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W. T. (William Thompson) Sedgwick.

An introduction to general biology online

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Normal Fluid (Normal Salt Solution). — Dissolve 7.50 grams of
sodium chloride in 1 litre of distilled water.

Paraffin.— "Hard" and "soft" paraffins, i.e., those of high



224 APPENDIX.

and low melting-points, should be mixed in such proportions that
the melting-point lies between 50° and 55° C.

Perenyi's Fluid, — Ten-per-cent nitric acid 4 parts, 90^ alco-
hol 3 parts, ^fc aqueous solution of chromic acid 3 parts. Not
to be used until the mixture assumes a violet hue. Leave objects
in the fluid 30 minutes to an hour, then 24 hours in 70^ alcohol,
and finally place in 90 per cent alcohol.

Schultze's Macerating Fluid. — Dissolve a gram of potassium
43lilorate in 50 c.c. of nitric acid. The tissue should be boiled
in the mixture and afterwards thoroughly washed in water.

Schulze's Solution. — Dissolve zinc in pure hydrochloric acid,
evaporate in the presence of metallic zinc, on a water-bath, to a
syrupy consistency, add as much iodide of potassium as will dis-
solve, and then saturate Avith iodine. (When heated with this
fluid cellulose turns blue.

Section-cutting. — Many objects can be cut by hand with a
razor (which must be very sharp). The object should be held in
the left hand while the razor is pointed away from the body, and
allowed to rest on the tips of the fingers with its edge turned
towards the left. It is then drawn gently toAvards the body so
as gradually to shave oft* the section. Small objects may be held
between two pieces of watchmaker's pith previously soaked in
water. In either case the razor should be kept wet.

Many objects, however, require more careful treatment by
one of the following methods :

A. Paraffin Method. — After hardening and staining, the
object is soaked in strong alcohol (95^ or more) until the Avater
is thoroughly extracted (2-12 hours, changing the alcohol at
least once), then in chloroform until the alcohol is extracted
(2-12) hours), and then in melted parafiin (not warmer than 55°
C.) on a water-bath for 15 to 30 minutes (too high a tem^^era-
ture or too long a bath causes excessive shrinkage). Some of the
parafiin is then poured into a small paper-box, or into adjustable
metal frames. The object is transferred to it and after the mass
has begun to set it is placed in cold Avater until quite hard. It
is then cemented (by paraffin) to a square piece of cork and
placed in the section-cutter or microtome.

The sections may be cut singly with the oblique knife or by



LABORATORY STUDIES AND DEMOXSTRATIOSS. 2*25

the ribbon- method,'^ the knife being "kept dry in eitlier cai^e. In
mounting they should be lixed by tlie culludiun-niethod. (^Seo
Collodion and Clove-oil.)

B. Celloidln MdluxJ. — This is especially ap])licable to <k'li-
cate ve<>:etal tissues. After deli vd rat iu*^ the obifc-t thomuirldv in
alcohol, soak it 24 hours in a mixture of ecpial parts of alcohol
and ether. Make a thick solution of celloidin in the same mix*
ture and soak the object for some hours in it. It may then ho
imbedded as follows: Dip the smaller end of a tapering (M»rk
in the celloidin solution, allow it to dry for a monieiit (hh»wing
on it if necessary), and then build upon it a mass of celloidin,
allowing it to dry a moment after each additi<»n. Transfer the
object to the cork and cover it thoroughly with the celloidin.
Then float the cork in 82-85^ (0.842 sp. gr.) alcohol until the
mass has a firm consistency (24 h.). It may then be cut in the
microtome with the oblique knife, which nnist be kept dripping
with 82-85,^ alcohol. Keep the sections in 82-85^ alcohol until
ready to mount them, then soak them for a minute in strong
alcohol, transfer to a slide, pour on chloroform until the alcohol
is removed, drain off the liquid, quickly add a drop of balsam,
and cover. (See also Whitman, 1. c, p. 113.)

* See Whitman, 1. c. p. 71.



INDEX.



Absorption, 48, 52, 101, 165c
Accretion, 166,
Acbromatin, 23.
Actinopbrys, 166.
Adaptation, 97, 98, 144.
Adventitious buds, 130.
Probes, 202.
Etiology, 6.

Agamogenesis, 73, 130, 163.
Albuminous bodies, 36.
Alimentation, 48, 105.
Alimentary canal, 82, 92.
Alimentary system, 49.
Allolobophora, 41.
Alternation of generations, 130,
Ammha, 27, 158, 216.
Amoeboid cells, 64.
Ampliiaster, 84.
Amphimixis, 168.
Anabolism, 33, 100, 149, 164
Anachai'is, 29.
Anaerobes, 202.
Anatomy, 7.
Animalcule, 158, 199.
Annulus, 132.
Anus, 46, 82, 165.
Antberidia, 135.
Aortic arcbes, 54, 55.
Apical buds. 111, 116, 123.
Apical cell, 123.
Apogamy, 143.
Apospory, 143.
Areella, 166.
Archegouia, 137.
Arcbenteron, 80, 82, 85.
Arcbesporium, 131.
Arcboplasm, 79, 80.
Artbrospore, 195.
Ascospore, 187.
Asexual reproduction, 73.
Assimilation, 182.
Aster, 79, 84.
Attraction spbere, 83, 84.
At WATER, W. O., 34^.

Bacilli, 192.
Bacteria, 64, 178, 192.
Bast-fibres, 120.



Biology, 1, 6, 7. 8.
Bisexual, 73, l.'W.
Blastoi)()re, 80, b5.
Blastospbere, 85.
Blastula, 80, 90.
Blood. 15, 16, 90, 102.
Blood-vessels, 54.
Blue-green alg;e, 183, 193o
Body, 19, 24. 84, 107, 156.
Body-cavity, 47.
Bone, 16.
Botan\, 6, 7.
Branches, 111, 122, 130.
Brancbijp, 62.
Budding, 186.
Biirsaria, 176.

Calciferous glands, 51.
Calkins, G. X., 171.
Capillaries, 54.
Capsules of eggs, 78.
Capsulogenous glands. 46.
Carbohydrates, 37, 101.
CairJu'sium, 176.
Carnivora. 177, 203.
Cartilage, 15, 1(5.
Castings, 42, 53.
Cell, 12, 20.
Cell-division, 24, 83.
Cell-theorv. 20.
Cellulose, "37.
Cell-wall, 22, 23.
Centrosome, 79, 83, 84.
Cerebral ganglia, 65, 69.
Chalk, 166,
Chara, 24.
Chemiotaxis, 139.
Chlorococcus, 178.
Cliloragogiie-cclls, 52, 61, 93.
Cbloropbvll, 12<). 151. 215.
Chlorophyll -bodies. 179, 215.
Vhroococcuti, 183.
Chromatin, 23, 83.
Cliroinutoi)hores. 147, 179,
Chromosomes. 83. 84.
Cilia. 31. 63, 74, 137. 192.
Circulation. 4S, 53, 101, 165.
C'LArAliiDE, 96.



228



INDEX.



Classification, 7.
Clitellum, 46, 77, 78, 88, 93.
Coagulation, 36, 39.
Cocci, 192.
Coelenterata, 88.
Coelom, 47, 82.
Coelomic Huid, 53.
COHN, 21.
Cold storage, 199.
Colloidal, 36.
Colony, 176.
Commissures, 65.
Conjugation, 171, 181.
Connective tissue, 70, 90.
Consciousness, 69, 70.
Contractility, 62, 164.
Coordination, 48, 64, 67, 164.
Copulation, 77.
Cross-fertilization, 74.
Crystals, 17.
Cushion, 135.
Cuticle, 71, 91.
Cyanopbyceae, 183, 192, 199.
Cyclical change, 5, 72, 89.
Cytoplasm, 22, 84.

Darwin, 42, 51, 70, 99, 103.

Death, 152.

De Bary, 115, 143.

Defsecation, 53, 165.

Desmids, 178, 183.

Dialysis, 36, 210.

Diastatic ferment, 52.

Diatoms, 178, 183.

Dichogamy. 138.

Differentiation, 11, 84, 141.

Differentiation, antero-posterior, 43,

110.
Differentiation, dorso-ventral, 43, 110.
Differentiation of the tissues, 25.
Diffliigia, 166.

Digestion, 48, 49, 52, 101, 165.
Diplococcus, 194.
Disease-germs, 192, 197.
Disinfection, 200.
Dissepiments, 47, 94.
Distribution, 7.

Division of labor, 11, 26, 156, 165.
Dorsal pore, 48.
Dorsal vessel, 54.

DUJARDIN, 21.

Earthworm, 41.
Ectoblast, 81.
Ectoplasm, 158.
Egg, 24.
Egg laymg, 77.
Egg-nucleus, 79.
Egg-string, 74.
Embryo, 25.
Embryology, 7, 72, 78.



Endospore, 187, 194.

Endosporium, 134.

Energy, 32, 99, 146, 151.

Entoblast, 81.

Entoplasm, 158.

Environment, 97, 103, 144, 15t

Epidermal system, 114.

Epidermis, 114, 116.

Epistylis, 176.

Epithelium, 90.

Eagle na, 176.

Excretion, 48, 53, 59, 100, 165.

Exosporium. 134.

Eve-spot, 176.

Faeces, 53.

Farlow, 143.

Fats, 17, 37, 101.

Feathers, 18.

Ferns, 105.

Ferment, 52.

Fermentation, 191, 197.

Fertilization, 73, 78, 139.

Fibro- vascular system, 114.

Fibro- vascular bundles, 142.

Filtration, 200.

Fission, 163.

Flagellum, 176, 192.

FOL, 79.

Foods, 146.

Foraminifera, 166.

Fore-gut, 86.

Foster, Michael, 153, 163.

Fredericq, 52.

Frond, 125.

Functions, 9.

Fundamental system, 114.

Fungi, 147.

Gamete, 181.

Gamogenesis, 73, 130, 168.
Ganglion, 64, 94.
Gastrula, 80.
Gastrulation, 84.
Germ- cells, 24, 73, 90, 130.
Germination, 134.
Germ-layers, 81, 84, 85o
Germ-layer theory, 88.
Germ- plasm, 89, 152.
Germinal spot, 74.
Germinal vesicle, 74.
Giant-fibres, 94.
Gills, 62.
Girdle, 78.
Gizzard, 51, 71.
Glmocapsa, 178, 183.
Glucose, 52.
Glycogen, 37.
Gregarinn, 64.
Growth, 165.
Guard-cells, 128.



INDEX,



229



Hdmatococcus, 178.
Haemoglobin, 54.
■lair, 18.

Hay infusion, 201.
•ierbivora, 176, 203,
ileredity, 84.
Hermaphrodite, 73, 130,
Heutwig, 79.
Hibernation, 38.
Hind-gut, 86.
Histology, 7.
HooKE, Robert, 20.
H30KER, Sir W. J., 106
Hoppe-Seyler, 35.
Huxley, 2, 4.
Hypodermis, 92.

Impregnation, 73, 139.
Individual, 13, 156, 164.
Indusium, 131.
Infusions, 168.
Infusoria, 168, 217.
Inheritance, 80, 84.
Intussusception, 4, 165,
Irritability, 164.

Johnson, 35.

Katabolism, 33, 99, 149, 164.
Karvokinesis, 83.
Keith, S. C, Jr. , 186, 195.
Krukenberg, 52.

Lateral ridges, 111, 114.
Leaf, 11, 125.
Lenhossek, 95.
Leptothrix, 194.
LlNN^US, 105.
Lumhricwi, 41.
Lungs, 62.
Lymph, 53.
Lymph-cells, 64.

Macrogamete, 175.

Macro nucleus, 170, 171.

Malic acid, 139.

Maupas, 170.

Meristem, 123.

Mesoblast, 81.

Mesophyll, 126.

Metabolism, 33, 100, 101, 148. 164.

Metamerism, 45.

Metchntkoff, 53.

Microgamete, 175.

Micronucleus, 170, 171,

Micro-organisms, 201.

Middle-piece, 74, 79, Sa

Mid-gut, 86.

Mitosis, 83.

MoiiL, H. VON, 21.

Morphology, 6, 7.



Mother-of- vinegar, 194, 195.
Mother-cells, 134, 137.
Motion, 48.
Motor system, 62.
Mouth, 49. 80, 85, 165.
Muscles, 14, 26. 27, 62, 90.
MujvDEu, 35.
Mt/ro(lrrma, 194, 202.
Myxobacteria, 199.
Myxomycetes, 199.

Natural selection, 99.

Nei)hridia, 58, 59.

Nerves, 64, 90.

Nerve-cells, 94.

Nerve-centre, 68.

Nerve-impulses, 67.

Nervous system, 64, 82, 94, 103.

Nitella, 28.

Nitrogen, 147.

Nucleolus, 23.

Nucleoplasm, 22.

Nucleus, 16, 23, 186.

Nutrition, 99, 146.

(Esophagus, 18.
Old age. 72, 152, 166.
Odphore, 130.
05sphere, 73, 138.
Oospore, 139.
Organisms, 9.
Organogeny, 85.
Organs, 9.
Ovaries, 74.
Oviduct, 75.
Ovum, 73, 74, 89.

Prira?ncecium. 168.

Parasites, 192.

Parenchyma, 116.

Pasteur, 188.

Pasteurization, 200.

Pasteur's Huid, 189, 197.

Pathogenic, 200.

Pathology, 6, 7.

Peptic ferment, 52.

Pept(me, 52. 101.

Peristaltic actions, 51, 54, 55.

Pfkkfku, 139.

Phagocytes. 53. 61. 64, 158.

Pharyngeal ganglia, 67.

Pharynx, 49.

Physiological properties of proto

plasm, 1(;3. 1M2. 183.
Physiology, 6. 7. 166.
Plivsiologv of the nervous svstem, 67.
Poiarct'lls, 79.
Pole-cells, 82.
Poisons, 39.
Plasma. 53.
rieurococcns, 178.



230



INDEX.



Primordial utricle, 29.
Proctodaeum, 83, 86.
Pronucleus, 79.
Prosencliyma, 116.
Prostomium, 45.
Protection, 71.
Proteids, 3, 33, 52.
Proteus animalcule, 27, 158.
Prothallium, 180, 135, 214.
Pi'otococcus, 178.
Protonema, 134.
Protoplasm, 16, 20, 207, 208.
Protozoa, 158.
Pseudopodia; 27, 158*
Psychology, 7, 8.
Pulse, 54.
Putrefaction, 197, 201.

PURKINJE, 21.

Radiolaria, 166.

Keceptacle, 131.

Receptaculum ovorum, 'J'5.

Reflex action, 67.

Regeneration, 73.

Reproduction, 48, 72, 111 , 130, 152, 165.

Respiration, 61, 150, 165.

Retzius, 95.

Rhizoids, 134.

Rhizome, 111, 140.

Rhizopoda, 166.

Rigor caloris, 39.

Rigor mortis, 209.

Roots, 122.

SaccJiaromyceSy 184.
Sachs, 115.
Salivary glands, 51.
Sap, 14.

Saproph}i;es, 192.
Sarcina, 194.
Schizomycetes, 192,

SCHLEIDEN. 20.

ScHULTZE, Max, 21.

Schwann, 20.

Sciences, biological, 1, 6.

Sciences, physical, 1.

Segmentation, 24, 80.

Segmentation cavity, 84, 85.

Seminal receptacle, 77.

Seminal vesicle, 76.

Sensation, 48.

Sense organs, 42, 69.

Senses, 42, 69.

Sensitive system, 69.

Setae, 46, 63.

Setigerous glands, 63, 77.

Sexual reproduction, 73.

Sieve-tubes, 116.

Sight, 42, 69, 70.

Skin, 128.

Slipper animalcule, 168.



Smell, 42, 69.
Sociology, 7, 8.
Somatic cells, 73.
Somatic layer, 85.
Somatopleure, 82, 86.
Somites, 45.

Spencer, Herbert, 3, 99, 146.
Spermaries, 74, 75.
Spermatosphere, 77.
Spermatozoid, 137.
Spermatozoon, 73, 74
Sperm-duct, 76.
Sperm-nucleus, 79.
Spiderwort, 29.
Spirilla, 192.
Splanchnopleure, 82, 86.
Spontaneous generation, 33.
Sporangia, 130.
Spores, 24, 130, 194,
Sporophore, 130.
Staphylococcus, 194.
Starch, 17, 37, 146.
Stentor, 176.
Sterilization, 199.
Stimulus, 67.
Stipe, 125.

Stomach-intestine, 51.
Stomata, 126, 128.
Stomodaeum, 82, 86.
Streptococciis, 194.
Struggle for existence, 203.
Stylonichia, 170.
Sugar, 37.

Sun-animalcule, 166.
Survival of the fittest, 99.
Symbiosis, 177.
Symmetry, bilateral, 44, 110.
Symmetry, serial, 45.
Sympathetic system, 67.

Taste, 42, 69, 70.
Taxonomy, 7.
Temperature, 38, 199, 210.
Testes, 74, 75.
Tissues, 11, 13.
Touch. 42, 69, 70.
Toxicologv, 39.
Trachea?, 116.
Tracheids, 116.
Trade scantia, 29.
Transpiration, 146.
Trichocysts, 168.
Tryptic ferment, 52.
Twins, 88.
Typhlosole, 51, 91.

Unicellular animals, 158.
Unicellular organisms, 156, 177.
Unicellular plants, 178.

Vacuoles, 24, 162, 170.



INDEX.



231



Vascular system, 54.
Vas deferens, 76.
Veins, 126.
Vejdovsky, 79, 81
Venation, 129.
Vessels, 116.
Vinegar, 196.
VlRCIIOW, 21.
Vital energy, 33.
Vital force, 33.
Vitellus, 74, 78.
Vortieella, 168, 172,

White, 43.



White 1)1 cod -cells, 64.
Whirlpool, 2.

WiNOGUADSKY, 197.

Yeast, 178.
Yeast, bottom, 190.
Yeast, red, 191.
Yeast, top. 190.
Yeast, wild, 190.

ZoOgloea, 194, 195.
Zooids, 176.
Zoology, 6, 7.
Zoospores, 181.
Zoothamnioa, 176.



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