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NYU IFA LIBRARY






3 1162 04538744 7



W



EHN ASY A



1904



BY

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE

Hon. D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Ph.D.,
F.R.S., F.B.A., Hon. F.S.A. (Scot.)

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY ;

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE;

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN;

MEMBER OF THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY;

MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES;

EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.

With Chapter by
C. T. OCRRELLY, M.A.



TWENTY-SIXTH MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND



PUBLISHED BY OBDEB OF THE COMMITTEE




LONDON

SOLD AT

The OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 37, Geeat Russet Street, W.C.

and Piebce Building, Copley Squaee, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

and by KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Dbyden Bouse, 43, Gebkabd Steeet, Soho, W.

B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccahllly, W. : ASHER & CO., 13. Bedeobd Street, Covent Gabden, W.C.

and HENRY FROWDE, Amen Coeneb, E.C.

1905




W 7 5 3 2



'NEWYr
LIE



RSITYI








GOLD STATUETTE OF HERSHEFI
WITH NAME OF INIEFERKARA PEF-DU-BAST
TEMPLE OF EHNASYA DOUBLE SIZE



XXIII DYNASTY



EHN AS Y A



1904



BY

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE

Hon. D.C.L.. LL.D.. Litt.D.. Ph.D..
F.E.S.. F.li.A.. Hon. F.S.A. (Scot.)

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY ;
MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE;
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN-
MEMBER OK THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY;
MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES;
EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.



With Chapter by
C. T. CURRELLY, M.A.



TWENTY-SIXTH MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND



LONDON

SOLD AT

The OFFICES OF -THE EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND, 37, Great Russell Street, W.C.

and Pierce Building. Copley Square. Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

and by KF.GAN PAUL. TRENCH, TRCBNER & CO., Dryden House, 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W.

B. QUARITCH. 15, Piccadilly. W. ; ASHER & CO., 13, Bedford Street. Covent Garden, W.C.

and HENRY FROWDE. Amen Corner, E.C.

1905



-f- '

HTST



YORKU' :"

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;T//6MZ*M



ST Tvi '

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EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

president.

SIK JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., P.R.S., V.P.S.A.



Dicc=iprcsiocitts.
The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Ceomee, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K. C.S.I. (Egypt).



General Lord Grenfell, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.
Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L.,

LL.D.
The Bev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D.



The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.).
Prof. G. Maspeeo, D.C.L. (Prance).
Prof. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany).
Josiah Mullens, Esq. (Australia).



l>on. (Treasurers.
H. A. Grueber, Esq., P.S.A. Gardner M. Lane, Esq. (U.S.A.).

f»on. Secretaries.
J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. John Ellerton Lodge, Esq. (U.S.A.



Members ot Committee.



T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D.

C. F. Moberly Bell, Esq.

J. R. Carter, Esq. (U.S.A.).

Sojiers Clarke, Esq., F.S.A.

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A.

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for U.S.A. Com'"-).

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., P.R.S.

Prof. Ernest A. Gardner, M.A.

F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D.

Prof. Alexander Macalister, M.D.

Mrs. McClure.



The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A.
C. McIlvaine, Esq. (U.S.A.).
The Marquess of Northampton.
Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A.
Sir Herbert Thompson, Bart.
Mrs. Tiraed.

Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C.
John Ward, Esq., F.S.A.
E. Towry Whyte, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.
Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson,
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.



uu 7 k o a 2



CONTENTS.



Introduction.

SECT.

1. Prospects of wurk

2. Personal

3. Sites of the work

CHAPTER I.



PAGE
I
1

2



The Site Before the Temple.

4. The earlier houses . . . .3

5. Date of first temple .... 3

6. pjiirhils before the temple ... 4

CHAPTER II.

The Temple of the XIIth Dynasty.

7. Levels of first temple .

8. Levels of Tahutmes III.

9. Levels of Ramessu II.

10. Levels of later temples

11. Plan of first temple .

12. Lintels of first temple

CHAPTER III.

The Temple of the XVIIIth Dynasty.

13. Outlines drawn ..... 8

14. Dimensions ..... 8

15. Portico 8

CHAPTER IV.
The Temple of the XLXth Dynasty.

16. The court and colossi .... 9

17. The triads 9



SECT.

18. The portico

19. The halls .



PAGE

10

II



CHAPTER V.
The Later Temples.



20,
21.
22



Levels

Dates

The portico



23. Dimensions of columns

24. Drums under columns

25. Statues in portico

26. Hypostyle Hall .

27. Back halls

28. XXXth Dynasty and Roman

29. Destruction of temple

CHAPTER VI.

Description of Plates and Objects.



The gold statuette



30. i.

31. ii-x. The views

32. xi-xiv. XIIth Dynasty sculpture

33. xv-xxvi. Ramesside sculpture .

34. xxvii-xxviii. Later sculpture .

35. Iron tools and small objects

36. Plans of houses and views .

CHAPTER VII

The Roman Houses.

37. Nature of the town .

38. Houses of Illrd century a.d.

39. Houses of IV th century a.d.



12
12
12
13
15
15
15
16
17
17



18
19
19
20
22
23
21



26
26
27



SECT.

40. Houses of Vth century a. d.

41. Houses of VIIth century a.d.

42. Houses of VHIth century a.d. .

CHAPTER VIII.

The Pottery.

43. Dishes, cups, &c.

44. Bandied vases .

CHAPTER IX.
The Cemeteries of Skdment and Gurob
(By C. T. CuiuvEllv.)
Sediment.

45. The known tombs

46. Two Roman cemeteries

47. Scattered southern tombs .

< 1 a rob.

48. Encrusted tombs ....



CONTENTS


r.vcE


SECT


27


49.


28


50.


28


51.




52.




53.




54.




55.


30


56.


30





32

32
32



Tottery coffins .

Roman burials .

The hillock tombs

Animal heads .

The plunderers' leavings .

Roman and Christian tombs

Prehistoric tombs

The animal cemetery .



CHAPTER X.

The Site of Buto.
(By W. M. F. Petrie and C. T. Cure



PAGE

33
34
34
34
34
34
35



ELLY.)



57.


The town .


. 36


58.


The temple


. 3(5


59.


The change of level .


. 37


60.


1'osition of cemetery .


. 38


61.


Careless burials .


. 38


62.


Roman coffins .


. 38




Index ....


. 39



LIST OF PLATES



WITH REFERENCES TO TTIE PAGES ON WHICH THEY ARE DESCRIBED.



PLATE

T. Gold Statuette of Hershefi .....

II. Temple, Views to South and North

III. ,, looking East across Court and Hypostyle Hall

IV. Buildings and graves under Xlth Dynasty temple
V. Temple of Xllth Dynasty .

VI. Temples of XVIIIth-XIXth Dynasty

VII. Temple of XXIIIrd-XX Xth Dynasty
VIII. ,, Ramessu II, restored elevation and plan

IX. „ of various dates, XIIth-XX Xth Dynasty

IXa. Objects from graves under Xlth Dynasty temple

X. Court with facade, pedestals, &c. .

XL Sculptured blocks from Temples, Vlth-XXIXth Dynasty

XII. Scenes from Vth Dynasty tomb

XIII. Granite lintels and jambs, Xllth Dynasty

XIV. Fragments of Senusert III and Amenemhat III
XV. Cornice, Xllth Dynasty and Ramessu II

XVI. Akhenaten base ; drums and jambs of Ramessu II

XVII. Sandstone front wall, XlXth Dynasty

XVIII. Granite architraves

XIX. Throne of statue of Ramessu II

XX. Sedheb Festival of Ramessu II

XXI. Shrine of Ramessu II .

XXII. Goddess Nekheb, XlXth Dynasty.

XXIII. Ramessu II receiving offerings

X XV.* Cornice, group of offerings, &c.

XXVI. Head and inscription of Ramessu II

XXVII. Steles of XlXth-XXIInd Dynasty

XXVIII. Hakor shrine and Grreco-Roman inscriptions

XXIX. Iron tools, Illrd Century a.d.

XXX. Roman plates, cups and jars .



PAGE

Frontispiece 18
19
19

\



ch. i-v



8


19


• ■>,


19




20




20




20




20


. 15,


20


10.


21


K>,


21




21




22


. 20,


22




22




22




22




22




22


12, 17,


23




23




30



* There is no plate XXIV.



LIST OF PLATKS.



PLATE

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.

XXXIV.

XXXV.

XXXVI.

XXXVII.

XXXVIII.

XXXIX.

XL.

XI. I.

XLII.

XLIII.

XLIV.



Eoman jars, cooking-pots and jugs
„ one- and two-handled bottles

Roman bottles and amphoras

„ amphoras .....

Plans of Roman Houses

XVIIIth Dynasty pottery from Sedmenl



11
5)






Scarabs, &c, XVIIIth- XlXtb Dynasty

XlXth Dynasty stele and shabtis .

Roman objects from G-urob .

Buto, temenos and town

Sketch plans of Ehnasya and Buto





PAGE




30




30




30




30




24




24




24




24


24,


33, 35




24, .".5




25




25, 35


25,


36, 37


20,


25, 36



EHNASYA



INTRODUCTION.



1. When last year the continuance of my re-
searches in the early history was closed, by the
refusal of the Egyptian Archaeological Com-
mittee to allow English work at Saqqara, I was
obliged to turn to a site at which we had only
intended that Mr. Currelly should do some
minor Avork. Dr. Naville had spent a season at
Ehnasya (or Ahnas) in 1891, and stated " We
thus cleared what I believe to be all that is
still extant of the great temple of Arsaphes."
I had therefore no wish to embark for another
season's work in that site ; but, as being all that
Ave could have, it Avas necessary to make the
best of it.

I had in 1897 suspected that the region
already cleared Avas only a part of the temple.
And Ave proved it this year, by clearing not
only a space as large again as Dr. Naville's hall,
behind that ; but also discovering a great court,
much larger than the hall, in front of it. The
history of a great temple of several successive
ages of building is always an interesting sub-
ject ; and as Ave found in it Avhat is perhaps
the finest gold statuette, and the finest granite
triad, yet known, the work Avas Avell Avorth
doing, though we could not recover more of
the early history, as I had hoped Avould be
permitted.

2, Our party consisted of my Wife, Mr.
Currelly and Mr. Ayr ton. But very soon Mr.
Currelly left Avith Mr. Loat to search the desert



for the cemetery, gradually moving down to my
old quarters at Gurob. Afterwards Mr. Currelly
Avent to Buto, Avhere my wife and I joined him
for a Aveek after leaving our own Avork. At
Ahnas, as it has been called, or Ehnasya, as the
people really name it, Ave Avere living in the
midst of the cultivated plains. Our mud-brick
huts did not dry for Aveeks, our clothes Avere
Avet every moiming with the damp air, and a
great rain storm flooded all our premises with
some inches of Avater. It was not till late in the
season that the land began to feel like Egypt.
We had continual trouble with the contractor
Avho annually purchases from the Antiquity
Department the right to destroy the Roman
buildings for bricks. The Avhole of the Avails of
Roman age are mined out by long underground
burroAvs ; and the large piles of red bricks
throAvn up for sale to distant places, sIioav the
sites of churches and mansions of Avhich no one
will ever know more. This contractor claimed
to destroy immediately all the walls Ave un-
covered, and incessant feuds, alarms, and nightly
plunderings Avent on. At last I confiscated all
the tools of anv men caught in our Avorkin^s.
After getting half a dozen picks and baskets,
and facing out a long discussion with a pre-
varicating assembly of parties interested, my
Avork Avas left in comparative peace. The
omdeh of Ehnasya behaved in a reasonable
and friendly manner throughout ; and we had

B






EHNASYA.



pleasant greetings with the country people in
the villages, apart from the brick question.

3. The accurate survey of the ruins of the
temple was a necessary work. In order to have
a good basis for that I measured a long line on
the top of the facade wall of the temple ; and
then set off an axis square with that by a great
equilateral triangle of one tape length. Then
every point was referred to its distances in
co-ordinates from the base, or from the axis at
right angles to that. There were thus no
measurements dependent upon others, but every
point was independently fixed.

Our work at the temple was greatly en-
cumbered by the mounds thrown out in Dr.
Xaville's partial clearance, nearly all of which
overlay other parts of the temple, and needed
to be moved again, sometimes to a depth of
40 feet. We not only cleared the temple, but
we searched some way behind it for any other
buildings ; also we made considerable trenching
and clearance to the south-east, where a piece



of a limestone column, part of a basalt shrine of
Hakor, and banks of stone chips, seemed to
promise another temple. Beside this, to the
north of the Kom ed Dinar, where two granite
blocks of a temple remain, we sought deep and
wide for more. These trials occupied much of
our men and time, but if any buildings had
existed they seem to have been entirely re-
moved. We also cleared out various houses of
Roman age that had been destroyed by fire, as
such are most likely to contain objects left in
the burning. In this way we secured a large
quantity of pottery figures, lamps, and tools,
dated by the coins found in the houses ; and
Mrs. Milne while with us marked the pottery
and cleaned the coins. The results for dating
appear in the supplementary volume of Roman
remains.

Of the plates in this volume nearly half have
been done by my wife, and the others by Mr.
Ayrton, Mr. Currelly, and myself.



CHAPTER I.



THE SITE BEFORE THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE. Pl. IV.



4. Although there can be no doubt that at
least one temple had existed at Henen-suten
from the 1st Dynasty, if not earlier, yet the site
of that is unknown. The large temple described
in this volume does not contain any remains of
temples older than the Xllth Dynasty ; and it
was found to overlie irregular buildings, and
burials which cannot be earlier than the Xlth
Dynasty.

These earlier buildings could not be thoroughly
examined, owing to the stone work of the
temples which partly overlaid them. Also it
was not possible to reach them until March,
owing to the Avater level of the inundation.
On pl. iv. is shown the outlines of the temple
walls in dot and dash lines, in relation to the
brick walls which lie below them, so far as Mr.
Ayrton could trace them at the close of our
work. It will be seen that the brick walls have
no connexion with the temple walls, and are
only approximately in the same direction. Xone
of the walls are thick, like those of the early
brick temples at Abydos ; hardly any parts are
more than one brick through. And the presence
of granaries points also to these being ordinary
houses. Still farther marking the private
character of the ground, were about a dozen
burials scattered in different parts ; apparently
these had been placed parallel to the walls,
owing to the graves being dug among deserted
buildings. It is remarkable how, both at
Abydos and here, the Egyptians seem to have
had no objection to mixing cemetery and town
together. At Abydos the desert was close at
hand, and yet pit graves were dug, lined, and



vaulted, amid the deserted houses of the
outskirts of the town, much as they seem to
have been here. All this shows very different
ideals of burial to what we usually associate
with Egypt. But often in a modern Egyptian
town the cemetery may be on a mound of ruin
not more than two or three centuries old, if no
more clear and suitable spot can be had ; and
there seems to have been still less objection
anciently to such a mixture.

5. That the temple of the XlXth Dynasty
was only a refurbishing of that of the XVIIIth
is almost certain from the history. No whole-
sale clearance of temples between Tahutmes III
and Ramessu II is known otherwise, and
therefore we cannot assume that the XVIIIth
Dynasty temple was eradicated before the
XlXth Dynasty temple was built. But the
foundations of a temple of different plan
underlie the walls of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
The courtvard wall was continued north of its

J

present line, before it was turned to meet the
wing of the portico. There is a line of wall
foundation underlying a row of columns of the
hypostyle hall. And there are in several parts
foundations, shown in pl. v., much deeper than
the rest of the temple. Moreover on these
deepest foundations (Xllth Dyn. ?) is a sand-
bed of rebuilding ; a second foundation upon
that (XVIIIth Dyn. ?) ; another sand-bed of a
second rebuilding, and then the XlXth Dynasty
threshold. All of this is strong evidence that
a great temple existed here, not only before the
XlXth Dynasty, but before the XVIIIth as
well. There is then no ground for supposing



EHNASYA.



that the temple of Senusert (Usertesen) II,
Senusert III, aud Amenemhat III, of which so
many inscriptions were found here, was not
built on this ground ; and we may accept the
obvious conclusion that these stones are the
ruins of the temple whose deep foundations are
older than the XVIIIth Dynasty.

6. The burials preceded the temple building,
as they were laid along the sides of the earlier
brick walls ; and there is no ground for sup-
posing that Egyptians ever buried in or under
a temple. We must therefore date these burials
before Senusert II ; and by their style they
cannot be earlier than the Xlth Dynasty.
They prove a good deal concerning the dates of
styles of scarabs, hitherto uncertain.

They show that symmetrical designs in
scarabs were fully used, as in pi. ixA, Nos.
4, 19, 20; that the "King of the Aamu"
scarabs (15) go back to this age ; that the high-
backed scarabs (20), with various deeply cut,
bold, groups embodying the name of Nub-
kheper-ra, are before the Xllth Dynasty, and
therefore that Antef V was of the Xlth, and
not of a later age ; and that the curl patterns (as
14) start as early as this, and must not be all
put to the XVIIIth Dynasty. These are points
which we cannot have more satisfactorily proved
than by the superposition of a Xllth Dynasty
temple on the top of a cemetery. The details
of the burials are recorded by Mr. Ayrton as
follow, most of them being shown on pi. iv.

No. 10. Skeleton, head west, between the
facade wall and the eastern granite bases; a
polished red pottery bowl (fig. 1, pi. ixA) at
the head.

No. 11. Skeleton, on back, head north, left
hand on stomach, right at side ; man (?) ; no
ornaments ; broken pot on chest.



No. 12. Body only, without legs, head
north, face east ; woman. On neck, lai'ge glazed
ball beads, notched beads (fig. 3), pendant
(fig. 2), and scaraboid (fig. 4).

No. 13. Upper half of skeleton, on back,
head turned to left ; back bent, and mouth
open. No ornaments.

No. 14. Skeleton, legs deformed, too short
for body, on back, head south ; right hand on
pelvis, feet crossed. By pelvis, alabaster kohl
pot (fig. (i), small diorite bowl (fig. 10), gi*een
glazed bowl (fig. 9) and two ivory pins (figs.
11, 12) : by feet, alabaster cup (fig. 5); on left
hand, glazed scarab (fig. 7), and plain amethyst
scarab (fig. 8).

No. 15. Skeleton, on back, head east, feet
crossed, left hand on pelvis ; above the right
lung a red jar (fig. 13).

No. 1G. Skeleton. Silver ring on left hand.

No. 17. Skeleton, on back, head west ; left
hand on pelvis, legs crossed, a child. On
left hand two ovoids (figs. 14, 15) glazed
steatite. Wrongly numbered on pi. iv ; this is
the body 2 inches east of figures 17.

No. 18. Skeleton, on back, head erect, legs
distorted, infant. In small brick coffin. No
objects.

No. 19. Skeleton A. Head north, face
east ; no objects, therefore probably an attendant
on the other.

Skeleton B, same position, in front of A. On
left hand scarab set in gold (fig. 20) ; large
scarab with " union of south and north," glazed
(fig. 19) ; and carnelian scarab with spirals (fig.
18). Among bones of pelvis two gold beads
(fig. 17), with small red tube heads aud white
drum heads. At foot scarab (fig. 21). At back
of pelvis glazed figure of Taurt (fig. l(i). In
front of body a small howl of buff pottery.



CHAPTER II.



THE TEMPLE OF THE XIIth DYNASTY. Pl. V.



7. Before dealing with the several buildings
which stood on this site it will be best to give
a classification of the various levels of con-
struction that appear.

In the first place the foundation level of a
building is almost as important as its pavement
level. The bottoms of the various parts of the
building Avere noted therefore as well as the top
levels. In the plan, pl. vi, the top levels are
stated upon the stones, in inches above an
arbitrary datum, the Ramesside sill being called
200. These serve to show the various course
levels. On the ground at the side of the stones
is the level of the bottoms of the stones marked
B ; and in some places a section gives the
bottoms and tops of several stones, with S put
between where a sand bed occurs. We must
remember that there are varying depths of
foundations, one, two or three courses thick ;
but where a sand bed occurs between stones it
is of capital importance as marking a new
foundation of a rebuilding, for no builder would
put a thick sand bed between his courses.

The oldest building of all, shown on pl. v,
has its course levels at : —

181, 181, 186, pavement.

(177 temenos walls founded).

160, 164, 167, 167, joints.

132,141, 141, 145, 147, joints.

120, 125, 126, 126, base of stones.

This is apparently of the XIIth Dynasty, as
none of these stones were re-used ones of that
age, and one re-used stone (pl. xi, 1) is
apparently of the Old Kingdom.

8. The next level of building must be after



the XIIth Dynasty, as it includes many re-used
blocks of that age. This rebuilding bears the
drawn lines marking the position of the walls on
the foundations. Between the stones of this
period, at the back of wall, Avere scarabs and
glazed pieces of Tahutmes III. The levels are : —

194, 196, 197, 200, pavement.

(193 temenos wall rebuilt).

179, 182, 184, 186, joints.

153, 15S, 159, 162, 163, 166, 168, joints

135, 141, 142, 142, 142, base of stones, sand
below.

The hard mud Avails of earlier constructions
of the temple, are cut doAvn to 147 level, to clear
the ground for this rebuilding.

9. The next level is certainly that of
Ramessu II, and the sill at 200 is his actual
pavement level, as the door pivot hole is just
loAver than that, so that there cannot have
been a whole course over it.

200, sill.

186, 188, 188, joints, columns.

170, 172, 174, 175, 175, base of stones, sand
beloAv.

The pavement then Avas that of the XVIIIth
Dynasty; but the rebuilding had only one
course of foundation, and not three courses as
in the earlier temples. The Avretched founda-
tions of Ramessu II are obvious in the case of
the great quartzite blocks of the facade, Avhich
rest in many instances on one or two small
blocks of limestone and loose earth. They
cannot be safely bared without falling over for
lack of support ; Avhile just below this rotten-
ness are three splendid courses of large limestone



EHNASYA.



blocks, contrasting with the miserable supports
of the XlXth Dynasty stones.

10. After the XlXth Dynasty a higher level
is shown by the granite column bases of the
portico, which are quite rough and irregular
in form, and not intended to be seen ; their sur-
faces are at a level of 214 to 220 in. Also
the same level appears on the substructures of
the hypostyle columns. This level was probably
determined by the base line of the facade
inscription at 214, which it was not desired to
encroach upon when raising the pavement.
215, pavement in hall.
21o, 214, 215, column basements.
214-220, granite basements.
(220, outer temenos cut down).
190, 190, 193, base of stones.
The last rebuilding had its pavement yet
higher, shown by mortar on the sculptures at 237,
tops of drums put to raise the columns at 236,
237, and tin- latest temenos wall founded 2:1 I.

11. The structures of the lowest level are
shown on pi. v. Of the Court the base of the
east wall remains. But the stones of the lowest
course can only be seen in a group at the north
end of this wall where they were left without
being covered by anv later rebuilding. This
group of stones is shaded from top left, whereas
the rest of the wall is shaded from top right, to
show that they are a higher course ; they may
be of Xllth or of XVIIIth Dynasty, but as the
lower course can only be seen at the edges, the
upper course is drawn to show the character of
the foundations. The front of the court seems
to have been entirely removed, at least at its
junction with the side. The west side is also
entirely gone.

In the court are two brick walls, thicker than
those due to houses, which stand in relation to
some stone work. They may be the retaining
walls of the foundations, as it is not likely that


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Online LibraryW. M. Flinders (William Matthew Flinders) PetrieEhnasya, 1904 (Volume 26) → online text (page 1 of 7)