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W. S. W. (William Samuel Waithman) Ruschenberger.

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THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC.



THREE YEARS



IN



THE PACIFIC;



INCLUDING



NOTICES OF



BRAZIL, CHILE, BOLIVIA, AND PERU.



BY
AN OFFICER OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY.

" Comme a mes chers amis je vous veux tout conter." — Corndlle.



PHILADELPHIA :

CAREY, LEA & BLANCHARD.
1834.






Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1834,

BY CAREY, LEA & BLANCHARD,

in the Clerk's Office, of the District Court of the United States in

and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.



1'KINTKD II Y LTDIA 11. BAIIKY, NO. 26 5TOIITII FIFTH STRF.KT.



TO



FRANCIS H. GREGORY, ESQ.

COMMANDER IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY;



AS

A SLIGHT TRIBUTE

TO

HIS TALENTS AS AN OFFICER, AND HIS VIRTUES AS A MAN,

THIS WORK

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

BY HIS FRIEND,

THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.
Introductory — Getting under way — Getting to Sea, - 9

NOTICES OF BRAZIL.

CHAPTER I.

Entrance to Rio de Janeiro — The Sugar Loaf — Glance round the harbor
— The Corcovado — Gldria Church — The City — Praya Grande, - 17

CHAPTER II.

Walk in the streets of Rio — Imperial Chapels — Rua Direita — Slaves —
Rua d'Ouvidor — Marimba — Abdication of Dom Pedro — Regency of
Pedro II., 23

CHAPTER III.

Museum — Aqueduct — Banana tree — Farinha — Policemen — Slave of a na-
turalist — Casa da Agua, 36

CHAPTER IV.
The Opera — The Currency, 42

CHAPTER V.

The Botanic Garden — A Peep at Court, 46

CHAPTER VI.

A walk — A ride — A dinner party, 52

CHAPTER VH.

Architecture — Cries — Market — Churches — Cemetery of San Francisco
de Paula — Funerals — Climate — Prison — Slave market — Library — News-
papers, 60

CHAPTER VHI.
Geography of Brazil — Products — Diamond Mines, .... 65

CHAPTER IX.
Departure — Voyage round Cape Horn — Cape Pigeons, ... 72



V1I1 CONTENT^



NOTICES OF CHILE.



CHAPTER I.

Arrival at Valparaiso — Bay — Appearance of the place — Landing — Town
— Market — Scenes in the street — Costume — Oraci6n — Plaza — Cries —
Beggars, 81

CHAPTER II.

Society — Introduction to a Family — Costume — Furniture — Mate - — Sing-
ing — Cigars — Presenting of Flowers — Leave-taking — Traits of Charac-
ter — A day visit — Anecdote — Tertiilia on a Sunday evening — Dancing
— "El cuando"— " La Perdi'z"— Foreign Society, ... 92

CHAPTER in.

Ride to Santiago — Mode of Travelling — Peonada — The honey palm — Car-
r£tas — Mode of descending hills — Peiiuelas — Throwing the lazo — A
bivouac — Casablanca — Posada — Mode of making butter — Bread — Cu-
esta de Zapata — Bustamente — Breakfast — Cuesta del Prado — A view —
Entrance to Santiago — Custom house officers — Table of Barometric
observations, 107

CHAPTER IV.

Fonda Ingl6sa and inmates — Fonda del Comercio and Fonda de la Nacion
— Site of Santiago — Description of the city — Its founding — Plaza —
Shops — Book stores — Dead bodies exposed before the prison early in
the morning — Siesta — Shopping at night — Ladies — Costume, - 125

CHAPTER V.

Tajamar — Military Academy — Militia System — San Liines — Alameda —
An evening visit — Card playing — National Institute — Schools — Socie-
dad Filarm6nica — Otavario — Procession — Praying for rain — State of
medicine and pharmacy, 133

CHAPTER VI.

Visit Colina — Law of primogeniture — A senator — A family dinner — Face
of the country — Ploughing — Sowing — Baths — Friar of San Feh'pe —
Don Jose — Return to Valparaiso — Storm on the road, - - - 143

CHAPTKR VII.

Coquimbo bay — La Serena — Salute — Balsas — The Port — Commerce —
Condor:* — The City — Distress by drought — Society — Trade, • 152



CONTENTS. IX



NOTICES OF BOLIVIA.

CHAPTER I.

Bay of Mexillones — Cobija — Soil — Landing- — Balsa — Town — Old trees —
Scarcity of water — Commerce — Visit to the copper mines — Catfca, 163

CHAPTER H.
Historical sketch cf Bolivia — Its productions — Coca, ... 174

—••»«©»*«—

NOTICES OF PERU.

CHAPTER I.

Callao Bay — Island of San Lorenzo — Entering- Callao — Castles — Ancient
defence of Callao — Town of Callao — Market — Water — The Mole — Re-
mains of " Old Callao," 181

CHAPTER II.

Ride to Lima — The Road — Monument — Bellavista — Treasure — Church
of Palms — Market women — Tambo de la Legua — Church — Negroes
dancing — Mules and asses — Alameda de la Portada — Meet a pleasure
party — Lima gate — Entrance to the city — Animas — First view of "the
street of Callao," 190

CHAPTER III.
History of the founding of Lima, 200

CHAPTER IV.

Topography and climate of Lima — Plan and divisions of the city — Walls
— Distribution of property — Population — Religious communities, 203

CHAPTER V.

Plaza — Portales — Palace — Cathedral — Archbishop's palace — Fountains
— The Plaza by day, and by night — Segarreros — Picantes — Barquillos
—Ice, 212

CHAPTER VI.

Saya y Manto — Scenes in the street — Police — Market — Cherimoya — Pal-
ta — Granadilla— Cafes, 220

CHAPTER VII.

Convent of St. August; n — Monastery of La Incarnacion — Convent of San-
to Domingo — Negros Bozales — Convent of San Francisco — Our Lady
of Mercies — San Pedro — Library — Churches — Bells — Inquisition — Mu-
seum — University of St. Mark — Hall of Deputies — Charities — Hospitals, 229



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIH.
The Cathedral — The Sagrario — Oracion — The B6veda — Death of Pizarro
— His interment, 247

CHAPTER IX.

Morning visits — A family — Conversation — Difficult for foreigners to enter
society — Female education — Ignorance of Geography — Provincialisms
— A tertiilia — Monte al o — Misturas — PucherodeFlores — Street
of peril — Scene on the Alameda — Cock-pit — Theatre, ... 275

CHAPTER XI.
Bull-bait — Plaza del Acho, 283

CHAPTER XII.

Nacimientos — Christmas Eve — Christmas — Ride to Chorillos — Saltead6res
— Bathing — Harbor of Chorillos — Callao — La Presidenta — Carnival —
Miraflores — Magdalena, 293

CHAPTER XIII.
St. John's day — Amancaes, - 300

CHAPTER XIV.

Dia de Santa Rosa — Birth-day customs — Life of Santa Rosa, - - 305

CHAPTER XV.

Day of All Saints — Pantheon — Responsos — Mode of burial — Obsequies —
Collecting alms for masses — Day after All Saints — Funeral expenses —
A patriotic curate — Rapacity of curates — Cofiadia or burying company
— Marriage ceremony — Marriage fees — Difficult for foreigners to marry
in Peru — Clandestine marriage, 312

CHAPTER XVI.

Influence of priests over society — Perpetual light — Priests rule families —
Confession — Penances — Money paid for expiation of sin — Nove'nas —
Superstition — Preaching — Bulas de Cruzada — Character of the clergy
— Notions about religious toleration — Supremacy of the Pope — "Car-
tas Peruanas," 321

CHAPTER XVII.

Arica — Appearance from the Anchorage — Mole — Advertisements —
Stn < is — School — Water and provisions — Ancient Cemetery — Found-
ing of Arica— Population— Products— Commerce — Guano, - - 338



CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER XVIII.

Islay — Landing place — Town — Arequipanian ladies — Post-office regula-
tion — Notions of the captain of the port about politics, - - 345

CHAPTER XIX.

Pisco, from the anchorage — Landing — Ancient Pisco — Town — A ride —
Salinas — Commerce — Captain of the Port, 353

CHAPTER XX.

Guarmey — Ferrol — Samanco — Nepeiia, 358

CHAPTER XXI.
Santa — Bathing — A prison scene — An execution, - 369

CHAPTER XXII.
Huanchaco— Balsas— Landing— Port— Road to Truxillo— The Grand Chi-
mu, and his war with the Incas— City of Truxillo — "El Quipos del
Chimu" — A nunnery and a nun — Pacasmayo — Spinning — Ride to San
Pedro — A Governor — A Colonel — Hospitable reception, - - 379

CHAPTER XXIII.

Lambayeque Roads — Derivation of the name of the Pacific — Landing —
San Jose — Balsa — Ride to Lambayeque — Plaza — The Capiis, a dress
worn previous to the Conquest — A curious currency — The Church —
A morning visit — Chichaiias — Huacas — Chicha — Gourds — Indians —
Town — Products — Visit Chiclayo — Factoria de Tobacos — Soap making
— Tanning — Palm Sunday — Return to Lambayeque — Passion week —
Scenes at the Chicharfa and Billiard room — Mode of embarking, 388

CHAPTER XXIV.

Paita — Bay — Town — Piura — Whalers — A fish story, ... 414

CHAPTER XXV.
Geography of Peru — Repartimientos — Mita System — General La Mar —
General Gamarra, - 417

CHAPTER XXVI.

Valedictory to the south-west coast of America, and return home, - 435



ADVERTISEMENT.



The following pages are the result of observations made
during two cruises in the Pacific Ocean, one of more than three
years, on board of the U. S. S. Brandywine, from August
1S26, to October 1829, and the last on board of the U. S. S.
Falmouth, from June 1831, to February 1S34, and recorded
with a hope of making my countrymen better acquainted with
some of the peculiarities of their southern neighbors.

As far as the nature of the work would permit, the author
has avoided obtruding himself upon the attention of the reader,
and has indulged in but few reflections ; being content to pre-
sent naked facts, and allow each one to dress them for himself,
and draw his own conclusions. The merits of the perform-
ance, with its many imperfections, remain to be decided by the
public, from whom is claimed all the indulgence usually accord-
ed to novices in undertakings of the kind.



(£j* The word "huaca," which occurs several times in the "Notices of Pe-
ru," is pronounced as if it were written waca. The words in Spanish, which
begin with hua and Jua, are pronounced as if written with W i thus, Huanchaco
is pronounced IVanchaco; Juanita, JVanita, Sec.



THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC.



INTRODUCTION.

Introductory — Getting under way — Getting to Sea.

Sea-going people, and particularly sailors, for there is a
distinction to be made between them, derive a pleasure from
looking at a vessel, which landsmen cannot comprehend. Next
to woman, nothing can fix the admiring gaze of a thorough
bred seaman, so soon as a ship. When he views her from the
shore, sitting buoyantly on the water, his eye roves quickly
over her side from stem to stern, and carefully notes her pro-
portions, her paint, the line of her ports and guns, with bright
tompions reflecting the sun's rays, her shear, and model gene-
rally. The next look is aloft. There he scans the nice propor-
tion and symmetry of her spars ; if the examination be satisfac-
tory, he pronounces her "a splendid model — clean run and
neat aloft," mentally deciding that she sits on the water like a
duck, and must be a good sea-boat. If he is to become an in-
mate on board, from that moment he feels a growing affection
for her, and will not hear her faults mentioned without attempt-
ing a defence. He speaks her praises with delight, and takes
as much pleasure in her decoration, as a city belle possibly can
in that of her own person ; — his ship occupies a place in his
mind, only second to that of his wife or sweetheart.

Without possessing the discriminating eye of a tar, I enjoy,
in a high degree, the sight of a fine ship at her moorings, and

when I first looked upon the F , I felt a "yearning to-

2



10 THKKE FEABS IN THE PACIFIC.

wards'* her. Yet this is not that warm, adoring sort of love,
IB spired by woman, but rather such attachment as we feel for

a favorite dog or horse. Though the F be not a perfect

imen of naval architecture, she is looked on favorably by
those, "trained to command and range the various sail," and
her accommodations, both for officers and men, will bear com-
parison with those of any sloop-of-war in the service.

I laving prepared every thing for my voyage, in June, 1831,
I found myself on board, waiting only for a favorable wind. I
had parted from my friends. Recollection is still fresh with
the conflict between the anticipation of new scenes and the
regret of separation, the resolution to part without a sigh, the
benedictions of parting friends, the gazing after one, the ma-
ternal blessing and last advice, breathed in tones of affection.
The words of a mother at such a time are like a warning voice
from Heaven, and like that voice, too frequently disregarded ;
— one's feelings almost bubble up at the thought, in spite of all
that philosophy may teach !

" It is a bitter trial to forsake,
E'en for a season, in this changeful world,
The things we cherish !"

One morning, while looking over the beautiful bay, and
gazing on the fair city of New York, that seemed to rise out
of the bosom of the waters, the boatswain shouted, in the deep,
gruff tone, peculiar to those of his office, " all hands, up an-
chor ahoy !"

The first lieutenant, the moving spring of the active and
ready crew, stood upon the poop, trumpet in hand. The offi-
cers were called to their respective stations ; the capstan bars
placed and manned ; the messenger passed. Silence reigned
" fore and aft." The " first" applied the trumpet to his mouth,
and in an under tone, gave the order, "heave round."

The "lads" stepped away to the music of the merry fife,
and with light hearts, timed "Off she goes" till the anchor
was apeak.

•• High enough," cried the second lieutenant, who was sta-
tioned on the forecastle



INTRODUCTION. 11

"Pall the capstan — unship the bars — lay aloft top-men —
lower-yard-men in the rigging," were the successive orders,
and at once, the masts appeared like living pyramids of nimbly
moving seamen.

" Aloft lower-yard-men," and they followed to their stations.
"Close in, you Sirs, close in." The men were now seen in
the tops, under them, and near the yards, ready to spring for-
ward at the next word, which they seemed eager to anticipate,
for it was necessary to repeat the admonition, "to keep close
in," to prevent them from immediately gaining the ends of
the various yards. The orders were now given in the full tone
of command.

"Trice up — layout — loose away." In a second, the stud-
ding sail booms rose ; the sail-loosers were hanging over the
yards, untying the cords which secured the sails in their posi-
tions, and the next moment all was still — not a finger moved.

" Stand by — are you ready there fore and aft ?" " All ready,
Sir," replied a midshipman from each of the tops.

" Let fall — sheet home and hoist away the topsails — cheerly
with the main, cheerly." At the word, all the canvass, which
heretofore had been concealed by being neatly folded on the
yards, fell at the same instant into beautiful festoons, and the
men briskly descended to the deck. The next moment the
topsails were hoisting, and the fifes playing "The girls we
left behind us," as the crew marched along the deck with the
haulyards, keeping time to the music.

"Tramp the deck boys, tramp the deck," cried the second
lieutenant in an encouraging tone, and the time was marked
louder than ever.

"High enough with the mizen — belay the mizen topsail
haulyards," cried the fifth lieutenant. "Belay the mizen top-
sail haulyards," echoed a midshipman in a youthful key, and
the boatswain's mate piped, belay !

"Belay the fore-topsail haulyards — high enough with the
main — belay the main topsail haulyards," succeeded pretty
rapidly, attended by the same echoing and piping as before.

Again the capstan bars were placed, or rather "shipped,"



12 THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC.

and the order given to " heave round." The next moment, the
"second" cried, "high enough."

"Pall the capstan — unship the hars — forward to the 'cat' —
move, lads, move — " replied the "first" in the full tone of a
manly voice, unaided hy his trumpet. A few seconds only
passed, and the anchor rested on the hows.

"Man the jih haulyards."

"All manned, Sir," replied the "second."

"Haul taught — hoist away the jib — starboard your helm,
quarter-master — jump to the braces — starboard fore braces —
larboard main braces — starboard cro' jack braces, haul in — ."
The execution of these orders, almost as fast as given, brought
the fore-topsail aback against the mast, while the " after" yards
were full ; and aided by the jib, her head "paid round," and
looked down the stream. Now, the yards were trimmed to
the wind, and the ship moved gently on her way.

The wind drew kindly aft. Sail after sail was spread, and
studding-sails were set, "low and aloft ;" thus, under a cloud
of canvass, and with a fine breeze, the ship swept away with
the ease and grace of a sea bird.

Silence took place of the bustle consequent upon getting
under way. The sea-oJJlce?'S still remained at their stations,
while the idlers* were on the poop, admiring the scenes we
were passing on either hand, or conversing with those few
friends, who, determined to see the last of us, accompanied us
down to return in the pilot boat. It is soothing, in after years,
to call to mind those who thus speed us with stili another look
— another grasp ; — to what hopes, and fears, and regrets, does
the word farewell give rise !

The men were standing about the decks, ready to seize a
rope when ordered. The pilot stood upon a gun, attentive to
the song of the leadsman in the chains, as he cried, " by the
deep nine," and narrowly watching the progress of the ship.
His words were few, and directed to the quarter master at the

• Idler is Uic epithet applied to all officers on board of a man-of-war, who
do not keep a regular watch ; such are the surgeon, purser, sailing master, Sec.



INTRODUCTION. 13

wheel, who answered his orders with precision. "Port," said
the pilot, "Port, Sir," — replied the quarter master.

"Steady," said the pilot.

" Steady, Sir," repeated the quarter master.

When we arrived at the Narrows, our prospects of getting
to sea that day were blasted ; the wind suddenly changed, and
we were obliged to bring the ship to anchor.

After spending several days at Staten Island, the wind blew
fair. Soon the anchor arose from its bed ; the sails were again
spread, and swelled into beautiful curves, that harmonized with
the straight lines of our spars and rigging ; we moved over the
placid surface of the bay — the leadsman's song ceased — our
bows nodded recognition to the crested wave of the ocean —
the pilot boarded his little vessel, bearing our last farewell, and
we stood on our course towards where the waters and skies
seemed to meet. The day was in its splendor, but lighted no-
thing to us save the expanse of the sea. Night came, and the
moon looked over the mighty scene, and her light danced over
the waves. The stars shone brightly and calmly ; the breeze
blew mildly. Thus, day succeeds day, and the sameness of
ship's duty is only relieved by occasionally meeting a sail as
lonely as ourselves.

There are times, however, when the dark clouds hang upon
the horizon — the waters darken, and heaving themselves sul-
lenly, often to a fearful height, burst into foam — the scud flies
over the heavens — lightning flashes — thunder rolls, and the
storm howls furiously across the waste ! The ship, then strip-
ped of her canvass, rises and plunges to the impulse of the
waves, and the wind moans sadly through the shrouds. Then
does man, indeed, in his majesty of mind, appear warring with
the elements, and bidding defiance to their force. The noble
bark seems to spurn the angry buffetings of the deep, and glides
triumphantly over the heaving billows. Well tempered enthu-
siasm swells the bosom of the skilful director of this wonderful
machine. He scans the heavens and the wild waste ; his voice
rises above the tempest, and his orders are executed, by those
whom he guides, as fearlessly as they are given.

Then follow, the abatement of the winds, the smoothing of



14 THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC.

the sea, the clearing of the sky, and the reappearance of the
sun. Next comes the calm, with its never failing attendant,
ennui ; the ship rolls over a still restless sea, the sails flap
against the mast, every place on hoard is uncomfortable, and
every place cheerless — at length, a gentle breeze, first seen at
a distance, comes skipping and kissing along the surface, throw-
ing it into fields of ripple. The sails feel its influence, and
again we move on our course, with spirits as buoyant as our
"sea-girt" home !



NOTICES OF BRAZIL.



NOTICES OF BRAZIL.



CHAPTER I.



Entrance to Rio de Janeiro — The Sugar Loaf — Glance round the harbor-
Trie Corcovado — Gloria Church — The City — Praya Grande.

On the last Sunday in August 1831, we descried through a
hazy atmosphere, the " Cabo do Frio," while yet thirty miles
off. Five years before 1 beheld this lump of Brazilian earth
with as much interest as if it were a mass of topaz or diamonds ;
then, every moment seemed an hour, and every spot that pre-
sented itself as we drew near, became of importance. Even
the sand beach, sweeping towards the capital of this empire,
fancy assured me, led to something, but that something was
indefinite, and is so still. The same feeling seemed to pervade
all those, who looked now on a strange shore, for the first
time ; — every countenance beamed with joy, and all were plea-
surably excited.

Cape Frio, a high, wild, barren insular promontory, stands
at the extremity of Maranbaya beach, sixty-eight miles to the
eastward of Rio de Janeiro, having a passage for coasting ves-
sels between it and the main. The land may be seen from a
great distance in clear weather, rising high behind the beach,
which sweeps with a gentle curve to the entrance of the har-
bor.

We were favored with a fresh sea breeze. Keeping in sight
of the beach, we could see distinctly, before the clay closed,
3



IS THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC.

the Church of Our Lady of Nazareth, built on the shore thirty
miles from the Cape; also, " Cabo Negro," and the Maris Isl-
ands, which are said to be fourteen miles from the " Pau-de-
Agucar," or Sugar Loaf, so called from its form, standing on
the west side of the harbor.

The wind died away as the sun set, and we were obliged to
wait for the morning under easy sail. The morning was cloudy
and foggy, and we were unable to get into port that day. To-
wards evening we saw the islands again, and after night fall,
the light on " Ilha Raza" or Flat Island, or, according to the
easy translation of sailors, Razor Island. The sun set in a
heavy bank of clouds, shooting his rays high, and gilding the
skies in beautifully varied tints, and lighting up our hopes for
the morrow; the night, like the preceding, was spent under
easy sail.

About eleven o'clock on Tuesday morning the sea-breeze
set in, much to our relief, for we were weary with "hope de-
layed." As we drew near, the several small islands, sprinkled
near the mouth of the harbor, came into sight one after the
other, as the fog lifted slowly before the gentle breeze. Pre-
sently we saw the " Pao-de-Agucar," rising nearly thirteen
hundred feet* into the air on the left of the harbor's mouth,
and on the right, the battlements of Santa Cruz, standing at
the foot of a high mountain. When still nearer, we perceived
the Brazilian flag of yellow and green ; the holy cross, emble-
matic of the religion of the country ; the telegraph and watch
towers, then the masts of the shipping in the harbor. When

* Captain Beechey, R. N. measured it, both in 1825 and 1828. The first ob-
servation made its summit to be 1286, and the last, 1299 feet above the level
of the sea. — Beechey's Voyage.

To the westward of the Sugar Loaf, the land is very remarkable ; when ap-
proaching the harbor on a clear day, it presents the appearance of a huge
figure of a man lying on his back. The profile of the face presents an immense
nose and chin, while the "Pao-de-AcAicar" represents the toes of this great
man. Some exaggerating and waggish fancy has given to the whole the fami-



Online LibraryW. S. W. (William Samuel Waithman) RuschenbergerThree years in the Pacific; [microform] including notices of Brazil, Chile, Bolivia and Peru → online text (page 1 of 42)