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W. S. W. (William Sandys Wright) Vaux.

Handbook to the antiquities in the British Museum : being a description of the remains of Greek, Assyrian, Egyptian and Etruscan art preserved there, with numerous illustrations online

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Online LibraryW. S. W. (William Sandys Wright) VauxHandbook to the antiquities in the British Museum : being a description of the remains of Greek, Assyrian, Egyptian and Etruscan art preserved there, with numerous illustrations → online text (page 1 of 38)
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HANDBOOK

i

^ TO

THE AnTiQUITIES



IN



THE BRITISH MUSEUM :



BEING A DESCEIPTION OF THE REMAINS OF



GEEEK, ASSYRIAN, EGYPTIAN, AND ETRUSCAN ART PRESERVED THERE.



By W. S. W. VAUX, M.A., F.S.A.,

ASSISTANT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES, BKITISH MUSEUM.



tVlTU NUMEROVS ILLUSTRATIONS.



LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1851.



LOKDOK : PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET.



P R E F A C E.



It has been the writer's object, in the following pages, to
lay before the Public the contents of one Departnu-nt of
the British Museum — that of Antiquities — in a compen-
dious and popular form. He has conceived that a better
idea of this Department, as a whole, may be conveyed by
a careful selection of the objects most worthy of notice
than by a mere enumeration of every article contained in
the several rooms. It has therefore been his aim to dwell
only on the more important features of the collection ;
feeling, that to do fiill justice to all the treasures of
Ancient Art, and to the many Historical Monuments
preserved in the British Museum, would far exceed the
plan and limits of the present work.

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in deter-
mining the order of arrangement, as, on account of the
numerous changes at present taking place, arising from
the recent alterations and rebuilding of the rooms, it has
been found impossible to present in strict chronological
order each successive period of Ancient Art. On the
whole, it has been thought best to begin with the Greek
Collection, as that directly tending to form and elevate
the Public Taste : the work, therefore, commences with a
brief outline of the progress of Greek art, passing in re-



iv PREFACE.



view the sculptures from Phlgaleia, as among its earliest
remaining specimens ; and then the valuable contents of
the Elgin, Towneley, and Lycian Eooms. The curious
and interesting remains recently brought to light by the
Discoveries of Mr. Layard will then be examined, and the
monuments in the Egyptian Saloon, and the mummies and
smaller objects in the Egyptian Room, described, together
with the exquisite remains of Greek art in the Bronze
and Vase Rooms : the only collections omitted are those
known by the names of British or Anglo-Roman Anti-
quities, together with the ancient Coins preserved in the
Medal Room : the former being as yet too insufficiently
arranged to admit of classification and description; and
the latter embracing too wide a compass for the present
work.

The aim of the Author will be accomplished, if he
shall have succeeded in combining some instruction with
an hour's passing amusement among the numerous and
valuable collections of the British Museum.



t/wwe, 1851.



CONTENTS.



PAOK

Table of Greek and Roman Artists ix



GREEK ANTIQUITIES.

Sketch of the Progress of Greek Art i

J. Period to Olymp. 50— B.C. 580 1

II. Period between Olymp. 50—80, B.C. 580 — 460 .... 3

III. Period between Olymp. 80—111, B.C. 460—366 .... 4

IV. Period between Olymp. 111—158, B.C. 3;'.G— 140 ... 6
V. Period from B.C. 146 to Fall of Kome 7

Pjiigaleian Saloon 11

I. Casts of Metopes from Selinus 11

II. Casts from the Tympana of the Temple of Athene in yEgina . 12

III. Bas-reliefs from the Temple of Apollo at Pliigaleia in Arcadia 14

IV. Bas-reliefs from the Mausoleimi at Halicaruassus (Budrun) . 32

Elgin Room 36

I, The Sculptures from the Parthenon 36

1. Sculptures from the Eastern and Western Pediments . 38

2. Alti-Rilievi, or Metopes 49

3. Bassi-Rilievi, or Frieze 58

1. Slabs from the Eastern side '^l

2. Slabs from the Northern side 68

3. Slabs from the Western side 70

4. Slabs from the Southern side 82

II. Frieze from the Temple of Nike' Apteros 91

III. The Sigean Bas-relief 98

IV. Casts from the Theseion 99

V. Casts from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates . . . .10

VI. Miscellaneous Statues, &c 113

1. Detached Statues, and Fragments of Statues . . .114

2. Miscellaneous Bas-reliefs 120

3. Votive Memorials 125



vi CONTENTS.



Elgin Room — Miscellaneous Statues, &c., continued.

4. Altars 127

5. Sepulchral Memorials, Stela;, Urns, &c 127

6. Miscellaneous Objects 136

7. Inscriptions relating to Temples, Decrees, &c. • . . 137

8. Architectural Fragments and Ornaments of Roofs, &c. . 140



LYCIAN ANTIQUITIES.

Lycian Room ■ l'^3

■ I. Sculptures from the Ionic Trophy Monument 146

II. Miscellaneous Reliefs 150

III. Tombs 151

IV. Inscriptions •• 161

V. Miscellaneous Fragments of Sculpture 162

VI. Architectural Fragments 163



TOWNELEY SCULPTURES.

TOWNELEY AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES 165

I. Statues and Bas-reliefs 167

II. Busts of Mythological Personages 186

III. Portrait Busts of Greek Personages 199

IV. Finest Statues of the Roman Period 203

V. Statues of the late Roman Period 221

VI. Busts of Roman Emperors 229

VII. Sepulchral Monuments, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. . . 233

VIII. Roman Altars 251

IX. Miscellaneous Bas-reliefs, &c. . 253



ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES.

NiMRuD Sculptures 263

I. Those from the N. W. Palace 265

II. Those from the Central Palace 278

III. Those from the S.W. Palace 280

Inscriptions 281

Khorsabad . 284

Koyunjik 286

Kalah Sherghat 286



CONTENTS. vii



EGYPTIAJ^^ ANTIQUITIES.

PAOE

Introduction 289

Egyptian Saloon 297

I. Statues and Fragments of Kings 297

II. Statues and Fragments of Deities 313

III. Representations of Animals 317

IV. Sarcophagi 318

V. The Obelisks 320

VI. Inscribed Slabs 321

VII. Sepulchral Tablets, Architectural Fragments, &c 329

Table of Egyptian Chronology, &c 334

Egyptian Room 345

I. Divinities, Royal Personages, and Sacred Animals .... 348

Sacred Animals, Birds, and Reptiles 365

II. Sepulchral Remains, Mummies, &c 369

1. Sepulchral Tablets 379

2. Sepulchral Scarabosi and Amulets 379

3. Rings, Necklaces, Bracelets, &c 382

4. Miscellaneous Ornaments from Mummies .... 382



BRONZE ROOM.

Egyptian Antiquities 393

Greek and Roman Antiquities 403



VASE ROOM.

I, Early Italian Ware 440

II. Black Etruscan Ware 440

III. Red Etruscan Ware 441

IV. Miscellaneous Varnished Ware 442

V, Italian Vases of the Archaic Greek .'^tyle 442

VI. Vases of the Transition Style 446

VII. Vases in the finest Greek Style 452

VIII. Basiiicata and Vases of a late Tiuie 459



( ix )



TABLE OF GREEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



The following list and dates of eminent artists of Ancient Greece and
Italy has been taken from Julius Sillig's Dictionary of the Artists of
Antiquity.



Olymp.



I.



xvm.



L.



LIV.
LV.



B.C.



XXV.


680


XXIX.


664


XXX.


660


XXXV.


640


XLII.


612


XLVIII.


588



776



708



580



564
560



Names of Artists, &c.



Daedalus of Athens. Smilis of iEgina.

Eucheir I. discovers the art of painting.

Dibutades of Corinth, and his daughter Core, first make
plaster-casts.

Philocles the Egyptian, or Cleanthes tlie Corinthian, in-
vent painting in outline. Their contemporaries are
Arego, Crato of Sicyon, and Saurias of Samos.

Ardices the Corinthian, and Telephanes I. the Sicyonian,
exercise the art of painting.

(The precise dates of the above facts are uncertain.)

About this period flourished Chersiphro of Cnossus, the
architect, and Telecles and Theodorus I., sons of
Rhcecus. In a rather later period Metagenes I., son of
Chersiphro, Paonius I. of Ephesus, and Learchus of
Rhegium.

Shortly before this time Bularchus, the painter, appeared
in Asia.

Glaucus I. invents the soldering of iron.

Eucheir II. and Eugrammus, Corinthian modellers, exercise
their art in Italy.

Cleophantus, the Corinthian, flourishes.

Malas of Chios appears as a sculptor.

Micciades, the Chian, practises sculpture.

Mnesarchus the Etrurian, the father of Pythagoras, be-
comes eminent as an engraver of precious stones.

Dipsenus and Scyllis, natives of Crete, attain great emi-
nence in sculpturing marble. About this period flou-
rished also Anthcrmus or Archeneus of Chins, Byres of
Naxos, and Endoeus the Athenian.

Aristocles, the Cydonian, flourishes.

Perillus, probably of Agrigentum, flourishes.



TABLE OF GKEEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



Olymp.


B.C.


Names of Artists, &c.


LVIII.


548


Tectfeus and Angelio make the statue of tlie Delian

Apollo.
About this time flourished also Bupalus and Athenis of

Chios, and Theocles the Laconian, sculptors ; Dontas,

Doryclidas, and Medo, all of Laconia, statuaries ; an(i

Theodoinis II., the Samian, an engraver.


LIX.


544


Syadras and Chartas, Lacedaemonian statuaries, flourish
probably about this period.


LX.


540


Bathycles the Magnesian, a statuary, and Spintharus, an

architect of Corinth, flourish.
About this time Antistates, Callseschrus, Antimachides,

and Porinus, architects, lay the foundation of the

Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens.


LXI.


536


Cleoetas, of Sicyon, the statuary.


LXII.


532


Demeas I. of Crotona, statuary, flourishes.


LXV.


520


Ageladas of Argos, statuary, makes a statue of Anochus,
a victor in the Olympic games.


LXVI.


516


Ageladas makes a chariot in honour of the victory of
Cleosthenes at Olympia, and about the same period
ennobles a victory obtained by Timasitheus.

Callo I. of ^gina, Chrysothemis and Eutelidas of Argos,
and Gitiadas the Lacedaimonian, flourish as statuaries.


LXVIII.


508


Amphicrates, the statuary, makes the figure of a lioness.
Antenor makes statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton.
Aristocles 11. and his brother Canachus I., both of
Sicyon, flourish as statuaries. This was the age also
of Clearchus of Rhegium.


LXX.


500


Hegesias and Hegias of Athens, Mensechmus and Soidas of
Naupactus, Telephanes II. of Phocis, and Arcesilaus I.
flourish as statuaries. Aglaopho I. of Thasos, father of
POLYGNOTUS and Aristopho, exercises the art of painting.
Sillax of Rhegium, the painter, flourishes.


LXXI. 4.


493


Demophilus I. and Gorgasus practise the arts of painting
and making plaster-casts at Rome.


LXXII.


492


Stomius, statuary, flourishes.


LXXin.


488


Glaucias of jEgina, statuary, flourishes. Pythagoras I. of
Rhegium begins to exercise the art of statuary. About
this time Pheidias is bom.


LXXIV.


484


Ascarus, the Theban, forms for the Thessalians a statue
of Jupiter out of the spoils of the Phocians. Amy-
clseus, Diyllus, and Chionis prepare several statues out
of the spoils taken from the Thessalians by the Pho-
cians, which are dedicated by the latter at Delphi.
Aristomedo is also engaged in this undertaking.



TABLE OF GREEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



XI



Olymp.



LXXV.



LXXVI.



LXXVIII.



LXXIX.

LXXX.



LXXXI.



LXXXII.



LXXXIII.



LXXXIV.
LXXXV. 3.




480



47G



468



464
460



456



452



448



444

438



Names of Artists, &c.



Synnoo of JEs;ina, statuary, flourishes. Aristomedes and
Socrates, two Theban statuaries, flourish. Critias Ne-
siota makes statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton,
which are almost immediately erected.

Anaxagoras of yEgina makes a statue of Jupiter at the
request of several states of Greece, which had partici-
pated in the victory over Xerxes at Salamis. Dion ysius 1 .
and Glaucus of Argos, and Simo of ^Egina, flourish.

Hippodamus, an architect of Miletus, fortifies the Peira;eus
at Athens.

Onatas of .Egina and Calamis make a chariot in honour of
Hiero, lately deceased, which is afterwards dedicated at
Olympia. Their contemporaries are Ageladas of Argos,
Hegias of Athens, Calliteles, Calynthus, Hippias, So-
phroniscus, and Pasiteles I. Ageladas and Hippias here
mentioned were instructors of Pheidias.

Demophilus II. of Himera, and Neseas of Thasos, flourish
as painters.

Sostratus I., statuary ; Mico I. of Athens, statuary and
painter; and probably Olympus, statuary, flourish. To
this period likewise belong POLYGNOTUS and Aristopho,
painters of Thasos, and Dionysius of Colopho, a painter,
and probably Cimo of Cleona;, together with Arcesilaus
II. and Nicanor of Paros, who practised the same art.

Ptolichus of Corcyra, statuary, flourishes. Soon after this
year Ageladas II. of Argos prepares a statue of Jupiter
for the Messenians occupying Naupactus.

Acestor of Cnossus, and Ptolichus of ^Egina, flourish as
.statuaries ; ScjTnnus as a statuary and engraver, and
Eucadmus as a sculptor.

PiiEiDiAS, of Athens, attains gi-eat eminence.

Alcamenes, an Athenian, and Agoracritus the Parian, both
pupils of PiiKiniAS, flourisli as statuaries and sculptors.
In this period likewise Critias Nesiota is still living, and
the following artists are engaged in their several pro-
fessions : Cydo and Diodotus as statuaries; Xenocles the
Athenian, a statuary ; Panaenus the Athenian, cousin of
PllioiDiAS by the father's side ; Plista?netus, the brother
of Pheidias, and Timagoras of Chalcis — painters.

Libo, the Elaan, builds the Temple of Zeus Olympius.
Mys, the engraver, flourishes.

Pheiptas dedicates his statue of Athene, made of irory atui
gold, in the Parthenon. The Vestibule of the Acropolis
commenced.



Xll



TABLE OF GEEEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



Olymp.



LXXXV. 4.



LXXXVI.



LXXXVII.



LXXXVIII.

LXXXIX.
XC.




437



436



433
432



430

428

424
420



XCII.

XCIII,
XCIV.



XCV. 3.



412

408
404



Names of Artists, &c.



398



PiiKiDiAS commences his statue of Zeus Olympius, with the
assistance of Colotes of Paros. About this time flourish
Ictinus, Callicrates, Metagenes II. of Athens, Stypax of
Cyprus, architects, and, probably, Carpio.

Coroebus and Mnesicles, architects ; Ctesilaus, a statuary,
and probably Demetrius III., a statuary, flourish. This
appears to have been the period wken Socrates, the phi-
losopher, bestowed attention on sculpture.

Pheidias dedicates his statue of Zeus Olympius.

Pheidias dies.

Myro of Eleuthera, and Poltcletds I. of Argos, attain
great eminence as statuaries. About this time flourished
also the following statuaries : Callo I. of Elis, Gor-
gias of Laconia, Phradmo of Argos, Scopas of Elis, and
Theocosmus of Megara.

Calamis makes his statue of Apollo, the Averter of evil.

Amphio of Cnossus, statuary, and Pasonius II. of Mende
in Thrace, statuary and sculptor, flourish.

Sostratus of Rhegium flourished as a statuary.

POLYCLETUS I. of Argos makes his statue of Here.

Apellas, Dionysiodorus, Niceratus of Athens, Nicodamus
of Msenalus, Pericletus and Sostratus of Chios, flourish
as statuaries. Praxias and Androsthenes, two Athenian
sculptors, decorate with their productions the temple
at Delphi. Cleisthenes, the architect, flourishes. Eu-
palamus, the Argive, rebuilds the Hercemn near My-
cense.

To this period we should in all probability refer Callima-
chus KKTaTfi^iTexvos.

Lycius, the son of Myro, flourishes as a statuary. To this
period we should probably refer Thericles.

Phryno, the statuary, flourishes.

Antiphanes of Argos and Aristander of Paros flourish as
statuaries. A large group of statues is dedicated at
Delphi by the Lacedemonians, in commemoration of
their victory at iEgos-potamos, made by the following
aiiists : Alypus, Patrocles I. and Canachus II. of Sicyon,
Demeas II. of Clitor, Piso of Calaurea, Samolas of
Arcadia, Theocosmus of Megara, and Pisander.

Alcamenes makes statues of Athene and Heracles, which
are dedicated in acknowledgment of the overthrow of
the Thirty Tyrants.

Aristocles IV. flourishes as a sculptor.



TABLE OF GREEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



xiu



Olymp.




XCV. 4.



XCVI.

XCVII.
XCVIII.



ClI.



cm.

CIV.



cv.
cvi.



cvii.



397



396

392
388

380
372



368
364



360

35G



352



Names of Artists, &c.



Xeuxis of Heraclea, the distinguished painter, flourishes.
To this period we must refer, also, Androcydus of
Cyzicus, and Eupompus of Sicyon, painters ; Naucydes
the Argive, brother and instnictor of I'olycletus II., who
was also engaged as an artist about this time ; Dino-
menes, Callicles of Megara, and Daedalus II. of Sicyon,
all statuaries.

Parrhasil'S of Ephesus, Timanthes of Sicyon, Pauso, and
Colotes II. flourish as painters. Pantias of Chios, a
statuary, flourishes.

ScOPAS, the celebrated Parian sculptor, builds the temple
of Pallas at Tegea. Aristodemus I., a painter, flouiishes.

To this period belong Ctesidemus, the painter, and the
following statuaries, all of whom were pupils of Polf-
CLETUS I. ; Alexis, Asopodorus, Aristides, Phryno, Dino,
Athenodorus, and Demeas II.

Polycletus II. of Argos, Cleo I. of Sicyon, Democritus I.
of Sicyon, flourish as statuaries, and Pamphilus I. of
Amphipolis, and Euxenidas, as painters.

The following statuaries flourish ; Aristogito of Thebes,
Cephisodotus I. of Athens, Djedalus II. of Sicyon, Hy-
patodorus, Pausanias I. of ApoUonia, Polycles I., Xeno-
phon the Athenian, Callistonicus the Theban, and pro-
bably Olyrapiosthenes and Strongylio. Demophon the
Messenian, and Eucleides II. the Athenian, practise
sculpture ; and Jliccio, and Ephorus the Ephesian, the
instructor of Apelles, flourish as painters.

LYSirpus, the Sicyonian, first appears as an artist.

Euphranor, the distinguished statuary and painter, and
Praxiteles, eminent in the arts ofstatuary and sculpture,
flourish. To thi.s period, also, belong Euphronides, and
Herodotus the Olynthian, statuaries, Cydias of Cythnos,
and Nicias I., painters. The last of these artists assisted
Praxiteles in the decoration of his statues.

Nicomachus I., a Theban painter, flourishes.

ScoPAS, the Parian, engaged with other artists in building
the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. Brietes of Sicyon,
the father of Pausias, flourishes as a painter. Pamphilus
I., of Amphipolis, is still living.

Apelles just appears as a painter. Aristides II. of Thebes,
Echio, and Therimachus, all painters, now flourish.

The MnusoUmm at ILilicAinnKsm, built by Phiteus and Saty-
rus, is about this time decorated with figures by Scoi'AS,
Praxiteles, Leochares, Timotheas, Bryaxis, and Pythis.

This was probably the age of the statuaiy Cha^eas.



XIV



TABLE OF GREEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS.



Olymp.




CVIII.


348


CIX.


344


ex.


340


CXI.


336


CXII.


332



CXIII.



CXIV.



CXV.

CXVII.
CXVIII.



CXIX. 1.



CXX.



CXXIl.



528



324



320
312
308



304



300



292



Names of Artists, &c.



Corybas, the painter, flourishes.

Philochares, the Athenian, appears as a painter.

Antcrides and Leontion flourish as painters. Leochares is
still living.

Antidotus the pupil of Euphranor, Carmanidas, and Leo-
nides of Anthedon, flourish as painters.

Apelles flourishes. The painters cotemporary with
him, are, Amphio, Antiphilus the Egyptian, Nicophanes,
Asclepiodorus, Theo of Samos, Melanthus, Pausias of
Sicyon, Theomnestus, Nicias II. of Athens, and Ctesilo-
chus, the pupil and perhaps the brother of Apelles.
Pyrgoteles, the engraver on precious stones, flourishes.
To this period also belong Philo the statuary, Pamphilus
II. the sculptor, and Dinocrates, an architect of Mace-
donia.

Alcimachus, Aristocles V,, and Philoxenus (the last two
inhabitants of Eretria), flourish as painters ; and Amphi-
stratus as a statuary and sculptor.

Lysippus still living. In this period the subjoined artists
flourish : Lysistratus the brother of Lysippus, Apollo-
dorus, lo, Polyeuctus, Silanio the Athenian, Sostratus
III., and Sthenis the Athenian, statuaries ; Glaucio the
Corinthian, Gryllo, Ismenia^ of Chalcis, Aristo and his
brother Niceros, both of Thebes, painters ; and probably
Menestratus II. sculptor.

Dajtondas, the Sicyonian, flourishes as a statuary.

Bryaxis still exercises the arts of statuary and sculpture.

Apelles and Nicias II. the Athenian, still living. Dio-
genes, Perseus, and Aristolaus son of Pausias, flourish
as painters, and Callias of Aradus as an architect. To
this period we should also refer Menaechmus the Sicyonian.

Protogenes of Caunus paints in the island of Rhodes
his figure of lalysus. Fabius Pictor decorates with
his paintings the Temple of the Goddess Salus at Rome.



Online LibraryW. S. W. (William Sandys Wright) VauxHandbook to the antiquities in the British Museum : being a description of the remains of Greek, Assyrian, Egyptian and Etruscan art preserved there, with numerous illustrations → online text (page 1 of 38)