well. it possible. to com-
mence .it tlu- beiiiniim- ; ,nui in studvmc the lileoi .iMiin.il>.
a uroup n| .iMiin.ils. we should endeavoi t<> "Ham .1 clear idea .it
the outset ut the in. inner in which thev .ire developed. It is .1
t.iinili.n s.ivnii: th.it ".ill lilt' is ln>m .in This st.iteinent is

SLietitilk'.illv true in \vule lields which cuiiH- under the eye ol the
naturalist, .Hid buttetllles ;ire tin exieptlnll to the rule.



THE EGGS OF BUTTERFLIES

Thi ' butterflies consul of a membranous shell con-

taining a fluid mass composed ol the germ ol the future cat-
erpillar and the liquid food which is
necessarv I-T its maintenance and de-
velopment until it escapes from the
shell. The forms of these e^s arc
us. Some are spherical, others
hemispherical, con-
ical, and cylindri-
cal. Some are bar-
rel-shaped; others
have the shape ol
a cheese, and still
others have the







ters (



i. Egijol Bjmljrchij

ii >, in . : .mic-




Fi-i. ;. F
chu Ji.u
at the cnJ of under surface
of leaf (Riley).



form of a turban. Many of them are angled, some depressed
at the ends. Their surface is variously ornamented. Some-

3



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies








,ltt"


: :


>H




}V





5^sv*r-*

r.-^'i '



times they are ribbed, the ribs running from the center out-
wardly and downwardly along the sides like the meridian lines
upon a globe. Between
these ribs there is fre-
quently found a line
network of raised lines
variously arranged.
Sometimes the sur-
face is covered with
minute depressions,
sometimes with a
series of minute ele-
vations variously disposed. As there is
great variety in the form of the eggs, so

also there is great
color. Brown
yellow eggs
greenish-white
The eggs are



Fio. 3. Egg of Pjpilio
turntis, greatly magnified.




FIG. 4. Egg of Anosia
plcxippiis, magnified 30
diameters (Riley).




, blue,
occur.

are
often



variety in their
green, red, and
Greenish or
common tints,
ornamented with

dots and lines of darker color. Species
which are related to one another show
their affinity even in the form of their
At the upper end of the eggs of insects there are one or
curious structures, known as micropyles (little doors),



FIG. i. Egg of /4nosnt
ph'xippus, natural size, on
under side of leaf (Riley).



eggs.
more




FIG. o. Egg
of slnthocharis

geiiutia, magni-
fied 20 diameters.




FIG. 7. Turban-shaped
egg of Lrciriia pseudar-
gioliu, greatly magnified.




phaeton,

greatly magnified.



through which the spermatozoa of the male find ingress and they
are fertilized. These can only be seen under a good micro-
scope.

The eggs are laid upon the food-plant upon which the cater-

4



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies



pillar, after it is hatched, is destined to live, and the female re-
ve.ils wonderful instinct in selecting plants which are
appropriate to the develop-
ment i 'I the larva. A
rule, the larva- are restricted in
the ran :;e o| then l> 'od-pl.r
certain Lieiieia. or lamihes oi
plants.

The are dep

soinetlines sm-lv, sometimes
in small clu .metimes

ill a mass. lYitii lew




iul "I
.
greatl)

ing III'



I
ofGrj/ 1 .'

ul in

i the



days alter they have been deposited, frequently undergo a cl)

MI color, and it is olteii possible with a m.i-mtvit'-
through the thin shell the form ol the minute caterpillar whi.
being developed within the < : mit inlets nen-

erallv shrivel and Jry up alter the lapse ol a short time.
The period ol time requisite I or the development
ol the embi\o in the e.ng varies. M.inv butterllleS
ate si Mule blooded: others prodiue t\\ oorthn
eratioiis dmiMu the summer ill temperate climates,
and even more generations in siibiL-pical or tropic.il
climates. In such cases an interval ol otilv a l'e\v
days, or weeks at the most, separates the time when
the e.ui: was deposited and the time when the larva
is hatched. When the period ol hatching, or emer-
gence, has arrived, the little caterpillar cuts its w.iv
lorth from the e^i; through an opening made either
at the side or on the top. Man v sp<\ les have eiiLjs which appear to In-
provided wit ha lid. a portion of the shell being separated from the re-
mainder by a thin section, which, when the caterpillar has reached the
full limit allowed by the eLv'ir. breaks under the pressure of the enlar-
uini: embrvo within, one portion ol the e^'u tlymt, r off, theremainder
adheriiiji to the leal i-r t\viu' upon which it has been deposited.






Iwfj, laid in a
mass on



Online LibraryW. J. (William Jacob) HollandThe butterfly book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America → online text (page 1 of 34)