W. T. R. (William Thomas Roberts) Saffell.

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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.



I) ULAN Y'S



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



FROM 1632 TO 1891.



PREPARED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS IN THE STATE.



A MARYLAXDER.



WITH NXIMERO I N II L I r S TEA TIONS:



THIKl) KDITION.




BALTIMORE:

Wm. J. C. DULANY COMPANY.
1891.



X 'V\



Fist

-
occurred on the 27th of March, 1025, according to the Ju-
lian Calendar,* or Old Style. On the 20th of February,
1024, Sir George was created Lord Baron of Baltimore, in
the kingdom of Ireland, by King James I., and hereafter
we shall know him as Lord Baltimore. In this year his
lordship "freely confessed to the king that he was a Roman
Catholic, so that he must be wanting in his trust, or violate
his conscience, in discharging his office." He was, however,
continued the king's privy councilor all his reign.

7. While he was secretary of state he obtained a char-
ter from King James, granting to him the province of Ava-

* Prior to January, 1*752, the Julian Calendar was in use in England.
By this calendar, the year ended on the '24th of March, and New Year's
dav came on the 25th of the same mouth.



THE CHARTER OF CRESCENTIA, OR MARYLAND. 15

Ion, in Newfoundland, which was named after Avalon, in
Somersetshire, England, so called from Avalonius, an an-
cient monk. Uneasy at home, he resolved to retire to
America, where he could enjoy the largest liberty of con-
science. He purchased a ship, and, with his family on
board, plowed the waves of the sea toward the cold island
of Newfoundland. Finding that the climate there was not
suited to the establishment of a prosperous colony, he
abandoned the grant, and sailed to the coast of Virginia.
He explored the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, and,
fixing his eyes upon the beautiful rivers, inlets, and wood-
lands on either shore, returned to England and obtained
from King Charles I. a grant of the territory of Crescentia.

8. This territory is described as " all that part of a pen-
insula in America, lying between the ocean on the east, and
the bay of Chesapeake on the west, and divided from the
other part by a right line drawn from Watkins' Point, in
the aforesaid bay, on the west, to the main ocean on the
east. Thence to that part of Delaware Bay, on the north,
which lieth under the fortieth degree of north latitude from
the equinoctial where New England is terminated. Thence
in a right line by the degree aforesaid, to the true meridian
of the first fountain of the river Potomac. Thence follow-
ing the southwestern shore or bank of said river to its
mouth, where it falls into the bay of Chesapeake. Thence
on a right line across the bay to Watkins' Point, with all
the isles and islets within those limits.'"

0. On the 15th of April, 1632, before the patent con-
finning the grant of the territory of Crescentia to Lord
Baltimore could pass the great seal of the realm of Eng-
land, that distinguished nobleman died, in the fifty-third
year of his age, and was buried in St. Dunstan's Church,
Fleet Street, London.

10. Cecilius Calvert, eldest son of George, Lord Balti-
more, deceased, was heir by the laws of England to his



10



THE HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



father's baronial honors and titles, as well as to the greater
portion of his vast estates, and he became the second Lord
Baron of Baltimore in the kingdom of Ireland.

11. On the 20th of June, 1632, a charter for the terri-
tory in America, which the first Lord Baltimore proposed
to call by the name of Crescentia, passed the great seal in
favor of his son, whom the king styled " our well-beloved
and right trusty subject, Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Balti-




CHAELE8



more in our kingdom f Ireland, treading in the steps of his
father." The name of the territory Mas changed from
Crescentia to Maryland. This was done in honor of Queen
Henrietta Maria, daughter of King Henry IV., of France,
whom King Charles, grantor of the charter of Maryland,
married in 1625.

12. The charter reads that the territory granted is "in
the parts of America not yet cultivated, though inhabited by
a barbarous people," and it is provided that "the province



LEONARD CALVERT, FIRST GOVERNOR OF MARYLAND ]y

shall not be holden or reputed as a part of Virginia, or of
any other colony, but immediately dependent on the crown
of England."

13. At this time, one hundred and forty years had gone
by since Columbus discovered America ; De Soto had dis-
covered the Mississippi River ; the Pilgrims had landed on
Plymouth Rock ; the English had settled at Jamestown,
and the Dutch at New Amsterdam : it. was left to Lord Bal-
timore to explore and settle the wilds of Maryland, " the
home of savage beasts and still more savage men."

14. In 1633, Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, carried out the
scheme of colonization contemplated by his honored father,
the founder of Maryland. Invested with palatine* pow-
ers, he matured plans to erect the vast region of country
into a province, and issued his commissions in that direc-
tion in the name and title of " Cecilius, Absolute Lord and
Proprietary of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon,
Lord Baron of Baltimore." The powers* delegated to him
in his charter gave him all the authority of a king in Mary-
land. He drew up a constitution and form of a proprietary
government for the province, so that it should not conflict
with the terms of his charter or the laws of England, and
appointed his brother, Leonard Calvert, lieutenant-general,
chief governor, chancellor, commander, captain, magistrate,
and keeper of the great seal.

* Palatine,' or count palatine, a title anciently given to all persons who
had any office or employment in the king's palace, but afterward conferred
upon persons delegated by kings or princes to hold courts of justice in
their provinces, and on such, among the lords, as had a palace, or a court
of justice, in their own houses.



CHAPTER II.
1 633-1 634.

The Ark of Avaloii and the Dove— They sail from the Isle of Wight for
Maryland. — Lord Baltimore's Colonists on Board. — Stormy Voyage. — The
Landing in "Pedhainmok" River. — Savages on Shore. — Canoes Big as
Islands.— Indians described. — Augusta Carolina. — Lands granted to Set-
tlers.

1. On the 22d of November, 1633, the Ark of Ava-
lon and the Dove, two ships of light tonnage, British regis-
ter, sailed from the Isle of Wight in the English Chan-
nel, with Lord Baltimore's colonists on board, destined for
" Cinquack " or some harbor " near where the river Poto-
mac disembogues into the bay of Chesapeake."

2. The landing, however, was to be ryade within a ter-
ritory, " in the parts of America," compassed by the Chesa-
peake on the east, Virginia on the south, and on the north
by that part of the bay of Delaware that lieth under the
fortieth degree of north latitude, and on the west by "the
first fountain of the Potomac River."

3. A trackless waste of waters, three thousand miles in
width, lay between the place of destination of those first
colonists and their European homes, and an equally track-
less wilderness of land lay before them. No steam palaces
wafted these hardy pioneers across the wild and unknown
waters, and no electric spark flashed intelligence of weal or
woe to friends at home.

4. The colonist exiles himself from home and friends,
and all the comforts and amenities of social life. He buries
himself in the wilderness, where, by hardy toil, he carves



STORMY VOYAGE. 10

out a- home, and prepares the way for less adventurous spir-
its. He, in fact, immolates himself on the altar of prog-
ress.

5. Lord Baltimore's pious colonists committed their
ships to the protection of God, and left behind them the
homes in which they had been born, to face the dangers of
the great Atlantic Ocean. Their voyage was stormy and
perilous. A violent storm arose, and the company on board
the Dove, dreading its effects upon that small vessel, noti-
fied the officers of the Ark that, if they were in danger of
shipwreck, they would hang out a light from their mast-
head. The storm continued without abatement, and in the
middle of the night the crew of the Ark beheld with dis-
may two lights suspended from the masthead of the Dove,
but they were unable to render their comrades any assist-
ance. The ships parted in the storm and the two lights
disappeared in dreary darkness, f When the light of day
broke over that long night, the storm still raged, and no
traces of the Dove were visible on the waters. The noble
little vessel was given up as lost. On the night of the third
day, a sudden blast split the mainsail of the Ark from top
to bottom, and the vessel was at the mercy of the waves.
The colonists betook themselves to prayer, and before the
prayer was ended, the violence of the storm began to abate,
and hope succeeded despair. ,—

(i. The Ark, after touching at several islands, finally ar-
rived safely at the island of Barbadoes, on the 5th of Janu-
ary, 1633, being the tenth month in the year according to
the Julian Calendar ; and great was the joy when the Dove
bore in sight, after a separation of six weeks. On the night
of the great storm, she changed her course and took refuge
in the Scilly Islands which lie about ten leagues southwest
from Land's End on the coast of England. From these
islands she sailed for the Great Antilles, where she safely
arrived, and, joining company with the Ark, they sailed



f



20 THE HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

from Barbadoes on the 24th of January. They passed
St. Lucia, Matalina, Montserrat, St. Christopher'Sj and other
islands in the West Indies, coming- in sight of Old Point
Comfort, in Virginia, on the 24th of February, next to the
last month in the year 1683, according to the Julian Cal-
endar, or the second month in the year 1634, according to
the present English calendar.

7. The Virginians were hostile to -the designs of Lord
Baltimore, yet the governor of the colony gave Governor
Calvert and his company a kind reception ; and after a
sojourn of ten days they steered for the mouth of the Po-
tomac River, which in the language of some of the tribes of
the six nations of American Indians was called the river
PedhammoTc. This ancient name of the river appears to
be prophetic of the arrival of Lord Baltimore's colonists on
its waters ; for Hecke welder says the Indians told him
that the name Pedhammok signifies " they are coming by
water.""

8. Approaching the mouth of this river, the colonists
saw for the first time the shores of Maryland. Wreaths of
white smoke, curling in the distance, ascended above the
tall pines of the forest, and betrayed the wigwam of the
Indians. \ The mind contemplated the future, with its barns
and dwellings bursting with plenty, and sumptuous ban-
quets around richly laden tables in the western world.
Mighty forests stretched out as far as the eye could reach ;
the soil was rich and fertile, and the air sweet and balmy.

9. Along the river, messengers flew from one wigwam
to another, carrying the strange tidings that canoes as big
as islands in the river had brought as many men as there
were trees in the forest. Council fires were kindled through-
out the country, around which savage warriors and grave
sachems hastily assembled ; groups of armed and painted
natives appeared on the shore, and the colonists were for
the first time brought face to face with the native savages.



THE LANDING IN " PEDHAMMOK " RIVER.



21



10. In defiance of hostile demonstrations on the shore,
the colonists landed on St. Clement's Island in the Potomac
River, and soon satisfied the natives that their intentions







were peaceful. Their land-
ing was made on the 25th
of March, being New Year's
day, 1634, according to the
Julian, or Old Style, Calen-
dar. They took solemn pos-
session of the soil of Maryland, erected a cross as the sym-
bol of Christianity, and performed divine service, for the
first time, according to the ceremonies of the Roman Catho-
lic Church, of which a great number of the colonists were
members.



22 THE HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

11. Governor Calvert ascended the Potomac to the
mouth of Pisoataway Creek, and there met the Piscataway
Indians, the most powerful tribe, perhaps, within the limits
of Maryland, who, together with the Patuxents, exercised
sovereignty over all southern and central Maryland.


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Online LibraryW. T. R. (William Thomas Roberts) SaffellDulany's history of Maryland → online text (page 1 of 21)