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A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans online

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Heb. the phrase usually runs, ' on such a day there shall be a holy
convocation,' the LXX treat the word translated convocation as an
adj. and make 'day' the subject of the sentence, 'such a day
(or feast) shall be /cXr^rr) dyia, i. e. specially appointed, chosen,
distinguished, holy (day),' This is a striking instance of the way
in which St. Paul takes a phrase which was clearly in the first
instance a creation of the LXX and current wholly through
it, appropriating it to Christian use, and recasts its mean-
ing, substituting a theological sense for a liturgical. Obviously
KXrjTo'is has the same sense as kKtjtos in ver. i : as he himself was
' called ' to be an Apostle, so all Christians were ' called ' to be
Christians; and they personally receive the consecration which
under the Old Covenant was attached to * times and seasons.'

For the following detailed statement of the evidence respecting «A.i;t^ «i7ia
we ate indebted to Dr. Driver: —

K\T]Tr] corresponds to ^^IP^?, from K^i^ fo call, a technical term almost
wholly confined to the Priests' Code, denoting apparently a special religious
meeting, or 'convocation,' held on certain sacred days.

It is represented by kXtjttj, Kx. xii. 16 b; Lev. xxiii. 7, 8, 27, 35, 36;
Num xxviii. 25. Now in all these passnges, where the Heb. has 'on such
a day there sliall be a holy convocation,' the LXX have ' such a day shall
be KKrjrfj dyia,' i.e. they alter the form of the sentence, make a'ay subject,
and use HKrjrrf with its proper force as an adj. 'shall be a ealled u-e.


a specially appointed, chosen, distinguished*), holy (day) *; cf. «X. In //. Ix.
165 and Rom. i. i. They read analogously with ^*^i?^ in Lev. xxiii. a aX
iopral Kvpiov, Ay Ka\iaeTe avrai kXtjtcLs ayins (cf. v. 371, 21 Kai KoXiatTt
TaiTTjV Triv f/f^epaf KXrjrrjV a-yia tarai vfxiv. In Lev. xxiii. 3 (cf. v. 241,
ic\r}TTj ayla gecms to be in apposition with dvd-navais. The usage of KkrjTr)
in Lev. xxiii is, however, such as to suggest that it was probably felt to
have the form of a subst. (sc. vixepa) • cf. kmKX.r]TOi.

This view of «A. is supported by their rendering of ^^p?? elsewhere. In
Ex. xii. 16 a. Lev. xxiii. 4 they also alter the form of the sentence, and
render it by a verb, KX-rjOrjaerai ayia, and aylaj KoXiaere respectively.

In Num. xxviii. 18, 26 (/foJ rfj Tjixfpa twv Viojv .... (mKXrjTOi ayia earai
x/fiiv : similarly xxix. i, 7, 12), tliey express it by (tt'ikKtjtos (the same word
used (77 'fjtJifpa ■^ irpojTT} (it'ik\i]tos ayia tarai iif^tv) ib. i. 16 ; xxvi. 9, for the
ordinary partic. called, summoned), i.e. I suppose in the same sense of
specially appointed (cf. Josii. xx. 9 at iro\f«j ai eiriK\r]Toi rots vlois 'lapa-qK').

Is. i. 13 ' the calling of a convocation ' is represented in LX.\ by -^fxipav
(jLtyaXrjv, and iv. 5 'all her convocations' by to. TrfpiKiK\q) avTTjs

From all this, it occurs to me that the LXX were not familiar with the term
N"lpD, and did not know what it meant. I think it probable tliat they pro-
nounced it not as a subst. ^^pl?, but as a participle t^'JP'? (' called ').

dyt'ois. The history of this word would seem to be very parallel
to that of kXtjto'is. It is more probable that its meaning developed
by a process of deepening from without inwards than by extension
from within outwards. Its connotation would seem to have been
at first physical and ceremonial, and to have become gradually
more and more ethical and spiritual, (i) The fundamental idea
appears to be that of ' separation.' So the word * holy ' came
to be applied in all the Semitic languages, (2) to that which was
'set apart' for the service of God, whether thinQ;s (e.g. i Kings vii.
5 ^ [37] ) or persons (e. g. Ex. xxii. 31 [29] ). But (3) inasmuch as
that which was so ' set apart ' or * consecrated ' to God was required
to be free from blemish, the word would come to denote ' freedom
from blemish, spot, or stain' — in the first instance physical, but
by degrees, as moral ideas ripened, also moral. (4) At fiist the
idea of ' holiness,' whether physical or moral, would be directly
associated with the service of God, but it would gradually become
detached from this connexion and denote ' freedom from blemish,
spot, or stain,' in itself and apart from any particular destination.
In this sense it might be applied even to God Himself, and we
find it so applied even in the earliest Hebrew literature (e. g.
I Sam. vi. 20). And in proportion as the conception of God itself
became elevated and purified, the word which expressed this
central attribute of His Being would contract a meaning of more
severe and awful purity, till at last it becomes the culminating
and supreme expression for the very essence of the Divine Nature.
When once this height had been reached the sense so acquired

* Biel {Lex. in LXX.) cites from Phavorinus the gloss, k\., r^ KaXtari) koI 1)


would be reflected back over all the lower uses, and the tendency
would be more and more to assimilate the idea of holiness in
the creature to that of holiness in the Creator. This tendency
is formulated in the exhortation, ' Ye shall be holy ; for I, the
Lord your God, am holy ' (Lev. xix. 2, &c.).

Such would appear to have been the history of the word up to
the time when St. Paul made use of it. He would find a series of
meanings ready to his hand, some lower and some higher ; and he
chooses on this occasion not that which is highest but one rather
midway in the scale. When he describes the Roman Christians as
dyioi, he does not mean that they reflect in their persons the attri-
butes of the All-Holy, but only that they are ' set apart ' or ' conse-
crated ' to His service. At the same time he is not content to rest
in this lower sense, but after his manner he takes it as a basis or
starting-point for the higher. Because Christians are ' holy ' in the
sense of ' consecrated,' they are to become daily more fit for the
service to which they are committed (Rom. vi. 17, 18, 22), they are
to be 'transformed by the renewing' of their mind (Rom. xii. 2).
He teaches in fact implicitly if not explicitly the same lesson as
St. Peter, ' As He which called you is holy, be ye yourselves also
holy in all manner of living (AV. conversation); because it is
written. Ye shall be holy, for I am holy ' (i Pet. i. 15, 16).

We note that Ps. Sol. had already described the Messianic

people as X(i6s ayiot {koX crvvd^ei \a6v ayiuv, ov d<py]yri(TfTai iv diKaiocrvi']]

xvii. 28; cf. Dan. vii. 18-27; ^''i- 24). Similarly Enoch ciii. 2;
cviii. 3, where * books of the holy ones = the roll of the members
of the Kingdom ' (Charles). The same phrase had been a designa-
tion for Israel in O. T., but only in Deut. (vii. 6 ; xiv. 2, 21 ; xxvi.
1 9 ; xxviii. 9, varied from Ex. xix. 6 e^voy aytnv). We have thus
another instance in which St. Paul transfers to Christians a title
hitherto appropriated to the Chosen People. But in this case the
Jewish Messianic expectation had been beforehand with him.

There is a certain element of conjecture in the above sketch, which is
inevitable from the fact that the earlier stages in the history of the word had
been already gone through when the Hebrew literature begins. The instances
above given will show this. The main problem is how to account for the
application of the same word at once to the Cieator and to His creatures,
both things and persons. The common view (accepted also by Delitzsch) is
that in the latter case it means ' separated ' or ' set apart ' for God, and in
the former case that it means 'separate from evil' {sejunctus ab omni vitio,
labis expers). But the link between these two meanings is little more than
verbal ; and it seems more probable that the idea of holiness in God, whfther
in the sense of exaltedness (Baudissin) or of purity (Delitzsch^, is derivative
rather than primary. There are a number of monographs on the subject, of
which perhaps the best and the most accessible is that by Fr. Delitzsch
in Herzog's RealEncyklopcidie, ed. 2, s. v. ' lleiligkeit Goties.' Instruc-
tive discussions will be found in Davidson, Ezekiel, p. xxxix. f. ; Robertson
Smith, Relix'ion of the Semites, pp. 132 ff., 140 (140 ff., 150 ed. 2) ; Schultz,
Theology of the Old Testament, ii. 131, 167 ff. A treatise by Dr. J. Agai


Beet is on a good method, but is somewhat affected by critical questions as
to the sequence of the documents.

There is an interesting progression in the addresses of St. Paul's

Epp. : I, a TheSS. Gal. rrj eKKkrjaia (jals eKKkrjcriaii) ', I, 2 Cor. r^
«KKX. + Tott aylois] I Cor. Rom. /cXijrois dyiois ', Rom. Phil. TTiicri' to7s
ay ion ' Eph. Col. toIv aylois Koi ttkttoIs.

The idea of the local Church, as a unit in itself, is more promi-
nent in the earlier Epp.; that of individual Christians forming part of
the great body of believers (the Church Catholic) is more prominent
in the later. And it v^^ould be natural that there should be some
such progression of thought, as the number of local churches multi-
plied, and as the Aposlle himself came to see them in a larger
perspective. It would however be a mistake to argue at once
from this that the use of tKKXTjala for the local Church necessarily
came first in order of time. On the other side may be urged the
usage of the O. T., and more particularly of the Pentateuch, where
fKK\r](Tia constantly stands for the religious assembly of the whole
people, as well as the saying of our Lord Himself in Matt. xvi. 18.
But the question is too large to be argued as a side issue.

Rudolf Sohm's elaborate Kirchenrecht (Leipzig, 1892) starts from the
assumption that the prior idea is that of the Church as a whole. But just
this part of his learned work has by no means met with general acceptance.

Xapis Kot eipi]i'if]. Observe the combination and deepened re-
ligious significance of the common Greek salutation ;^fi(petv, and
the common Heb. salutation Shalom, ' Peace.' x"P^^ ^"^ eip'jvr] are
both used in the full theological sense : x«P'f =■ the favour of God,
elp^vT] = the cessation of hostility to him and the peace of mind
which follows upon it.

There are four formulae of greeting in N. T. : the simple
^atpetv in St. James; x^P'-'^ '^"■^ dprjvr] in Epp. Paul, (except i and
2 Tim.) and in i, 2 St. Peter; x"P'5, e'Aeos, dprjvrj in the Epistles
of Timothy and 2 St. John ; oVeos kcCl dpi'ivq Koi ayairn] in St. Jude.

elp^cTj. We have seen how xap'f had acquired a deeper sense in
N. T. as compared with O. T. ; with elp^vrj this process had taken
place earlier. It too begins as a phrase of social intercourse,
marking that stage in the advance of civilization at which the
assumption that every stranger encountered was an enemy gave
place to overtures of friendship (EipZ/^jj o-ot Jud. xi.x. 20, &c.). But
the word soon began to be used in a religious sense of the cessation
of the Divine anger and the restoration of harmony between God

and man (Ps. Xxix. [xxviii.] 11 Kupto? fvXoyrjafi t6v "haw alroii ev
flpf]VTj : IxXXV. [Ixxxiv.] 8 'Kakfjaei elprjvrjv tirl Toi' Xaw avTOV : ibid. 10
hiKaioa-vvT} KOI elprjVTj KaT((})i\T]aav: CXix. [cxviii.] 1 65 flprjvr] ttoXXj; X'its
ayaTtbXTi ritv vo/xov : Is. liii. 5 ^o'Seia tlprjvrjs Tj/j-av eV avrov : Jer. XIV.
13 a\T)6eiav Koi dpfjvrjv Scoff o) eVi t^s yrjs : Ezek. XXxiv. 2$ SuiPrjanum


ro) Aavid Bia6rjKTjv flprji'rjs [cf. xxxvii. 26]. Nor is this usc Confined
to the Canonical Scriptures : cf. E^ioch v. 4 (other reff. in Charles,
ad loc); Jubilees i. 15, 29; xxii. 9; xxxiii, 12, 30, &c. ; it was one
of the functions of the Messiah to bring 'peace' (Weber, Altsyn.
Theol. p. 362 f.).

The nearest parallel for the use of the word in a salutation as here is
Dan. iii. 98 [31]; iv. 34 (LXX) ; ill. 98 [31]; vi. 35 (Theodot.) i\pT]vr\ i/uv
lT\rjOvi Oiir],

arrb ©eou "irarpos "fwiCtv Kal Kupiou 'Itjo-qO Xpiorou. The juxta-
position of God as Father and Christ as Lord may be added to the
proofs already supplied by vv. i, 4, that St. Paul, if not formally
enunciating a doctrine of the Divinity of Christ, held a view which
cannot really be distinguished from it. The assignment of the
respective titles of 'Father' and 'Lord' represents the first begin-
ning of Christological speculation. It is stated in precise terms
and with a corresponding assignment of appropriate prepositions

in I Cor. vni. 6 aXK '7/^ti' fis Gfos- 6 narf/p, (^ ov TO. TTavra, Koi fjfjie'is fie
avTOv, Km (li Kvpios Irjoois XpioToy, 8i ov ru navTa, Ka\ r/pels 81 avTOv.

The opposition in that passage between the gods of the heathen
and the Christians' God seems to show that ij/lkLj/ = at least primarily,
' us Christians' rather than ' us men.'

Not only does the juxtaposition of Father' and ' Lord' mark
a stage in the doctrine of the Person of Christ ; it also marks an
imponant stage in the history of the doctrine of the Trinity, It is
found already some six years before the com[)Osition of Ep. to
Romans at the time when St. Paul wrote his earliest extant Epistle
(i Thess. i. i ; cf. 2 Thess. i. 2). This shows that even at that
date (a. d. 52) the definition of the doctrine had begun. It
is well also to remember that although in ihis particular verse of
Ep. to Romans the form in which it appears is incomplete, the
triple formula concludes an Epistle written a few months earlier
(2 Cor. xiii. 14). There is nothing more wonderful in the history
of human tliought than the silent and imperceptible way in which
this doctrine, to us so difficult, took its place without struggle and
without controversy among accepted Christian truths.

irarpos ■pp.uj'. The singling out of this title must be an echo of
its constant and distinctive use by our Lord Himself. The doctrine
of the Fatherhood of God was taught in the Old Testament (Ps.
Ixviii. 5; Ixxxix. 26; Deut. xxxii. 6; Is. Ixiii. 16; Ixiv. 8; Jer.
xxxi. 9; Mal. i. 6; ii. 10); but there is usually some restriction or
qualification — God is the Father of Israel, of the Messianic King, of
a particular class such as the weak and friendless. It may also be
said that the doctrine of Divine Fatherhood is implicitly contained
in the stress which is laid on the ' loving-kindness' of God (e. g. in
such fundamental passages as Ex. xxxiv. 6, 7 compared with Ps.
cui. 13). But this idea which lies as a partially developed germ in


the Old Testament breaks into full bloom in the New. It ia
placed by our Lord Himself in the fore-front of the conception of
God. It takes however a two-fold ramification : 6 narrip Itxmv [rip.a>v,
a-ov, avTciv] (e. g. twenty times in St. Matt.), and 6 naTrjp pov [6 narrjp]
(e. g. twenty-three times in St. Matt.). In particular this second
phrase marks the distinction between the Son and the Father ; so
that when the two are placed in juxtaposition, as in the greeting o(
this and other Epistles, 6 Uarfip is the natural term to use. The
mere fact of juxtaposition sufficiently suggests the rrarfip rov Kvplov
riixQjv 'irjaov Xpiarnv (which is expressed in full in 2 Cor. i. 3; Eph. i.
3; Col. i, 3 ; cf. Rom. xv. 6; 2 Cor. xi. 31, but not Eph. iii. 14; Col.
ii. 2); so that the Apostle widens the reference by throwing in
ripwv, to bring out the connexion between the source of ' grace and
peace ' and its recipients.

It is no doubt true that irarfip is occasionally used in N. T. in the
more general sense of 'Creator' (James i. 17 'Father of lights,'
i. e. in the first instance. Creator of the heavenly bodies; Heb. xii. 9
' Father of spirits ' ; cf. Acts xvii. 28, but perhaps not Eph. iv. 6
TTarrjp Tiavrav^ where nuvraiv may be masc). It is true also that 6
TvaTr]p tS)v oXcov in this sense is common in Philo, and that similai
phrases occur in the early post-apostolic writers (e. g. Clem. Rom.
ad Cor. xix. 2 ; Justin, ApoL i. 36, 61 ; Tatian, Or. c. Graec. 4).
But when Harnack prefers to give this interpretation to Pater iri
the earliest creeds {Das Apost. Glaubensbekennlm'ss, p. 20), tht
immense preponderance of N. T. usage, and the certainty that the
Creed is based upon that usage (e. g. in i Cor. viii. 6) seem to be
decisive against him. On the early history of the terra see esp
Swete, Apost. Creed, p. 20 flf.

The Theological Terminology of Rom. i. 1-7.

In looking back over these opening verses it is impossible not to
be struck by the definiteness and maturity of the theological teach-
ing contained in them. It is remarkable enough, and characteristic
of this primitive Christian literature, especially of the Epistles of
St. Paul, that a mere salutation should contain so much weighty
teaching of any kind ; but it is still more remarkable when we think
what that teaching is and the early date at which it was penned.
There are no less than five distinct groups of ideas all expressed
with deliberate emphasis and precision: (i) A complete set of
ideas as to the commission and authority of an Aposde ; (2) A
complete set of ideas as to the status in the sight of God of a Chris-
tian community; (3) A clear apprehens'on of the relation of the
new order of things to the old; (4) A clear assertion of what we
should call summarily the Divinity of Christ, which St. Paul re-
garded both in the light of its relation to the expectations of hi^


countrymen, and also in its transcendental reality, as revealed by or
inferred from the words and acts of Christ Himself; (5) A some-
what advanced stage in the discrimination of distinct Persons in
the Godhead. We observe too how St, Paul connects together
these groups of ideas, and sees in them so many parts of a vast
Divine plan which covers the whole of human history, and indeed
stretches back beyond its beginning. The Apostle has to the full
that sense which is so impressive in the Hebrew prophets that he
himself is only an instrument, the place and function of which are
clearly foreseen, for the accomplishment of God's gracious pur-
poses (compare e. g. Jer. i. 5 and Gal. i. 15"). These purposes are
working themselves out, and the Roman Christians come within
their range.

When we come to examine particular expressions we find that
a large proportion of them are drawn from the O. T. In some
cases an idea which has been hitherto fluid is sharply formulated
(kXtjtos, d(pu>pianiio<i) ; in Other cases an old phrase has been
adopted with comparatively little modification [vrrep rod oi/o/xaros
aiiTov, and perhaps flprivrj) ; in others the transference involves

a larger modification [8ov\os 'Irjcrov Xpia-rov, X"P'f> /cXryrot ayioi,

Kvpcoi, Qeos irarfip) ; in Others again we have a term which has ac-
quired a significance since the close of the O. T. which Christianity

appropriates (eTrayyeXta \npo(nr]yy(i\aTo], ypacj)a\ ayiai, dvd(TTa(Tis veupmv,

ayiin) ; in yet others we have a new coinage (uTrooroXny, fvayyeXiov),
which however in these instances is due, not to St. Paul or the
other Apostles, but to Christ Himself.


I. 8-15. God knows how lojig I have desired to see you
— a hope which I trust may at last be accomplished — and
to deliver to you, as to the rest of the Gentile world, my
message of salvation.

' In writing to you I must first offer my humble thanks to
God, through Him Who as High Priest presents all our prayers
and praises, for the world-wide fame which as a united Church you
bear for your earnest Christianity. " If witness were needed to
show how deep is my interest in you, I might appeal to God Himself
Who hears that constant ritual of prayer which my spirit addresses
to Him in my work of preaching the glad tidings of His Son.
*• He knows how unceasingly your Church is upon my lips, and how
every time I kned in prayer it is my petition, that at some near day


I may at last, in the course which God's Will marks out for me,
really have my way made clear to visit you. " For I have a great
desire to see you and to impart to you some of those many gifts
(of instruction, comfort, edification and the like) which the Holy
Spirit has been pleased to bestow upon me, and so to strengthen
your Christian character. " I do not mean that I am above
receiving or that you have nothing to bestow, — far from it, — but
that I myself may be cheered by my intercourse with you {fV v/juv),
or that we may be mutually cheered by each other's faith, I by
yours and you by mine. ^' I should be sorry for you to suppose
that this is a new resolve on my part. The fact is that I often
intended to visit you — an intention until now as often frustrated
— in the hope of reaping some spiritual harvest from my labours
among you, as in the rest of 'he Gentile world. "There is no
limit to this duty of mine to preach the Gospel. To all without
distinction whether of language or of culture, I must discharge
ihe debt which Christ has laid upon me. ^* Hence, so far as the
decision rests with me, I am bent on delivering the message of
salvation to you too at Rome.

8. Sid. Agere autem Deo grait'as, hoc est sacrificium laudis
offerre: et ideo addit per Jesum Christum; velui per Pontificem
magnum Orig,

1^ irians ofiwi'. For a further discussion of this word see below
on ver. 17. Here it is practically equivalent to 'your Christianity,'
the distinctive act which makes a man a Christian carrying with it
the direct consequences of that act upon the character. Much
confusion of thought would be saved if wherever ' faith ' was
mentioned the question were always consciously asked, Who or
what is its object? It is extremely rare for faith to be used in
the N. T. as a mere abstraction without a determinate object. In
this Epistle ' faith ' is nearly always ' faith in Christ! The object
is expressed in iii. 22, 26 but is left to be understood elsewhere.
In the case of Abraham ' faith ' is not so much * faith in God ' as
'faith in ihe promises of God,' which promises are precisely those
which are fulfilled in Christianity. Or it would perhaps be more
strictly true to say that the immediate object of faith is in most
cases Christ or the promises which pointed to Christ. At the same
time there is always in the background the Supreme Author of
that whole ' econo ny ' of which the Incarnation of Christ formed
a part. Thus it is God Who justifies though the moving cause of
justification is usually defined as ' faith in Christ.' And inasmuch
as it is He Wno both promised that Christ should come and also


Himself brought about the fulfilment of the promise, even justifying
faith may be ciesciibed as 'faith in God.' The most conspicuous

examj)le of this is ch. iv. 5 ra Be fif] epya^ofjievco, niaTevorrt 8e eVt t6v
oiKdiOi'vra Tov aaeiirj^ Xnyi^erai r] tt'kttis airov (h diKaiocrvvriv.

9. Xarpeuw connected with XcWpis/hhed servant,' and Xdrpoj/,'hire':
(i) already in classical Gk, applied to the service of a hij^her power
(8ia TT]v Tiw 6fod Xarpfiav Plato, Apol. 23 B) ; (ii) in LXX always of
the service either of the true God or of heathen divinities. Hence
Augustine : Aarpda . . . aut semper aut tam frequenter ut fere
semper, ea dicitiir serviius quae pertinet ad colendum Deum (Trench,
Syn. p. i2of.).

Kaipduv is at once somewhat wider and somewhat narrower in meaning
than KeiTovpyetv : (i) it is used only tor almost wholly) of the service of God
where ^eiTovpyeiu {XeiTonpyus) is used also of the service of men (Josh. i. I
>. 1. ; I Kings i. 4, xix. 21 ; 2 Kings iv. 45, vi. 15, &c.) ; (ii) but on the other
hand it is used of the service both of priest and people, esp. of the service
rendered to Jahveh by the whole race of Israel (Acts xxvi. 7 to 5aj5(Kd(pv\oi
iv fKTfVfia Karpivov, of. Rom. ix. 4) ; Kurovpyuv is appropriated to the
ministrations of priests and Levites (Heb. x. 11, &c.). Where XuTovpyuv
{Kiirovpyos) is not strictly in this sense, there is yet more or less conscious
reference to it (e. g. in Rom, xiii. 6 and esp. xv. 16).

iv Tu TTfeufiari jaou. The nvtvfm is the Organ of service; the
tvayyi\iov (= to K))pvyp.a toO eiayyeXt'ov) the Sphere in which the
service is rendered.

eiri Twj' TTpooreuxwi' jaou : ' ai my prayers,' at all my times of prayer
(cf. I Thess. i. 2 ; Eph. i. 16 ; Philem. 4).

10. ciTrws. On the construction see Burton, Moods and Tenses, § 376.

y]8t] ttot^: a difficult expression to render in English; 'now at
length' (AV. and RV.) omits Trorf, just as 'in ony maner sumtyme*
(Wic.) omits fjdrj; ' sometime at the length' (Rhcm.) is more accu-
rate, ' some near day at last.' In contrast with viv (which denotes

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