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THE GIFT OF

MAY TREAT MORRISON

IN MEMORY OF

ALEXANDER F MORRISON



f



THE



HISTOEY OF EOME



VOL. II.



LONDON: PRINTED BT

SPOTTISWOOlJli AND CO., NEW-STUDET SIJUAUE

AND rAIU.IASIENT STREEC



THE



HISTOEY OF EOME.



BY



WILHELM IHNE.



ENGLISH EDITION.



VOL. II.



LONDON :

LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO.

1871.



Il



DG.
ABl

1571



i.



CONTENTS



THE SECOND VOLUME.



FOURTH BOOK.

STRUGGLE FOR THE ASCENDANCY
IN THE WEST.



CHAPTER I.

CARTHAGE.

Differences of soil and climate between Europe and Afi-
Migrations of the Semitic and Aryan tribes .
Phoenician colonisation in Africa .
Points of difference between the Phoenician and 1
colonies ......

Rapid growth and power of Carthage .
Nature of the Carthaginian empire
Elements of weakness in the Carthaginian state
Geographical dangers .....

Agriculture and trade of Carthage

Dependents and tributaries of Carthage

The Liby-Phcenicians .....

The Carthaginian state ....

Acknowledgment of Carthaginian supremacy

Phoenician cities of northern Africa

The Numidians ......

Foreign possessions of Carthage .

Sardinia .......

Gades and other settlements in Spain .
Constitution c>f Carthage ....



PAGE

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7
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9

10
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11
12
12
13
It
14



430133



VI



CONTENTS OF



Points of likeness between the Carthaginian and other con

stitutions ....
INInnicipal government of Carthage
The SufFetes

The command of the army .
Carthaginian timocracy
The Carthaginian senate
The people ....
Criminal jurisdiction .
Carthaginian aristocracy



14
15
15
16
18
18
19
19
20



CHAPTER II.
SICILY.



Historical geography of Sicily

Greek and Carthaginian power in Sicily

Defeat of the Carthaginians at Himera

Preponderance of Syracuse .

Destruction of Agrigentum .

Tyranny of the elder Dionysius .

Victories of Dionysius .

Siege of Syracuse

Piratical expeditions of Dionysius

The younger Dionysius and Timoleon

Barren victories of Timoleon

Tyranny of Agathoklcs

Later expeditions of Agathokles .



22
23
23
24
25
25
26
26
27
28
29
29
30



CHAPTER III.



THE FIRST PUNIC WAR, 264-241 B.C.

Fii si Pr.ruid. To the capture of Agrigentum, 2C

TortuncH of Zankh' or Messana ....
(.'uptiin; of Rliegium l)y Roman mutineers .
I Hero, tyrant of Syracuse .....
UolatioMH of Carthage to Rome ....
JoalouHv of Rome for Carthage . . . .

Rf'HoIution of the Romans to aid the Mamertines of Älci^
diaiig«! ill ihi; cliaraftcr of Koman hisLoiv
Uclativc Htrciiglli <il' K'oiik; ami Carlhnjc



2 1!.C.



32
33
34
35
36
37
38
38



TUE SECOND VOLUME.



Vll



Occupation of Messana by the Romans ,

Landing of the Romans in Sicily ....

Ineffectual league of Hiero with the Carthaginians.

Second campaign in Sicily, 2G3 b.c.

Alliance of Hiero with Rome ....

Decline of the Carthaginian poAver in Sicily .
Probable causes of the success of the Romans
Renewed efforts of the Carthaginians, 262 B.c.
The Romans besiege Agrigentum
Defeat of Hanno .......

Escape of the Carthaginian garrison under Hannibal
Historical value of the narrative ....

Extended designs of the Romans ....



PAGE

39
40
40
42
42
43
44
45
46
47
47
48
49



Second Period, 261-255 b.c. The first Roman fleet. MylcB.
Ecnomus. JRegulus in Africa.

Maritime supremacy of Carthage ...... 49

Determination of the Romans to cope with Carthage by .sea . 50
Late development of the Roman navy . . . . .51

The building of the fleet 52

Improbabilities of the story ....... 53

Composition of the Roman navy ...... 54

Capture of the fleet of Cn. Cornelius Scipio .... 55

Battle of Mylfß 55

Roman naval tactics . . . . . . . .57

Defeat of the Carthaginian.s . . . . . . .57

Relief of Segesta 58

Operations of Hamilcar 59

Destruction of Eryx by Hamilcar ..... 60

Victory of Hamilcar at Thermae 60

Renewed successes of tlie Romans . . . . .61

Expedition of Scipio to Corsica ...... (j2

Battle of Tvndaris . 64

Movements of the fleet under Regulus and Manlius Vulso . 65
Battle of Ecnomus . . . . . . . .65

Landing of the Romans on Carthaginian territory . . . ^)^

Ravages of the Roman army in Africa ..... 67

Exorbitant demands of Regulus as conditions of peace . . 69

Defeat of Regulus • . . . . . . .70

Victory of the Romans at the Hermrean promontory . . 71

Destruction of the Roman fleet off the coast of Sicily . . 72



Vlll



CONTENTS OF



Third Period, 254-250 b.c. The victory at Panormus



Capture of Panormus by Cn. Cornelius Scipio
Failure of the second Roman expedition to Africa
Exhaustion of both sides ....
Capture of Lipara by the Romans
Victory of the Romans at Panormus
Alleged mission of Carthaginian envoys to Rome
The story of Regulus .....
The silence of Polybius ....
Probable origin of the story



Fourth Period, 250-249 b.c. LilyhcBum and Drepana

Effects of the victory of Panormiis

Attack on Lilyba3um by the Romans .

Number of the besieging force ....

Duration of the siege ......

Modes of siege in ancient warfare
Obstinacy of the siege of Lilybasum
Movements of Adherbal and the Carthaginian fleet
Relief of Lilybseum by Hannibal ....

Unsuccessful attempt of Himilco to destroy the Roman works

Departure of Hannibal with his fleet

Capture of the Rhodian Hannibal

Distress of the garrison of Lily ba3um

Destruction of the Roman siege-works .

Perseverance of the Romans . . ■ .

Their special difliculties .....

The winter blockade ......

Defeat of Claudius Pulcher at Drepana

Dictatorslii]) of A. Atilius Calatinus

Alleged ])r()faiiity of Claudius ....

Energy of the Carthaginians ....

Destruction of the Roman fleet and transport ships under

L. Junius .......

Seizure of the temple of the Erycinian Venus by the consul

JuiiiuH .......

Capture (jf-Iiiiiius ]>y tlu! Carthaginians



PAGE

73

73
75

76
76
78
78
80
80



81

82
83
83
84
85
86
86
87
88
88
89
89
89
90
90
91
92
93
94

95

96
97



Fifth I'rriot/, 2I.S-241 B.C. Ilamilcar Barcas. Battle at the
ylCyatian Islands. Peace.

Ravage« of tlio ( Jarlhaginiaii fleet 97

Renewal of tlic alliaiic«' witli llicro ..... 99



THE SECOND VOLUME.



IX



Exchange of prisoners with Carthage .

Arrival of Ilamilcar Barcas ....

His treatment of tlie Gallic mercenaries

Operations of Ilamilcar ....

Occupation of Eryx by Hamilcar .

Sufferings of the Eoman allies

General impoverishment of the Roman state .

Tedious prolongation of the war .

Dispatch of Caius Lutatius Catulus with a fleet to Sicily

Defeat of the Carthaginians at the ^gatian Islands

Negotiations for peace .....

Position of the Romans at the close of the war

Embassies to Rome from foreign states .

Changes in the military institutions of Rome

Constitution of the Roman army .

Evil of annually elected generals .

The Roman navy .....

Constitution of the Carthaginian armies

The Carthaginian generals ....

Carthaginian inieriority at sea

Effect of the peace on the power of Carthage .



PAGK

99
99
100
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
106
107
107
108
110
110
112
112
114
114
115



CHAPTER IV.



THE WAR OP THE MEECENARIES, 241-238 B.C.



Revolt of the Carthaginian allies ....

Cause of the mutiny ......

Suppression of the mutiny .....

Conduct of the Romans .....

Revolt of the Carthaginian mercenaries in Sardinia
Interference of the Romans in Sardinia .
Surrender of Sardinia to the Romans ,



116
116
118
118
120
121
121



CHAPTER V.
THE WAR WITH THE GAULS, 225-222 B.C.



Destruction of Falerii .....
Gallic and Illyrian wars ....
Causes of the long inaction of the Gauls in Italy
The position of the Gallic tribes .



123
123
123
124



CONTENTS OF



Attack ou the colony of Arimiuum ....

Proposed extension of the colony .....

Agrarian law of Caius Flaminius .....

Conduct of the patricians to Flaminius ....

The great road of Flaminius .....

Movements among the Gallic tribes ....

Fears of the Eomans .......

March of the Gauls .......

Retreat of the Gauls from Clusium and battle of Telamon
Annihilation of the Gallic army .....

Devastation of the Boian territory by the consul yEmilius
Eesults of the battle of Telamon .....

Subjugation of the Insubrians .....



PAGE

124
125
126
127
127
127
128
129
129
131
132
133
134



CHAPTER VI.
THE FIKST ILLYKIAN WAR, 229-228 B.C.

Roman colonies on the Adriatic ...... 136

The pirates of Illyricum ....... 136

Roman embassy to Illyricum . . . . . .138

Successful Roman campaigns in Illyricum .... 139

CHAPTER VII.
THE SECOND ILLYRIAN AVAR, 219 B.C.

Alliance of Demetrius of Pharos with Antlgonus, king of

IMacedonia ......... 141

('a]iture of Pharos by TEmilius PauUus .... 141

Position of Rome after the Gallic and Illyriau Avars . . 142



CHAPTER VIII.
TIIK SKCOM) FUNIC OR HANNIBALIAN WAR, -JlS-üOl B.C.



FivKt Period. From the ber/innivf/ of the icar to the Lalite of
CaniKT', 218-216 b.c.
RoHults of tlic first Punic war .....

Eflbcts of tlie war on tlic internal constitution of Carthage
I'olicy of Ilaniilcar Barcas ......

I'h(fiiiciaii Hcttlt'iiicnts in Spain .....

IIa)ii(l [-rowlli of (Jartlia^Miiiaii ])(jwcr in Spain



143
143
145
115
116



THE SKGOND VOLUME.



XI



PAGE

Attitude of the Iloman state ...... 14G

Death of Hasdrubal 147

Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barcas ..... 147

Hatred of the Romans for Hannibal . . . . .141)

Real position of Hannibal as a Carthaginian general . .150
Resources of Carthage . . . . . . .152

Policy of the Romans in delaying the renewal of the war . 153
Alliance of Saguntum with Rome . , . . .154

Preparations of Hannibal ....... 154

Importance of Saguntum . . . . . . .155

Roman embassy to Hannibal . . . . . .156

Siege of Saguntum by Hannibal . . . . . .156

Second embassy of the Romans to the Cartluiginians . . 157
Character of the second Punic war ..... 158

Growth of an Italo -Roman nation . . . . .159

Gain to the conquered tribes ...... 159

Bui'dens of the Roman allies . . . . . .160

Population of Italy 160

Naval power of the Romans and Carthaginians . . .161
Alliance of the Carthaginians with the Gauls . . .162

Expected revolt of the Italian allies , . . . .163

Attitude of the Macedonian government .... 164

Provisions of Hannibal for the defence of Spain and Africa . 1 64
March of Hannibal from New Carthage, 218 b.c. . . .165

Landing of a Roman army at Massilia . . . . .166

Inadequate preparations of the Romans . . . .166

Rising of the Boian Gaiils ....... 167

Additional Roman levies . . . . . . .167

Voyage and march of Scipio . . . . . .168

Boldness and wisdom of Hannibal's plan . . . .170

Hannibal and the AUobrogians ...... 171

Passage of the Alps .171

Geographical controversies . . . . . . .173

March to the Little St. Bernard . .... 173

Hostility of the mountaineers ...... 175

Treachery of the Gauls . . . . . . .176

Descent of the Alps . . . . . . . .176

Condition of Hannibal's army ...... 177

Hannibal and the Taurinians . . . . . .179

Alleged device of Hannibal for the encouragenicut of his

soldiers ........ . 180

March and defeat of Scipio . . . . . . .180

Passage of the Trebia ........ 181

Attitude of the Gallic tribes . . . . . .182



XU



CONTENTS OF



Movement of the Roman army to the left bank of the Trebia

Operations of Sempronius in Sicily

Zeal of King Hiero .....

Junction of Sempronius with Scipio

Preparations for the battle of the Trebia

Tactics of Hannibal .....

Defeat of the Romans .....

Retreat of Scipio to Placentia

Success and ability of Hannibal .

Effects of Hannibal's victory

Hannibal's treatment of his prisoners .

Winter operations of Hannibal

Unsuccessful attempt of Hannibal to cross the Apennines

Operations in Spain .....

Defeat of Hanno by Scipio ....

Alarm in the city of Rome on the tidings of Hannibal's victory

at the Trebia .....
Opposition to Flaminius ....
Efforts to prevent the re-election of Flaminius
Flaminius elected consul ....
Marches of the two consuls ....
Lliscalculation of the Romans
March of the Carthaginians ....
Movements of Hannibal towards Rome .
Movements of Flaminius ....
Reasons for the censures passed upon Flaminius
Charges brought against Flaminius
Disposition of Hannibal's forces .
'I'he battle of the Thrasymene lake
Dismay in the city of Rome on the tidings of the battle

Defeat of Centenius

Firnmcss of the Roman senate
Prodictatorship of Q. Fabius Maximus .
Military measures of Fabius
Greatness of the emergency ....

Plans of Haimibal .....

The Cartliaginians in Picenum

Adojitif)!! of the Roman arms

iv.xultation at Carthage ....

The fidelity of the Roman allies .

Roman firmness ......

Ii'oman Icvie« ......

Tactics of Fabius in Aj)ulia

KvcIiIm ill r;ilii|(;uiia .....



PAGE

182
183
184
185
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194

194
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203
204
205
205
207
207
210
210
211
212
213
213
214
215
216
216
217
218
219
219
220



THE SECOND VOLUME.



PAGE

Dissatisfaction of the Komana with Fal)ius .... 222

The military power sliared eqriaUy between the dictator and

the master of the iiorse ...... 223

Defeat of Minucius ........ 224

Effects of the policy of Fabius 224

Spirit of the Roman senate ....... 225

Operations of Cn. Scipio in Spain . . . . .226

Dispatch of reinforcements for Spain ..... 227

Civil dissensions at Rome ....... 228

Enrolment of a new Roman army ...... 229

Question of supplies ........ 230

Position of the Roman army ...... 231

Defects of Roman military usage ...... 231

Movements of the consul jEmilius ..... 232

State of feeling in Rome ....... 233

The battle-field of Cannaj 234

Disposition of the Carthaginian army ..... 235

Defeat of the Roman cavalry ...... 236

Destruction of the Roman infantry ..... 236

Capture of the Roman camps ...... 237

Effects of the battle of Canute 238

Causes assigned by popular writers for the Roman defeat . 239

The Roman allies ........ 240

Disposition of Hannibal toAvards the Romans . . .240

Danger of the Roman city . . . . . . .241

Precautions of the senate ....... 241

Military measures for carrying on the war .... 242

Second Period. From the battle of Canna.' to the Revolution
in Syracuse, 216-215 b.c.

Position of Hannibal in Italy ...... 244

The histories of Polybius ....... 244

Religious ceremonies at Rome ...... 246

Drain of the war on the population of Italy .... 247

New levies of the dictator M. Junius Pera .... 249

Refusal of the Romans to ransom the prisoners taken at Canna; 249

Roman slanders against Hannibal . . . . . . 251

Position of Hannibal after the battle of Cannai . . . 253

Reasons for Hannibal's hesitation to march upon Rome . . 254

Policy of Hannibal ........ 254

Overtures of Hannibal to the Roman allies .... 255

Fidelity of the allies to Rome 255

Revolts in Bruttium and Campania ..... 256

Change in the character of the war 257



XIV



CONTENTS OF



Eesolution of the Carthaginians to reinforce Hannibal

The Avar in Spain .....

Further revolts among the Eoman allies

Condition of Capua .....

Disposition of the plebeians of Capua towards Hannibal

Eevolt of Capua, Atella, and Calatia

The resistance of Decius Magius to Hannibal

Story of Pacuvius Calavius ....

Occupation of Nola by the prastor Marcellus .

Occupation of Nuceria and Acerr^e by Hannibal

Siege of Casilinum .....

Prospects of the war .....

Hannibal's Italian allies ....

Defeat of Hasdrubal at Ibera in Spain .

State of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily

Defeat of Postumius Albinus in Cisalpine Gaul

Further revolts of Eoman allies in Bruttium

Sojourn of Hannibal in Capua

Operations in Campania, 215 b.c.

Defeat of the Carthaginians at lUiturgi and Intibili in Sp?

215 B.c

Success of the Eomans in Sardinia

Alliance of Philip of Macedonia with Hannibal

Mistaken policy of Philip ....



Third Period. The War in Sicilij, 215

Death of Hiero, king of Syracuse

Character of Hiero's reign ....

Eelations of Hiero with Eome and Carthage .
Effects of Eoman supremacy in Sicily .
Ee-constitution of the Eoman senate
Financial difliculties .....

Financial mea.sures .....

Commission of the year 21G b.c. .
Sumptuary laws ......

Amount of the Eoman levies

Eecovory of Casilinum, and repulse of Hannibal a

Eevolution in Sicily .....

Negotiations b(!twfeu IIannil)al and Hieronymus

Eepublican rcactir)n in Syracuse .

Death of Hieronymus .....

Surrender of Ortygia by Andranodoros.
Massacre of the fiimily (if II icro .



212 B.c.



Nol



PACE

257
258
258
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
•265
267
267
268
269
271
271
272
273

275
276
276

278



280
281
282
284
285
288
289
289
290
290
291
292
293
294
294
295
296



THE SECOND VOLUME.



XV



Counter revolution in Syracuse ....

Triumph of the Carthaprinian party at Syracuse
INIarch of Marcellus to Syx'acuse ....

Military resources of Syracuse ....

Failiu-e of the attempts of IMarcellus to storm Syracuse
Carthaginian operations in Sicily ....

Massacre of the inhabitants of Enna by L. Pinarius
Eesults of the massacre .....

Siege of Syracuse by Marcellus ....

Anarchy in Syracuse ......

Treachery of Mericus ......

Fall and sack of Syracuse .....



PAGE

297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
309
310
310



Fourth Period. From the talcing of Syracuse to the
capture of Capua ^ 212-211 b.c.

Surrender of Agrigentum by Mutines, and complete sul^jugation

of Sicily " . 313

Events in Spain and Africa . . . . . . .314

Employment of mercenaries in Spain ..... 316

Defeat and death of the ScijDios . . . . . .316

Operations of Hannibal in southern Italy . . . .318

Dishonesty of Roman contractors . . . . . .319

Trial of M. Posturaius Pyrgensis . . . . . .319

Condemnation of Postumius and his accomplices . . . 320

Eoman civic morality ........ 321

Growth of superstition in Rome . . . . . .321

Levying of new legions ....... 322

Surrender of Tarentum to Hannibal ..... 323

Proclamation of Hannibal to the Tarentines . . . 324

Siege of the citadel of Tarentum ...... 325

Alliance of other Greek cities Avith Hannilml . . . 326

Roman designs against Capua ...... 326

Condition of Capua . . . . . . . .327

Request of the Capuans to Hannibal for supplies . . . 328

Capture of the convoys for Capua by the Romans . , . 328
Defeat and death of Sempronius Gracchus . . . .329

Total defeat of Fulvius in Apulia ...... 330

Relative position of Hannibal and the Romans . , . 330

Resolution of the Roman people ...... 331

Siege of Capua . . . . . . . . .331

Resistance of the Capuans ....... 332

Internal condition of Capua ....... 333

Attempts of Hannibal to relieve Capua .... 333

iNIarch of Hannibal towards Rome .... - 335



XVI



CONTENTS OF



Dismay of the Romans
Measures of the senate
Eetreat of Hannibal irom Eome .
Fall of Capua ....
Treatment of Capua by the Romans
Execution of Capuans at Rome
Explanation of Roman policy



Change in the character of the war
Dispatch of Roman reinforcements to Spain
Early life of Publius Cornelius Scipio .
Family influence of the Scipios in Rome
Character of Scipio ....

Departure of Scipio for Spain

Plans of Scipio .....

Siege and capture of New Carthage
Roman regulations for the sack of towns
Disposal of the booty ....

Plunder of New Carthage .
Personal anecdotes of Scipio
Effects of the fall of New Carthage
Disposition of the Italian towns .
Difliculties of Hannibal's position
Betrayal ol" Salapia to Marcellus .
Defeat of Cn. Fulvius Centumalus at Herdonea
Destruction of Herdonea by Hannibal .
Operations of Marcellus
Defeat of the Roman fleet by the Tarentines
Pressure of the war on the Romans
Refusal of twelve Latin colonies to contribute men and
for the war .....

Seriousness of the crisis

Fidelity of the remaining eighteen Latin colonics .

Roman preparations for the re-conquest of Tarentum

Of)(:rations of Fabius and Marcellus

C!;iptiirn (A' the Roman army before Caulonia by Hannil

lictruyul of Tarentum to tlic Romans .

Position of Hannibal after tlic fall of Tarentum

Fifth consulship (if Marcil his ....

Death of Marcellus ......

Character and ability of Marcellus

Source of tlic exaggerations in the story of Marcellus



money



PAOB

336
337
338
340
341
343
345



Fifth Period. From the fall of Capua to the battle on the
Metaurus, 211-207 b.c.



346
346
347
348
350
351
351
352
354
354
354
356
357
358
358
358
359
360
360
361
362

363
363
364
366
367
367
368
369
370
371
371
374



THE SECOND VOLUME



XVll



I'AtiE

lu'iising of the siege of Locri ...... 875

Prospects of the Romans 375

Discontent in Etruria 37G

Events in Spain ......... 378

Battle of Ba?cula and march of Hasdrubal . . . .379

Anxiety in liome . . . . . . . . 3<S1

Military measiires of the Romans ..... 383

Consulship of C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius Salinator . 383

Ilasdrubal's march through Gaul ...... 385

Movements of Hannibal ....... 386

Capture of the messengers of Hasdrubal .... 387

March of Nero 388

Battle of the Metaurus 389

Effect of the victory on the Romans ..... 391

Plans of Hannibal 393

Triumjih of the consuls . . . . . . .393

Sixth Period. From the battle on the Metmiriis to the taking
ofLocri, 207-205 b.c.

Character of Carthaginian and Roman conquests in Spain . 394

Alleged exploits of Scipio in Spain . • . . . . 396

Popularity of Scipio in Spain ...... 397

Magnificence and power of Scipio ..... 399

Capture of Oringis by the Romans ..... 400

Second battle of Btecula ....... 401

Overtures of Masinissa to Scipio ...... 401

Relations of Scipio with Syphax ...... 402

Alleged meeting of Scipio with Syphax .... 403

Story of the funeral games at New Carthage . . . 404

Storming of Illiturgi ........ 405

Destruction of Astapa ........ 406

Illness of Scipio and mutiny of troops ..... 406

Defeat of Mandonius and Indibilis ..... 407

FallofGades . . . 407

Significance of the battle of the Metaurus .... 409

Policy of Philip of Macedon . . . . . .409

Condition of the Greek states ...... 410

League between the vEtolians and the Romans . . .411
Effects of the league with the iE tolians . . . .412

War between the /Etolians and Philip of Macedonia . . 412

Return of Scipio to Rome ....... 414

Debates on the expedition to Africa . . . . .415

Position of Hannibal 417

Compromise between Scipio and the senate .... 417
VOL. II. a



CONTENTS OF



Voluntary contributions for the Meet and army of Scipio
State of the Roman troops .......

Surprise and capture of Locri ......

Atrocities of the Roman soldiers after the capture of Locri
Measui-es of the Roman senate and people on the complaints

of the Locrians ...
Preparations of Scipio for the descent on Africa
Expedition of Mago from xMinorca
Embarkation of Scipio at Lilybseum
Landing of Scipio in Africa

Seventh Period. The War in Africa to the Conclusion of
Peace, 204-201 b.c.



PAGE

418
419
420
421



Character of tlie war in Africa

Plans of Scipio .....

Siege of Utica .....

Vigorous resistaaice of the Uticans

Alliance of Masinissa with Scipio

Destruction of the African camps

Defeat of Hasdi-ubal and Syphax .

Capture of Syphax by Masinissa .

Defeat of Scipio's fleet by the Carthaginians

Negotiations for peace ....

Conditions of the armistice .

Reception of the Carthaginian ambassadors at Rome

Recall and death of Mago

Relations of Hannibal with the king of Maced

The bronze tablets of Hannibal .

Slanderous charges against Hannibal .

Recall of Hannibal from Italy

Landing of Hannibal at Leptis

Failure of the peace negotiations .

Shipwreck of a Roman convoy in the liay of Carth

Operations of Hannibal against Masinissa

The so-called battle of Zama

Disposition of the opposing forces,

Tlie order of the Roman legions .

C()nii)k!te defeat of tlic Carthaginians

licturn of llamiilial to Carthage .

I'olicy of Scipio .....

State of parties in Carthage

'I'l-rniH oC peace .....

'J'rufC! for three nionlhs

.loy ill Rcme on the tidings of Scipio's victojy



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Online LibraryW. (Wilhelm) IhneThe history of Rome (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 47)