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to Damascus, cf. also Acts xxvi. 17) with that of the elder
Apostles.

On the relation of K\r]r6s to fieXeKrSs see Lft. on Col. iii. la. There is

a diflerence between the usage of the Gospels and Epistles. In the Gospels
KXrjToi are all who are invited to enter Christ's kingdom, whether or not they
accept the mvitation ; the iK\(KToi are a smaller group, selected to special
honour (Matt. xxii. 14). In St. Paul both words are applied to the
same persons; kKtjtos implies that the call has been not only given but
obeyed.

d'ir<5aToXos. It is well known that this word is used in two
senses ; a narrower sense in which it was applied by our Lord
Himself to the Twelve (Luke vi. 13 ; INlark iii. 14 v.l.), and a wider
in which it includes certainly Barnabas (Acts xiv. 4, 14) and
probably James, the Lord's brother (Gal. i. 19), Andronicus and
Junias (Rom. xvi 7), and many others (cf. i (Ilor. xii. 28; Eph.
iv. 11; DidacM \\, xii, &c. ; also esp. Lightfoot, Gal. p. 92 ff.;
Harnack m I'exte u. Untersuch. ii. 1 1 1 ff.). Strictly speaking
St. Paul could only claim to be an Apostle in the wider accepta-
li&r. of the term ; he lays stress, however, justly on the fact that he is
•tX^ror oTTOffroXoy, i. e. noi merely an Apostle by virtue of possessing



I. 1.] THE APOSTOLIC SALUTATION 5

such qualifications as are described in Acts i. 21, 22, but through
a direct intervention of Christ. At the same time it should be
remembered that St. Paul lays stress on this fact not with a view
to personal aggrandizement, but only with a view to commend his
Gospel with the weight which he knows that it deserves.

d<|>u)picrfxeVos : in a double sense, by God (as in Gal. i. 15) and
by man (Acts xiii. 2). The first sense is most prominent here ; or
rather it includes the second, which marks the historic fulfilment of
the Divine purpose. The free acceptance of the human commis-
sion may enable us to understand how there is room for free will
even in the working out of that which has been pre-ordained by
God (see below on ch. xi). And yet the three terms, 8ov\ns,
kXtjtos, d(pQ}pi.(Tfievos, all serve to emphasize the essentially Scriptural
doctrine that human ministers, even Apostles, are but instruments
in the hand of God, with no initiative or merit of their own.

This conception is not confined to the Canonical Books : it is found also
in Assump. Mays. i. 14 itaque excogitavit et invcnit me, qui ab initio orbis
terrarum praeparatus sum, ut si in arbiter testamenti illitis.

6is euayYAioc ©ecu. The particular function for which St. Paul
is 'set apart' is to preach the Gospel of God. The Gospel is
sometimes described as ' of God ' and sometimes ' of Christ' (e. g.
iMark i. i). Here, where the thought is of the gradual unfolding
in time of apian conceived in eternity, * of God' is the more appro-
priate. It is probably a mistake in these cases to restrict the force
of the gen. to one particular aspect (' the Gospel of which God
is the author,' or ' of which Christ is the subject ') : all aspects are
included in which the Gospel is in any way related to God and
Christ.

fXiorf^Oww. The fundamental passage for the use of this word
appears to be INIark i. 14, 15 (cf. Matt. iv. 23). We cannot doubt
that our Lord Himself described by this term (or its Aramaic
equivalent) His announcement of the arrival of the Messianic
Time. It does not appear to be borrowed directly from the LXX
(where the word occurs in all only two [or three] times, and once for
' the reward of good tidings ' ; the more common form is (vayyiK'ia).
It would seem, however, that there was some influence from the
rather frequent use (twenty times) of evayyfX/ffti/, ilnyytVit^taQax.,
especially in Second Isaiah and the Psalms in connexion with the
news of ihe Great Deliverance or Restoration from the Captivity.
A conspicuous passage is Isa. Ixi. i, which is quoted or taken as
a text in Luke iv. 18. The group of words is well established in
Synoptic usage (evnYyeXio]-, Matthew four times, Mark eight, Acts
two ; evayyfXiCfa-dcu, Matthew one, Luke ten, Acts fifteen). It
evidently took a strong hold on the imagination of St. Paul in
connexion with his own call to mi^sionary labours {tvayyiXiov sixty



6 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 1-S.

times in Epp. Paul, besides in Epp. and Apoc. only twice ; tvay.
ytki^foQai twenty times in Epp. Paul., besides once mid. seven times
pass.). The disparity between St. Paul and the other N. T. writers
outside Evv. Synopt. Acts is striking. The use of (vayyeXiov for
a Book lies beyond our limits (Sanday, Bamp. Lect. p. 3i7«.)i
the way is prepared for it by places like Maik i. i ; Apoc. xiv. 6.

2. TrpoeirTjYYClXaTO. The words eTj-ayyeXla, tnayyiXXfo-dai OCCUr

several times in LXX, but not in the technical sense of the great
' promises ' made by God to His people. The first instance of

this use is I^S. Sol. Xii. 8 koI oo-tot Kvpiov Kkrjpovofjifjaaifv enayyfXias
Kvpiov : of. vii. 9 tov iXf^crai tov oikov 'la/cwjS fls ^juepav eV »; emjyyflXcj
avTois, and Xvii. 6 oi? ovk (trrjyydXa), peTO. /3('as ac^fi'Xoi/ro : a grOUp of

passages which is characteristic of the attitude of wistful expecta-
tion in the Jewish people during the century before the Birth of
Christ. No wonder that the idea was eagerly seized upon by the
primitive Church as it began to turn the pages of the O. T. and to
find one feature after another of the history of its Founder and of
its own history foretold there.

We notice that in strict accordance with what we may believe to have been
the historical sequence, neither (irayjeXta nor tnayytWiaeat (in the technical
sense) occur in the Gospels until we come to Luke xxiv. 49, where eiray-
yeXia is used of the promised gift of the Holy Spirit ; but we no sooner cross
over to the Acts thin the use becomes frequent. The words cover (i) the
promises made by Christ, in particular the promise of the Holy Spirit (which
is referred to the Father in Acts i, 4) ; so tnayyeXia three times in the Acts,
Gal. iii. 14, and Eph. i. 13 ; i^ii) the promises of the O T. fulfilled in Chris-
tianity; so inayyeXia four times in Acts (note esp. Acts xiii. 32, xxvi. 6),
some eight times each in Rom. and Gal., both errayye\La and firayye\Xfa6ai
repeatedly in Heb., &c. ; (iii~) in a yet wider sense of promises, whether as yet
fnlfiUed or unfulfilled, e.g. 2 Cor. i. 20 oaai yap inayyiXiai &iov (cf. vii. l) ;
I Tim. iv. 8 ; 2 Tim. i. i ; 2 PeL iii. 4 ^ inayytXia rijs vapovaias avrov.

iv ypa<f>ais dyiais : perhaps the earliest extant instance of the use
of this phrase (Philo prefers Upal ypa(f)at, lepat /3('/3Xot, 6 Up6s X6yns ;
cf. Sanday, Bavip. Lect. p. 72); but the use is evidently well estab-
lished, and the idea of a collection of authoritative books goes
back to the prologue to Ecclus. In ypacpaii Aylais the absence of
the art. throws the stress on iyims ; the books are ' holy ' as con-
taining the promises of God Himself, written down by inspired

men (Sta to)v tt/joc^jjtwj' avTOv).

3. yeyoiiivoii. This is contrasted with opiadevros, yevnpevov denot-
ing, as usually, ' transition from one state or mode of subsistence
to another' {Sp. Comm. on i Cor. i. 30) ; it is rightly paraphrased
' [Who] was born,* and is practically equivalent to the Johannean

fXdoVTOS (Is TOV KOCTflOV.

Ik oTT^pfiaxos AaPi'S. For proof that the belief in the descent of
the Messiah from David was a living belief see Mark xii. 35 ff.

wms Xfyovaiv oi ypappart'is oti 6 Xpia-ros vios (<tti Aafild J (cf. Mark



I. 3, 4.] THE APOSTOLIC SALUTATION 7

xi. lo and x. 47 f.) : also Ps. Sol. xvii. 23 ff. i'Se, Kvpit, koI dvda-trjcrot

avToli Tov j3aaiKea avrwv vlov Anvld fls rov Knipov ov oi^ns crv, 6 GfOf, roC
/SacrtXfOorai eVi 'lapafjX irai^d aov k.t.X, ; 4 Ezra xii. 32 (in three of the
extant versions, Syr. Arab. Armen.); and the Talmud and Targums
(passages in Weber, Alisym. Theol. p. 341). Our Lord Himself
appears to have made little use of this title : he raises a difficulty
about it (]\Tark xii. 35-37 ll). But this verse of Ep. to Romans
shows that Christians early pointed to His descent as fulfilling one
of the conditions of Wessiahship ; similarly 2 Tim. ii. 8 (where the
assertion is made a part of St. Paul's ' Gospel ') ; Acts ii. 30 ; Heb.
vii. 14 'it is evident that our Lord hath sprung out of Judah' (see
also Eus. H. E. L vii. 17, Joseph and Mary from the same tribe).
Neither St. Paul nor the Acts nor Epistle to Hebrews defines more
nearly how the descent is traced. For this we have to go to
the First and Third Gospels, the early chapters of which embody
wholly distinct traditions, but both converging on this point. There
is good reason to think that St. Luke i, ii had assumed substan-
tially its present shape before a.d. 70 (cf. Swete, Apost. Creed,
p. 49).

In Test. XII. Patriarch, we find the theory of a double descent from Levi
and from Judah (Sym. 7 i^vaaTTiQH '^d.p Kvpios f/e tov Afvei ws dpxifpfa Kal (k
TOV 'lovSa ws ^affi\ea, &edv leal avOpanrov : Gad. 8 oircyy Tip-qauaw 'lov^av Kal
Afvei' oTi f^ avTwv dvareku Kvpios, aaiTTjp t^ 'laparjX. &c. ; cf. Hamack's
note, Pair. Apost. i. 52). Tliis is no doubt an inference from the relationship
of the Mother of our Lord to Elizabeth (Luke i. 36).

Kara aapxa . . . Kara irveuixa are opposed to each other, not as
' human ' to * divine,' but as ' body ' to ' spirit/ both of which in
Christ are human, though the Holiness which is the abiding pro-
perty of His Spirit is something more than human. See on Kcna

TTVevp. dyiQ)(r. below.

4. 6pto-0eVTos : ' designated.' It is usual to propose for this
word an alternative between (i) ' proved to be,' * marked out as
being ' {8eix6epTos, divo<^av6(VTos Chrys.), and (ii) ' appointed,' ' in-
stituted,' ' installed,* in fact and not merely in idea. For this latter
sense (which is that adopted by most modern commentators) the
parallels are quoted, Acts x. 42 ovt6s ia-Tiv 6 i)piap.ivos vno tov Qeov

KpiTTjs ^u>VT(ov Kal v(Kpu)Vj and xvii. 31 fieWei Kplviiv . . . iv a.vhp\ c3

wptffc. The word itself does not determine the meaning either
way : it must be determined by the context. But here the particular
context is also neutral; so that we must look to the wider context
of St. Paul's teaching generally. Now it is certain that St. Paul
did not hold that the Son of God becarne Son by the Resurrection.
The undoubted Epistles are clear on this point (esp. 2 Cor. iv. 4 ;
viii. 9 ; cf. Col. i. 15-19). At the same time he did regard the
Resurrection as making a difference — if not in the transcendental
relations of the Father to the Son (which lie beyond our cogni-



8 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [I. 4.

sance), yet in the visible manifestation of Sonship as addressed to
the undei standing of men (of. esp. Phil. ii. 9 816 koL 6 9f6y airov

{rn(pvy^(i)(Tt, Kai €;^(ip/craTO aurw to ovonn to vntfi niiv ovofin). This is

sufTicienily expressed by our word ' designated,' which might
perhaps with advantage also be used in the two places in the Acts.
It is true that Christ becomes Judge in a sense in which He does
not become Son ; but He is Judge too not wholly by an external
creation but by an inherent right. The Divine declaration, as it
were, endorses and proclaim.^ that right.

The Latin versions are not very helpful. The common rendering was
praedestinatits (so expressly Rnfinus [Orig.-lat.] ad loc; cf. Introd. § 7).
Hilars of Poitiers has destinatus, which Rufinus also prefers. TertuUian
reads definitus.

ulou ©eou. ' Son of God,' like * Son of Man,' was a recognized
title of the Messiah (cf. Enoch cv. 2 ; 4 Ezra vii. 28, 29 ; xiii. 32,
37, 52 ; xiv. 9, in all which places the Almighty speaks of the
Messiah as ' My Son,' though the exact phrase ' Son of God ' does
not occur). It is remarkable that in the Gospels we very rarely
find it used by our Lord Himself, though in face of Matt, xxvii. 43,
John X. 36, cf. Matt. xxi. 37 f. al., it cannot be said that He did
not use it. It is more often used to describe the impression made
upon others (e.g. the demonized, Mark iii. 11, v. 7 || ; the cen-
turion, Mark XV. 39 i|), and it is implied by the words of the
Tempter (Matt. iv. 3, 6 ||) and the voice from heaven (Mark
i. II II, ix. 711). The crowning instance is the confession of
St. Peter in the version which is probably derived from the Logta,
' Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God,' INIatt. xvi. 16. It
is consistent with the whole of our Lord's method that He should
have been thus reticent in putting forward his own claims, and that
He should have left them to be inferred by the free and spon-
taneous working of the minds of His disciples. Nor is it sur- '
prising that the title should have been chosen by the Early Church
to express its sense of that which was transcendent in the Person of
Christ: see esp. the common text of the Gospel of St. Mark, i. i (where
the words, if nut certainly genuine, in any case are an extremely
early addition), and this passage, the teaching of which is very
direct and explicit. The further history of the term, with its
strengthening addition fiovnye'^qi, may be followed in Swete, Apost.
Creed, p. 24 ff., where recent attempts to restrict the Sonship of
Christ to His earthly manifestation are duly weighed and discussed.
In this passage we have seen that the declaration of Sonship dates
from the Resurrection : but we have also seen that St. Paul re-
garded the Incarnate Christ as existing before His Incarnation ;
and it is as certain that when he speaks of Him as o i'Stor vi'os
(Rom. viii. 32), 6 eauroC v\6% (viii. 3), he intends to cover the period
of pre-existcnce, as that St. John identifies the /[ioi/oycrr}s- with the



I 4]



THE APOSTOLIC SALUTATION



pre-existent Logos. There is no sufficient reason to think that
the Early Church, so far as it reflected upon these terms, under-
stood them differently.

There are three moments to each of which are applied with variations the
words of Ps. ii. 7 ' Thou art my Son ; this day have 1 begotten thee' They
are (i) the Baptism (Mark i. 1 1 ||) ; (ii) the Transfiguration (Mark ix. 7 ||) ;
(iii) the Resurrection (Acts xiii. 33). We can see here the origin of the tbio-
nite idea of proo^ressive exaltation, which is however held in check by the
doctrin; of the Logos in both its forms, Pauline (2 Cor, iv. 4, &c., ut sup.)
and Johannean (John i. i ff.). The moments in question are so many steps
in the passage through an eaithly life of One who came forth from God and
' returned to God, not stages in the gradual deification of one who began his
career as ipi\us dvOpanros.

iv Sucdp,6i : not with vlov GfoO, as Weiss, Lips, and others, ' Son
of God t'n power,' opposed to the present state of humiliation, but
rather adverbially, qualifying opio-^eVror, 'declared with might to be
Son of God.' The Resurrection is regarded as a 'miracle' or
' signal manifestation of Divine Power.' Comp. e?p. 2 Cor. xiii. 4
(aravpoidrj e^ daBei'tias, dWa (jj (k dvidfifcos Qfoi. This parallel de-
termines the connexion of eV ^w.

Kara ■nveO}i.a dYtwo-ut'Tjs : not (i) =: ni'eiifia"Ayiov, the Third Person
in the Trinity (as the Patristic writers generally and some moderns),
because the antitliesis of (rdp^ and nvevfia requires that they shall
be in the same person ; nor (ii), with Beng. and other moderns
(even Lid.) = the Divine Nature in Christ as if the Human Nature
were coextensive with the odp^ and the Divine Nature were co-
extensive with the TTVfvpn, which would be very like the error of
Apollinaris; but (iii) the human irvfifia, like the human a-dp^,
distinguished however from that of ordinary hummity by an
exceptional and transcendent Holiness (cf. Heb. ii. 17; iv. 15 'it
behoved Him in all tilings to be made like unto His brethren . .
yet without sin').

ayicoawi], not fotind in profane literature, occurs three times in LXX of
the Psalms, not always in agreement with JrJeb. (Pss. xcv. 6 [xcvi. 6
'strength']; xcvi. 13 [xcvii. 12 'holy name,' lit. * memoiial'] ; cxliv. 5
[cxlv. 5 'honour']). In all three places it is used of the Divine ntfribute;
but in 2 Mace. iii. 12 we have 7 toi; tvttov ayiojovvr}. In Tesi. XII. Patr.
Levi 18 the. identical phrase -nvivfx. dyiaia. occurs of the saints in Paradise.
The passage is Christian in its character, but may belong to the oiiginal
work and is in any case probably early. If so, the use of the phrase is so
different from that in the text, that the presumption would be that it was not
coined for the first time by St. Paul. The same instance would show that
the phrase does not of itself and alone necessarily implv divinity. The
■wvfvfjia aytwavvrjs, though not the Divine nature, is that in which ihe Divinity
or Divine Personality resided. The clear definition of this point was one of
the last results of the Christological contioversies of the fifth and sixth
centuries (Loofs, Dogmengesch. § 39, 3). For ayiwa. see on aywi ver. 7.

e§ dmo-Taaecos feitpwi' : a remarkable phrase as applied to Christ.
His was not a ' resurrection of dead persons' (' ajenrisynge of dead



iO EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 4, 5.

men' Wic.) but of a single dead person. We might expect rather
vfKpov or fK vfKpwv (as in i Pel. i. 3) ; and it is probable that this
form is only avoided because of f^ dmaTcia-ecos coming just before.
But viKpav coalesces closely in meaning with avaar., so as to give it
very much the force of a compound word, ' by a dead-rising '
{Todlenaufers/ehung), ' a resurrection such as that when dead per-
sons rise.' Christ is 'the first-born from the dead' (Col. i, 18).

Tou Kopiou ruiuv. Although in O. T. regularly applied to God
as equivalent of Adonai, Jahveh, this word does not in itself
necessarily involve Divinity. The Jews applied it to their Messiah

(Mark xii. 36, 37 II ; Ps. Sol. Xvii. 36 ^aaiXfvs avrav xpto^Tos KVpios)

without thereby pronouncing Him to be ' God ' ; they expressly
distinguished between the Messiah and the Menira or ' Word ' of
Jehovah (Weber, Alisyn. Theol. p. 178). On the lips of Christians
Kuptos denotes the idea of ' Sovereignty,' primarily over themselves
as the society of believers (Col. i. 18, &c.), but also over all creation
(Phil. ii. 10, II ; Col. i. i6, 17). The title was given to our Lord
even in His lifetime (John xiii. 13 'Ye call me, Master (6 StSa-
tr/caXoy), and, Lord (6 Kj'pioy) : and ye say well ; for so I am '), but
without a full consciousness of its significance : it was only after
ihe Resurrection that the Apostles took it to express their central
Delief (Phil. ii. 9 ff., &c.).

5. ^Xdpojxei'. The best explanation of the plur. seems to be that
St. Paul associates himself with the other Apostles.

X<ipis is an important word with a distinctively theological use
and great variety of meaning: (i) objectively, 'sweetness,' 'at-
tractiveness,' a sense going back to Homer [Od. viii. 175); Ps. xlv.

(xliv.) 3 f$fX^^V X'^P'f *" X*'^^*'"' '^°^ ' Eccl. X. 1 2 \6yot aroparos

(To<^ov xa.pi<i : Luke iv. 22 Aoyoi ;^a/)iT09 : (2) subjectively 'favour,'
' kindly feeling,' 'good will,' especially as shown by a superior
towards an inferior. In Eastern despotisms this personal feeling
on the part of the king or chieftain is most important : hence
fvpelv x^P'" is the commonest form of phrase in the O. T. (Gen.
vi. 8 ; xviii. 3, &c.) ; in many of these passages (esp. in anthropo-
morphic scenes where God is represented as holding colloquy
with man) it is used of ' finding favour' in the sight of God. Thus
the word comes to be used (3) of the 'favour' or 'good will'
of God; and that (a) generally, as in Zech. xii. 10 (kx^w . . nvfvfia
X'ipiTos Koi olKTipfiov, but far more commonly in N. T. (Luke ii. 4c ,
John i. 14, 16, &c.); (i3) by a usage which is specially characteristic
of St. Paul (though not confined to him), with opposition to
64>eiXT]pa, ' debt' (Rom. iv. 4), and to tpya, ' works' (implying merit,
Rom. xi. 6), ' unearned favour ' — with stress upon the fact that
it is unearned, and therefore as bestowed not ujjon the righteous
but on sinners (cf. esp, Rom. v. 6 with v. 2). In this sense the
word takes a prominent place in the vocabulary of Justification,



I. 5.] THE APOSTOLIC SALUTATION U

(4) The cause being put for the effect x«P'r denotes (a) * the state
of grace or favour' which the Christian enjoys (Rom. v. 2), or
(0), hke xap^ff^", ariy particular gift or gifts of grace {nXf)pr]s xa/j"'<'«
Acts vi. 8). We note however that the later technical use, esp.
of the Latin gratia, for the Divine prompting and help which
precedes and accompanies right action does not correspond exactly
to the usage of N. T. (5) As xapis or 'kindly feeling' in the
donor evokes a corresponding xa'p'f or ' gratitude * in the recipient,
it comes to mean simply 'thanks' (i Cor. x. 30).

X<4pi>' here = that general favour which the Ap. shares with all
Christians and by virtue of which he is one ; diroaToXr]!' = the more
peculiar gifts of an Apostle.

We observe that St. Paul regards this spiritual endowment as
conferred upon him by Christ (Si' ol) — we may add, acting through
His Spirit, as the like gifts are described elsewhere as proceeding
from the Spirit (i Cor. xii, &c.).

els uiraKOTji' iriffTews : may be rendered with Vulg. ad obediendiim
fidei provided that nlar. is not hardened too much into the sense
which it afterwards acquired of a 'body of doctrine' (with art.
Tj) TTio-Tfi Jude 3). At this early date a body of formulated doctrine,
though it is rapidly coming to exist, does not still exist : Trlans
is still, what it is predominantly to St. Paul, the lively act or impulse
of adhesion to Christ. In confessing Christ the lips ' obey ' this
impulse of the heart (Rom. x. 10). From another point of view,
going a step further back, we may speak of ' obeying the Gospel '
(Rom. X. 16). Faith is the act of assent by which the Gospel is
appropriated. See below on ver. 17.

Iv irao-i Tots eGt'ecrii'. Gif. argues for the rendering 'among all
nalions ' on the ground that a comprehensive address is best suited
to the opening of the Epistle, and to the proper meaning of the
phrase ndvTa ra fdfr) (cf. Gen. xviii. 18, &c.). But St. Paul's com-
mission as an Apostle was specially to the Gentiles (Gal. ii. 8), and it
is more pointed to tell the Roman Christians that they thus belong
to his special province (ver. 6), than to regard them merely as one
among the mass of nations. This is also clearly the sense in which
rile word is used in ver, 13. Cf. Hort, Rom. and Eph. p. 21 f.

oTTep Tou ik^naxos afirou. This is rather more than simply * for
His glory.' The idea goes back to the O. T. (Ps. cvi. [cv.] 8 ;
Ezek. XX. 14; Mai. i. 11). The Name of God is intimately
connected with the revelation of God. Israel is the instrument or
minister of that revelation; so that by the fidelity of Israel the
revelation itself is made more impressive and commended in the
eyes of other nations. But the Chrisdan Church is the new Israel :
and hence the gaining of fresh converts and their fidelity when
gained serves in like maimer to commend the further revelation
made of God in Christ {avTov, cf. Acts v. 41 ; Phil. ii. 9).



la EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 6, 7.

6. Iv oTs : not merely in a geographical sense of a Jewish com-
munity among Gentiles, but clearly numbering the Roman Church
among Gentile communities.

kXtitoI 'Itictoo XpioTou : ' called ones of Jesus Christ ' : gen. of
possession.

7. iy 'PufATJ : om. G g, Sc/wL cod. 47 {ro iv 'Panrj ovre fv rfj f^rjyfjcru

ovre f'v Tw pr}Tu> iJLvrjixovfvfi, i. e. some commentator whom the Scholiast
had before him). G reads naa-i toU ovaiv ev dydirr] Beov (similarly
d* Vulg. codd. and the commentary of Ambrstr. seem to imply

Ttaa-i Tols ov(TiP (u 'Pto/ni; (v ayditT) Qeov). The Same MS. OmitS TOtj

€v 'Poo/ii; in ver. 15. These facts, taken together with the fluc-
tuating position of the final doxology, xvi. 25-27, would seem
to give some ground for the inference that there were in circulation
in ancient times a few copies of the Epistle from which all local
references had been removed. It is however important to notice
that the authorities which place the doxology at the end of ch. xiv
are quite different from those which omit eV 'Pw/a?; here and in
ver. 15. For a full discussion of the question see the Introduction,
§6.

kXt)tois dyiois. K\>]rq dyia represents consistently in LXX the
phrase which is translated in AV. and RV. 'an holy convocation*
(so eleven times in Lev. xxiii and Ex. xii. 16). Tiie rendering ap-
pears to be due to a misunderstanding, the Heb. word used being one
with which the LXX translators were not familiar. Whereas in



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