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William Matthew Flinders Petrie, Edward Russell Ayrton,
Arthur Edward Pearse Brome Weigall, Francis Llewellyn



flt^OS'$b'^20



HARVARD COLLEGE
LIBRARY




FROM THE FUND OF

CHARLE3 MINOT

CLASS OF 1828



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ABYDOS, TEMPLE: GLAZED POTTERY, M 69.





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AB YDOS



PART II. 1903



BY

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE

Hon. D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Ph.D.,
F.B.S., Hon. F.S.A. (Scot.)

MKMBBB OP THE IMPBBIAL OBBMAN ABCHABOLOGICAL INSTITUTE ;

COBBBSPONDING MBMBBB OF THE 80CIBT7 OF ANTHBOPOLOOT, BBBLIN;

MIMBBB OF THB BOMAN 80CIBTT OF ANTHBOPOLOOT ;

MBMBBB OF THB 80CIBTT OF NOBTHBBN ANTK^UABIBS;

BDWABDS PBOFBSSOB OF BOTPTOLOOT, UNIYBBSITT COLLBQB, LONDON.



With a Chapter by
F. Ll. GRIFFITH, M.A., F.S.A.



o TWENTY-FOURTH MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND



PUBUSHED BY OBDEB OF THE COMMITTEE



\0ND0N

BOLD AT

The offices OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 37, Gbbat Russell Street, W.C

AND 8, BsACON Stkeet, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

AND BY KEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, TEUBNBR & CO., Dktdbn House, 43, Gebbabd Street, SbHO, W.

B. QUARITCH, 16, Piccadilly, W. ; ASHEB & CO., 13, Bedford Street, Covbnt Garden, W.C.

AND HENRY FROWDE, Amen Corner, E.C.

1903



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A^<- SS^.'J-^*



JUN 27 !904






LONDON :

PBINTBD BY GILBERT AND RIYINOTON, LIMITED,

ST. JOHN'S ROUSE, CLRRKENWBLL. B.C.



M



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Egypt Exploration Fund



GRAECO-ROMAN BRANCH



In 1897, consequent on the finding by Drs. B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt of a large collection of
Greek papyri at Oxyrhynchus, the Egypt Exploration Fund established a new department, called
the Graeco-Roman Branch, for the discovery and publication of remains of classical antiquity
and early Christianity in Egypt. The first work of the Branch was, naturally, to publish the
Oxyrhynchus papyri, of which two volumes, containing many important classical and theological
texts, were issued in 1898 and 1899, and the third is now on the point of appearance. Among
its contents will be : parts of two odes of Pindar, of which one begins with a description of the
poet*s relation to Xenocritus, the inventor of the Locrian mode of music ; a considerable piece of
the " Kolax " of Menander, one of the two plays upon which the " Eunuchus " of Terence was
based ; part of a rhetorical treatise in Doric dialect, probably a fourth century B.C. work of the
Pythagorean school ; the conclusion of the eighteenth Kcoros of Julius Africanus, dealing with a
question of Homeric criticism ; and part of a biography of Alcibiades. A new light is thrown
upon some of the less-known departments of Greek literature by a well-preserved papyrus, which
contains on one side a prose mime in two scenes, a work of the school of Sophron, having points
of resemblance to the fifth mime of Herondas ; while on the other side is an amusing farce, partly
in prose, partly in verse. The scene is laid on the shores of the Indian Ocean, and the plot
turns upon the rescue of a Greek maiden from the hands of barbarians, who speak a non-Greek
language with elements apparently derived from Prakrit. The Homeric fragments include one
of Iliad VI., with critical signs and interesting textual notes. Sappho, Euripides (" Andromache,"
** Archelaus," and "Medea,"), Antiphanes, Thucydides, Plato ("Gorgias" and "Republic"),
^schines, Demosthenes, and Xenophon are also represented. Among the theological texts are
fragments of the lost Greek original of the " Apocalypse of Baruch " and of the missing Greek
conclusion of the " Shepherd " of Hermas.

In the winter of 1898-9, Drs. Grenfell and Hunt conducted excavations for the Graeco-Roman
Branch in the Fayum, the results of which were published in "Fayiim Towns and their Papyri."
Inasmuch as the heavy expenses entailed by the annual publication of volumes of papyri containing
300 pages with several facsimiles absorb the greater part of the yearly income, it was not at first
contemplated that excavations should take place every winter. But, in view of increasing
competition in the field which Drs. Grenfell and Hunt had first opened up, they were unwilling
to lose any opportunities for acquiring fresh material. Accordingly, in 1899- 1900, ^^^y excavated
at Tebtunis, in the Fayiim, on behalf of the University of California ; and by an arrangement
between that University and the Egypt Exploration Fund an important section of the Tebtunis
papyri, consisting of second century B.C. papyri from crocodile mummies, was issued jointly by
the two bodies, forming the annual volumes of the Graeco-Roman Branch for 1 900-1 and 1901-2,
Since 1900 Drs. Grenfell and Hunt have excavated each winter on behalf of the Graeco-Roman
Branch — in 1900-1 in the Fayum, and in 1901-2 both there and at Hibeh, with the result that a



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very large collection of Ptolemaic papyri was obtained, which still awaits publication, but is known
to contain important cUs»ical piece*. In the winter of 1902.3, after finishing their work at Hibeh,
they returned to Oxyrhynchus, with the special object of making further discoveries of theological
texts. Good fortune again attended them, and the success of their second excavation at Oxyrhynchus
was, in proportion to the time expended (about six weeks), not less striking than that of their first.
The work was confined on the present occasion to two large mounds, which were systematically
cleared away down to the level at which the earth was too damp for the preservation of papyrus.
Not only were documents of the first four centuries after the Christian era very numerous, but
both mounds had been strewn with the debris of libraries of classical and theological writings. The
superintendence of the excavations left no time for decipherment on the spot, but the papyri have
recently reached Oxford, and the results of a brief examination of some of the more important
finds may be mentioned.

The first place is claimed by a third century fragment of a collection of sayings of Jesus, similar
in style to the so-called "Logia" discovered at Oxyrhynchus in 1897. As in that papyrus, the
separate sayings are introduced by the words ** Jesus saith," and are for the most part unrecorded
elsewhere, though some which are found in the Gospels (e.g. " The Kingdom of God is within you "
and **Many that are first shall be last, and the last shall be first") occur here in diflferent surroundings.
Six sayings are preserved, unfortunately in an imperfect condition. But the new " Logia " papyrus
supplies more evidence concerning its origin than was the case with its predecessor, for it contains an
introductory paragraph stating that what follows consisted of *^ the words which Jesus, the Living
Lord, spake " to two of His disciples ; and, moreover, one of the uncanonical sayings is already extant
in part, the conclusion of it, " He that wonders shall reign and he that reignj shall rest," being
quoted by Clement of Alexandria from the Gospel according to the Hebrews. It is, indeed, possible
that this Gospel was the source from which all this second series of " Logia " was derived, or they, or
some of them, may perhaps have been taken from the Gospel according to the Egyptians, to which
Professor Harnack and others have referred the "Logia" found in 1897. But the discoverers are
disposed to regard both series as collections of sayings currently ascribed to our Lord rather than as
extracts from any one uncanonical gospel.

Latin papyri from Egypt have been so rare that a Latin historical text of some length is
as unexpected as it is welcome. This papyrus, which is of the third century, proves to contain
part of an epitome of Livy, covering Books 37-39 and 49-55. Of Livy*s history all books later
than the 45th are lost; but an epitome of them is extant, from which, however, the papyrus
diflFers very largely in respect of the events selected for mention. The back of the Livy
papyrus was subsequently used for writing a text of the Epistle to the Hebrews, of which a
considerable portion is preser\^ed, being much the largest piece of the New Testament on
papyrus that has yet been discovered. Another interesting Biblical fragment comes from the
Septuagint version of Genesis, which is probably a century older than any of the extant vellum
manuscripts.

Among the numerous fragments of lost Greek classics, the most noteworthy that have as
yet been deciphered are (i) a first century b,c, papyrus containing on one side an epinician
ode or odes by a poetess, who may perhaps be Corinna, the rival and reputed instructress of
Pindar, and on the other side several new epigrams by Lconidas, Antipater, and Amyntas ; and
(2) part of a philosophical dialogue, in which the tyrant Pisistratus is one of the speakers, and
which is concerned with Periander, So!on, and other historical personages. Mention niay also be






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made of a long second century papyrus containing an elaborate invocation addressed to a goddess,
of whose titles both in Egypt and throughout the civilized world a detailed list is given, while
on the back is an account of a miraculous cure effected by Imhotep, who is identified with the
Asclepius of the Greeks. Both compositions seem to be products of the later Alexandrian
school, to which belong the writings known under the name of Hermes Trismegistus.

The ruins of Oxyrhynchus are over a mile in length, covering an area which is surpassed by
very few sites in Egypt. It is now evident from the success which attended the complete clearance
of two mounds last spring that, although Oxyrhynchus has already proved by far the best site in
Egypt for classical and theological papyri, it still affords very great chances for discoveries of
equal or even greater importance. Drs. Grenfell and Hunt estimate that at least two seasons^
work, each costing about ;^6oo, is required to exhaust the more promising portions of the site.
Unfortunately the present resources of the Graeco-Roman Branch are unequal to cope both with the
annual publication of large volumes and with the continuance of the excavations at Oxyrhynchus
on an adequate scale. It would, however, be extremely regrettable if a work which has already
yielded such fruitful results and carries such infinite possibilities in the future should be inter-
rupted through lack of funds, and an opportunity thus lost which, considering the rapidly-
increasing difficulty of finding fresh sites of real promise, is not likely to recur. For the purpose,
therefore, of finishing this undertaking, the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund have
resolved to issue an appeal for increased support for the Graeco-Roman Branch, especially in the
form of donations.

A subscription of one guinea entitles subscribers to the annual volume. A donation of
£is, constitutes life membership. The financial year, as with other departments of the Fund,
begins on August ist. Subscriptions and donations may be sent to the Honorary Treasurer
of the Egypt Exploration Fund, Mr. H. A. Grueber.



OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,
37, Great Russell Street, London, W.C,

AND

8. Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.
Julyy 1903.



JOHN EVANS, President



To the Hon. Treasurer,

Egypt Exploration Funi^

37, Great Russell Stkki-t,

London, W.C.

Date , 1903.

Please enter my name as \ ju„^-' \^f £ ^<^ ^he Graeco-Roman Branch

of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

Name

A d dress

Cheques should be crossed "London and Westminster Bank, Oxford Street Branch.**



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EGYPT EXPLOBATION FUND.



SIE JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., P.E.S., V.P,S.A.



Wcc^ptcBibcnte.



Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L.,
LL.D.

General Lord Grbnpell, G.G.B.,G.C.M.G.

The Eev. Prof. A. H. Saycb, M.A., LL.D.

The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.).



Prop. G. Maspero, D.G.L. (Prance).
Prop. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany).
JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia).
M. Charles Hentsch (Switzerland).



1)otu XEreaaurera.
H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. Gardner M. Lane, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

1)on« Secretan?.
J. S, Cotton, Esq., M.A.



Aembera
T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D.
SoMERS Clarke, Esq., F.S.A.
W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A.
Louis Dter, Esq., M.A.
Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.B.S.
F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.
T. Farmer Hall, Esq.
F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D.
Prof. Alexander Maoalister, M.D
Mrs. MoClure.
The Bbv. W. MaoGreoor, MA.



ot Committee.

A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.
The Marquess of Northampton.
Franois Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A.
Herbert Thompson, Esq»
Mrs. Tirard.

Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C.
E. TowRY Whyte, Esq., F.S.A.
Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson.
K.C.B., K.C M.G., F.B.S.



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CONTENTS OF PAKT II.



INTRODUCTION.



SECT.

1. The site

2. Removal of walls

3. Clearance of the site

4. Recording.

5. Other work

6. The working party



CHAPTER I.

HiSTOBY OF THE TeMPLES.

7. System of levels

8. The plans

9. General plan. PI. xlix

10. The oldest temple. PL 1 .

11. The second temple. PI. 1.

12. Temple of Ilnd and Ilird Dynasties

PI. li

13. Temple of the IVth and Vth Dynasties,

PI. lii

14. Change of worship

15. Surrounding buildings

16. Temple of Vlth Dynasty, date. PI

liii

17. Form of temple .

18. Inner gateway .

19. Outer gateway .

20. Store chambers, &c. .

21. Temple of Mentu-hotep III

22. Deposit and new works

23. Temple of Sankhkara. PI

24. Temple of Usertesen I. PI. Ivi .

25. Causeway of XVIII th Dynasty.

Ivii



PAGE

1

2
2
3
3
3



PI. liv



Iv



PI



9

9

10

10
11
12
13
13
U
15
16
16

17



SECT. PAGE

26. Chapel of Aahmes I . . . .18

27. Temple of Tahutmes III ... 18

28. Building of Ramessu III PI. Iviii . 19

29. Building of XXVIth Dynasty . . 19

30. Temple of Aahmes II . . .19

31. Foundation deposits, early. PL Ixii . 20

32. Foundation deposits, Tahutmes III.

PL Ixiii 21

33. Periods of levels. PL lix, Ix . .21

34. Diagram of pottery connections. PL

Ixiv ...... 21



CHAPTER II.

Objects Before the IVth Dynasty.

35. Chamber M 69 23

23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
28
28



36. Ivory carvings. PL ii .

37. Ivory carvings. PL iii .

38. Glazed inscriptions and figures. PL v

39. Glazed quadrupeds. PL vi

40. Glazed birds, flowers, &c. PL vii

4 1. Glazed toggles, tiles, &c. PL viii

42. Group of M. 64. PL ix .

43. Group of M. 65. PL x .

44. Separate objects. PL xi, xii

45. Inscriptions, earliest. PL xii .



CHAPTER III.
Objects of the IVth — XXVIth Dynasties.

46. Statuette of Khufu. PL xiii . .30

47. Objects of Ist— Vth Dynasties. PL

xiv 30

48. Copper tools, early. PL xv . .31



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CONTENTS



SECT. PAGE

49. Sealings. PI. xvi . . .31

50. Inscriptions, Vth — ^Vlth Dynasties.

PI. xvii-xx 31

51. Objects of Pepy. PI. xxi . . . 32

52. Copper tools, Vlth Dynasty. PI.

xxii 32

53. Inscriptions, Xlth Dynasty. Pis.

xxiii-v 33

54. Inscriptions, Xllth D)masty. Pis.

xxvi-xxix 33

55. Inscriptions, Xlllth Dynasty, &c.

Pis. xxx-xxxii . . . .34

56. Granite pylon. PI. xxxiii. . .35

57. Inscriptions, XVIIIth—XIXth Dynas-

ties. Pis. xxxiv-xxxix . . .35



CHAPTER IV.

' Flint Knives and Pottert.

58. Flint knives, xl-xli. . . .38

59. Pottery of 1st Dynasty. PL xlii . 88

60. Pottery of Ilnd— Vth Dynasties. PI.

xliii-iv 39



SECT. FAQE

61. Pottery of Vlth— Xllth Dynasties.

Pis. xlv-xlvi 39

CHAPTER V.

The Inscriptions.

By F. LI. Griffith, P.S.A.

62. The sealings 41

63. The decrees 41

64. Pepy inscriptions . . . .42

65. Xlth — Xlllth Dynasties inscriptions . 43

66. XVIIIth Dynasty inscriptions . . 44

67. XlXth Dynasty inscriptions . . 45

CHAPTER VI.
Summary op Results.

68. Religions 47

69. Ariiistic 48



APPENDIX.
70. Size of bricks .



50



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LIST OF PLATES



WITH REFERENCES TO THE PAGES ON WHICH THEY ARE DESCRIBED.



PLATE

I.

-II.

•m.

'IV.

v.
^vi.

Yll.

-VIII.

^ IX.

' X.

XI.

vXII.

XIII.

•XIV.

' XV.

•XVI.

XVII.

•XVIII.

XIX.

^ .XX.

XXI.

XXII.

^ XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.

: XXVI.

XXVII.

xxvm.

XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

• XXXII.



PAOS

Temple : Glazed pottery (coloured) 23, 25, 26, 48

„ Ivory figures, 1st Dynasty 23, 24, 48

„ „ ., 24,28,48

„ Glazed pottery (coloured) . , . . . . 23, 24, 25, 48

„ Glazed figures, 1st Dynasty 23, 24, 25

>» )> )) )> ........ ^o

» „ >, „ ....... 25, 26

„ Glazed beads, tiles, &c., 1st Djoiasty 23, 26

„ Figures of limestone, &c. 10, 26, 27

„ Glazed figures, &c . . . 27,28,49

„ Glazed and rough pottery 28

„ Pottery and inscription, 1st Dynasty . . .10, 28, 29, 38, 48

„ Ivory statuettes, 1st Dynasty and Ehufu .... 30, 48, 49

„ Royal objects, 1st— Vlth Dynasties . . . . 9, 30, 31, 32, 49

„ Copper tools, &c 31

„ Sealings, 1st— Vth Dynasties 29, 31, 41

„ Decree, Teta, Vlth Dynasty 31, 41, 42, 49

„ „ Neferarkara, Vth Dynasty . . . . . 31,41,42,49

Temple of Pepy, Lintel and stele, Vlth Dynasty . .10, 12, 31, 41, 42, 43, 48

„ ,, „ Inscriptions, Vlth Dynasty 31, 32, 43

„ Vases, &c., of Pepy, Vlth Dynasty . . . .12, 20, 25, 31, 32

„ Copper tools, Vlth Dynasty, Iron weapons .... 25, 32, 33

Temple : Inscriptions of Xlth— Xllth Dynasties . . . . 16, 20, 33, 48

Temple of Mentuhotep III, Xlth Dynasty 14,32,33,48

Temples of Mentuhotep III and Sankhkara, Xlth Dynasty . 14, 16, 33, 43, 48

Temple : Lintel of Usertesen I., &c. 33, 43

„ Standards, quarry marks, &c 12, 33, 34, 43

„ Usertesen III statues ; Sebekhotep III jambs . . . 17,84,43

„ Inscriptions, Xllth Dynasty 34, 43, 48

„ Steles, Xllth— Xlllth Dynasty 34, 48, 44

„ Steles of Penthen, &c., Xlllth Dynasty 34, 44

„ Inscriptions of Xlllth— XVIIIth Dynasties ... 34, 35, 36



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LIST OP PLATES.



PLATE PAOB

-XXXIIl. Temple of Tahutmes III, W. pylon 35

^ XXXIV. Temple; Offerings of Tahutmes III 35,44

' XXXV. „ Inscriptions, XlXth — XXth Dynasties . . , 19, 35, 36

►XXXVI. „ Stele of Pu, figure of Amenhotep . . . . . . 36, 45

" XXXVII. „ Head of Neb-en-maat, figure of Pa-ra-hotep, XlXth Dynasty . 36,45

XXXVIII. „ Inscriptions of Unnefer, Nezem and Auy, XlXth Dynasty . 36, 45, 46

" XXXIX. „ Boat, harper, pieces of figures of Mut-tuy, XlXth Dynasty . .37

V XL. „ Flint knives 38

' XLI. „ Flint hoes and scrapers 38

' XLII. „ Stone and pottery of earliest temple 28, 38, 48

•XLIII. „ Pottery of Ilnd—Vth Dynasties 39

ALIV. „ „ „ »> M ....... 39

^ XLV. „ Pottery of Vlth Dynasty 11,20,39

'XLVI. „ Pottery of Vlth— Xth Dynasties .... 14,15,20,39,40

XLVII. Temple of Old Kingdom 11,12,13

'XLVIII. Temples of Vlth— XXVIth Dynasties 12

^ XLIX. Temple: Some principal buildings 6,11,13,18

L. „ 1st Dynasty 7

' LI „ Ilnd and Ilird Dynasties 8, 9, 30

" LII. „ IVth and Vth Dynasties 9, 10, 23, 26, 28, 31, 39

' LTIl. „ Vlth Dynasty 10, 14, 31, 32, 34

' LIV. „ Xlth Dynasty (Mentuhotep III) 14, 15, 40

- LV. „ Xlth Dynasty (Sankhkara) 15, 16

' LVL „ Xllth—XlIIth Dynasties 16,17

» LVII. „ XVIIIth Dynasty 15, 16, 17, 18, 86

' LVIII. ,. XXth— XXVIth Dynasties 19, 20

► LIX. „ Periods of levels 5,6,21

' LX. „ „ „ 5, 6, 21

• LXI. „ Chamber of glazes and ivories, 1st Dynasty 10

. LXII. „ Foundation deposits. Vlth— XVIIIth Dynasties . . .20

• LXm. „ „ Tahutmes III 21

'LXIV. Connection of pre-historic and historic pottery 21,22

Plates I. wnd IV. inadequately represent the origmal drawings in shading.



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I



ABYDOS II.



INTEODUCTION.



1 . The work described in this volume was begun
at the end of November, 1902, and continued
till the early part of April, 1 903. In the previous
season a part of the early town of Abydos had
been excavated, and it was shown that its period
began at the close of the prehistoric age and
extended over the first few dynasties ; the con-
nection between the prehistoric scale and the
historic reigns was thus settled, and the results
appeared in Abydos I. The position of this
town was close behind the site of the old temples
of Abydos, and within the great girdle-wall en-
closure of the Xllth Dynasty, which stands
about half a mile north of the well-known later
temples of Sety I and Ramessu II.

This early town being behind the temples, or
more into the sandy edge of the desert, was
higher up ; the ground gently sloping from the
cultivated land upwards as a sandy plain, until
it reaches the foot of the hills, a couple of miles
back. This slope of sand has been encroached
upon by Nile deposits as the level of the river
rose ; and what was formerly dry ground when
built on in the early monarchy is now about
twenty feet below the high Nile level. This
rise of the water, due to silting up of the Nile
bed, is the obstacle to dealing with most of the
early sites ; and in the previous season we
cleared as far as we could on the native-sand
basis of the town. Nearer to the cultivation
the sand sloped down below water level, so that



we could not reach it, and we were obliged thus
to leave the early temple site for some different
mode of work. Happily the very exceptionally
low Nile of last summer gave us the best oppor-


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