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A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans online

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the signification of So^a, the divine glory or splendour. It is suggested
that this word was not used because it seemed inadequate to describe the
uniqueness of the Divine Nature (Rogge, Z)te Anschatiungen d. Ap. Paultu
von d. religios-sittl. Charakt. d. Heidentutns, Leipzig, iSSil, p. lo f.)

€is TO eirai : th t6 denotes here not direct and primary purpose
but indirect, secondary or conditional purpose. God did not
design that man should sin ; but He did design that if they sinned
they should be without excuse : on His part all was done to
give them a sufficient knowledge of Himself. Burton however
{Moods and Tenses, § 411) takes eis- to here as expressing not
purpose but result, because of the causal clause which follows,
' This clause could be forced to an expression of purpose only by
supposing an ellipsis of some such expression as Kal ourcos etViV,
and seems therefore to require that ei? rh dvin be interpreted as
' expressing result.' There is force in this reasoning, though the use
of eis TO for mere result is not we believe generally recognized.

21. eSolao-ar. lo^a^ut is one of the words which show a deepened
sgnificance in their religious and Biblical use. In classical Greek
in accordance with the slighter sense of h6^a it merely = ' to form
an opinion about' (Sofa^o/xcvos aStKo?, 'held to be unrighteous,'
Plato, Rep. 588 B) ; then later with a gradual rise of signification

* to do honour to ' or ' l)raise ' {lit dpery SeSo^ao-yxeVoi auSpe<; Polyb.

VI. liii. 10). And so in LXX and N. T. with a varying sense accord-
ing to the subject to whom it is applied: (i) Of the honour done by

man to man (Esth. iii. I (Bo^aa-tv 6 ^aaiXevs 'Apra^ep^rjs 'Ap.dp);

(ii) Of that which is done by man to God (Lev. x. 3 ev Tida-rj rfi
avraycoyis So^aaBrjo-ofiai) ; (iii) Of the glory bcstowed on man by God
(Rom. viii. 30 ots 8e eSi/catcoo-e, tovtovs Koi eSo^ficre) ; (iv) In a scnse
specially characteristic of the Gospel of St. John, of the visible
manifestation of the glory, whether of the Father by His own act
(Jo. xii. 28), or of the Son by His own act (Jo. xi. 4), or of the Son
by the act of the Father (Jo. vii. 39; xii. 16, 23, &c.), or of the
Father by the Incarnate Son (Jo. xiii. 31 ; xiv. 13; xvii. i, 4, &c.).
^fj,aTaiw0T]o-ai', ' were frustrated,' * rendered futile.' In LXX rd
fiinma = * idols ' as ' things of nought.' The two words occur

together in 2 Kings xvii. 15 koI enopevdrjaav oniaoi rav paraiav Koi

fpdTaiudrjtTav,

SiaXoYio-fiots : as usually in LXX and N. T. in a bad sense of
' perverse, self-willed, reasonings or speculations' (cf. Hatch, £Jss.
in Bibl Gk. p. 8).

Comp. Enoch xcix. 8, 9 * And they will become godless by reason of the

foolishness of their hearts, and their eyes will be blinded through the fear of
their hearts and through visions in their dreams. Through tliese they will
bec'^)me godless and fearful, because they work all their works in a lie and
they worship a stone.'

KapSio : the most comprehensive term for the human faculties,



I. 21-24.] FAILURE OF THE GENTILES 45

the seat of feeling (Rom. ix. 2 ; x. i) ; will (i Cor. iv. 5; vii. 37 ;
cf. Rom. xvi. 18); thoughts (Rom. x. 6, 8). Physically /ca/jS/.i
belongs to the an^dyxva (2 Cor. vi. 11, 12); the conception of its
functions being connected with the Jewish idea that life resided in
the blood : morally it is neutral in its character, so that it may be
either the home of lustful desires (Rom. i. 24), or of the Spirit
(Rom. V. 5).

23. tiXXa^aK iy : an imitation of a Heb. construction : cf. Ps.
cvi. (cv.) 20 ; also for the expression Jer. ii. 11 (Del. ad loc.) &c.

. %6iav = 'manifested perfection.' See on iii. 23.

Comp. ■with this verse Philo, Vit. Mos. iii. 20 (Mang. ii. 161) ot rhv
d\r]6TJ 0(ov KaTaXinovTes tois ili(v5o:vvp.ov^ idtj/xioi'pyrjffnv, <j)6afiTais Kal yei'Tirah
ovaiats rfjv toC djfi'rjTov Kal d(l)6apTov TTpuap-qaiv km<pr]plaavT(s : also De Ebriet.
28 (Mang. i. 374) rrap' h Kal OeoirXacFTHi' dp^dpfvos dyaXpiaTajv Kal ^oavwy Kal
aWojv pvp'iwv dipi^pvuurwv vKais 5tai)'upois T«T«x'''^f'^7*f'''<^"' KaTtirXijai ttjv
olKovp.ivr]V . . . KareipydaaTO to kvavTiov ov irpoatSoK-qaev, dvrl oaioTrjTos
dai^tiav — rh yap iroXvOeov (v rats rwv d<pp6vuv \f/vxaii dOfuTTjs, Kal 6(ov TipLrjs
dXoyovaiv ol rd Ov-qra Otidiaavm — oh ovk e^rjpicfaev tjX'lov koi <Tf\T]V7ji ! . .
t'lKovas StaTTKaaaaOai, dAA." r/Sij koI oAiJ'yojS ^dioii Kal (pvrois t^s tui' dq>QapTuv
rifles fjHTidoijav,

24. irapeSuKei' : three times repeated, here, in ver. 26 and in
ver. 28. These however do not mark so many distinct stages in
the punishment of the heathen ; it is all one stage. Idolatry leads
to moral corruption which may take different forms, but in all is
a proof of God's displeasure. Gif. has proved that the force of
■napibaKiv is not merely pernn'sst've (Chrys. Theodrt. Euthym.-Zig.* ),
through God permitting men to have their way ; or privative,
through His withdrawing His gracious aid ; hni judicial, the appro-
priate punishment of their defection : it works automatically, one
evil leading to another by natural sequence.

This is a Jewish doctrine: Pirq? Aboth, iv. 2 * Every fnlfilment of duty is
rewarded by another, and every transgression is punished by another' ; Shah-
bath 104* ' Whosoever strives to keep himself pure receives the power to do
so, and whosoever will be impure to him is it [the door of vice] thrown
open'; Jerus. Talmud, ' He who erects a fence round himself is fenced, and
he who gives himself over is given over' (from Dclitzsch, Notes on Heb.
Version of Ep. to Rom.). The Jews held that the heathen because of their
rejection of the Law were wholly abandoned by God : the Holy Spiiit was
withdrawn from them (Weber, Altsyn. Theol. p. 66).

^K auTois t^ A B C D*, several cursives; Iv lavTo\<: D^EFCKLP,
&c., printed editions of Fathers, Orig. Chrys. Theodrt., Vulg. {ul
contumeliis adficianl corpora sua in ipsis). The balance is strongly

• Similarly Adrian, an Antiochene writer (c. 440 A.D.) in his YXaayoiy^ di
Tos Oiias ypacpni, a classihed collection of figures and modes of speech em-
ployed in Holy Scripture, refers this verse to the hend T^i' e'^i tcuv uvOpiunlvcuv
Kcitutv (Tiyxwpnaiv toC WtoiJ us vpd^iv ai/Totj \iyfi' (Treidr) Kwkiiaai bvv'itj.n'us,

TuilTO OV TiOtfi.



46 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 24-2^

in favour of aimU. With this reading dTifid^eaflai is pass., and n
avrois = ' among them ' : with ev eavrols, aTift, is mid. (as Vulg.).

On the forms, avrov, avrov and iavrov see Buttmann, Gr. of N. T. Gk. (tr.
Thayer I p. Ii i ; Hort, IntroJ., Notes on Orthography, p. I44.

In N. T. Greek there is a tendency to the disuse of strong reflexive forms.
Simple possession is most commonly expressed by avrov, avTfjs, &c. : only
where the reflexive character is emphasized (not merely siium, but suum
ifsius) is iavTov used (hence the importance of such phrases as tov iavrov
viiv ni/jxpas Rom. viii. 3), Some critics Lave denied the existence in the
N. T. of the aspirated aiirov : and it is true that there is no certain proof of
aspiration (such as the occurrence before it of oiix or an elided preposition;
in early MSS. breathings are rare), but in a few strong cases, where the
omission of the aspirate would be against all Greek usage, it is retained by
WH. (e.g. in Jo. ii. 24; Lk. xxiii. la).

25. oiTii'cs : ooTtf, often called ' rel. of quality,' (i) denotes
a single object with reference to its kind, its nature, its capacities,
its character ('one who,' 'being of such a kind as that'); and thus
(ii) it frequently makes the adjectival sentence assign a cause for
the main sentence : it is used like ^ut, or quippe qui, with subj.

T(\v dXiiQeiaf . . . Tu \)/eu86i : abstr. for concrete, for tov aKr]6ivQv
SfoV . . . Tots \//-euSfo-t QioXi, cf. I Thess. i. 9.

l(S^^a.a^\\QO.V. This use of a^^aljaQaA is an CTra^ Xtyo^ei/oj/ j the

common form is ae^eadai (see Va.).

irapa toi' KTiaavTa = not merely ' more than the Creator ' (a force
which the preposition might bear), but 'passing by the Creator
altogether/ * to the neglect of the Creator.'

Cf. Philo', De Mund. Opif. 1 (Mangey, L a) Tjyjj 7d/> rhv xianov /taXXov J)
t6v Koafioiroiiv Oav^iAaavra (Loesner).

OS lorrii' 6u\oYT]T<5s. Doxologies like this are of constant occurrence
in the Talmud, and are a spontaneous expression of devout feeling
called forth either by the thought of God's adorable perfections or
sometimes (as here) by the forced mention of that which reverence
would rather hide.

27. diro\afx,(3di'ot'T«s : a7roX.= (i) ' to receive back* (as in Luke vi.
34) ; (ii) ' to receive one's due' (as in Luke xxiii. 41) ; and so here.

28. eSoKifiao-ai' : Sow/LKifco = (i) 'to test' (i Cor. iii. 13, &c.) ;
(ii) 'to approve after testing' (so here; and ii. 18; xiv. 22, &c.);
similarly nhoKifiov ~ 'rejected afier testing,' 'reprobates.'

iv iTtiyv<a(T€i : iniyvoirts = ' a//er knowledge': hence (i) recogni-
tion (vb. ='to recoL'uize,' Matt. vii. 16; xvii. la, &c.) ; (ii)' ad-
vanced' or 'further knowledge,' 'full knowledge.' See esp. Sp.
Comm. on i Cor. xiii. 1 2 ; Lft. on Phil. i. 9.

vouv = the reasoning faculty, esp. as concerned with moral
action, the intellectual part of conscience : vois and crwddrjcns are
combined in Tit. i. 15 : vvs may be either bad or good ; for the
good sense see Rom. xii. 2 ; Eph. iv. 23.



I. 28-30.] FAILURE OF THE GENTILES 47

tA KaGiiKovTa: a technical term with the Stoics, 'what is morally
fitting ' ; cf. also 2 Mace. vi. 4.

29. We must beware of attempting to force the catalogue
which follows into a logical order, though here and there a certain
amount of grouping is noticeable. The first four are general
terms for wickedness ; then follows a group headed by the allitera-
tive 4>Q6vou, {{joroo, with other kindred vices ; then two forms of
backbiting; then a group in descending climax of sins of arro-
gance ; then a somewhat miscellaneous assortment, in which again
allitf ration plays a part.

dSiKia : a comprehensive term, including all that follows,
iropi/eia: om. J^ABCK; probably suggested by similarity in

sound to novripiq.

■trovqpLa : contains the idea of ' ac/t've mischief (Hatch, B/dl. Gk.
p. 77 f.; Trench, Syfu p. 303). Dr. T. K. Abbott (Assays, p. 97)
rather contests the assignment of this specific meaning to Trovrjpla ;
and no doubt the use of the word is extremely wide : but where
definition is needed it is in this direction that it must be sought.

KaKia : as compared with novr^pia denotes rather inward vicious-
ness of disposition (Trench, Syn. p. 36 f.).

The MSS. vary as to the order of the three words irovrjpiq, irXeove^la, Kojclq,
WH. iext RV. retain this order with BL, &c., Hard. Arm., Bas. Greg.-
Nyss. a/.: Tisch. \\ H. niarg. read wovTjp. kuk. irKeov. with NA, Pesh. ail. :
WH. niarg. also recognizes KaK. -novrjp. ttXiov. with C, Boh. al.

irXsove^ia. On the attempt which is sometimes made to give to this word
the sense of ' impurity ' see Lft. on Col. iii. 5. The word itself means only
'selfish greed,' which may however be exhibited under circumstances where
impurity lies near at hand: e.g. in i Thess. iv. 6 irKeoviKTeiv is used of
adultery, but rather as a wrong done to another than as a vice.

KttKoriOetas : the tendency to put the worst construction upon
everything (Arist. Ji/ie/. ii. 13; cf. Trench, Syn. p. 38). The word
occurs several times in 3 and 4 Maccabees.

30. »|/i0upi(7Tds, KOTaXdXous. The idea of secresy is contained in
the first of these words, not in the second : i/rt^. susurraiores
Cypr. Lucif. Ambrstr. susurrones Aug. Vulg. ; KoroK. detractores
Cypr. Aug. Vulg., detrectatores {detract-) Lucif. Ambrstr. al.

OeoCTTUYels : may be either (i) passive, Deo odibiles Vulg. : so
IMey. Weiss Fri. Oltr. Lips. Lid. ; on the ground that this is the
constant meaning in class. Gk., where the word is not uncommon ;
or (ii) active, Dei osores =■ abhorrentes Deo Cypr. : so Euthym.-Zig.
(roiiy Tov Oeou niaovvrai), Tyn. and Other English versions not derived
from Vulg., also Gif. Go. Va., with some support from Clem. Rom.
ad Cor. XXXV. 5, who in paraphrasing this passage uses deoarvyla
clearly with an active signification, though he follows it by cTTvyrjTfA
TO) Gfo). As one among a catalogue of vices this would give the
more pointed sense, unless we might suppose that Seoa-rvyf'is had
come to have a meaning like our ' desperadoes.' The three terms



48 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 30-32.

which follow remind us of the bullies and braggarts ®f the Eliza-
bethan stage. For the distinction between them see Trench, Syn,
p. 95 ff.

It is well preserved in the Cyprianic Latin, ini'uriosi, suferbi, iactantes tut.

For the last phrase Lucif. has gloriantes ; either would be better than the
common rendering elatos (Cod. Clarom. Cod. Boern. Ambrstr. Aug. Vulg.).

{)iT6pT)<j)avos. Mayor (on Jas. iv. 6) derives this word from the adjectival
form VTTfpos (rather than vne'p Trench) and ipaivoo, comparing e\a<prjPu\os from
lAai/)os and (HWoj: he explains it as meaning 'conspicuous beyond others,'
' outshining them,' and so ' proud,' ' haughty ' : see his note, and the exx.
there quoted from Ecclus. and Pss. Sol.

31. do-vv€Tovs: aavvfitriTovs ('without conscience') Euthym.-Zig. How
closely the two words awtais nnd avvtih-qais are related will appear from
Polyb. XVIII. xxvi. 13 ovhth ovtojs oirt p.a.prvs larl (po^epds ovre Karriyopos
Sftf^j iis 7] avveati ij eyKaroiKovaa rais fKacyroDv ^i/^a'S. [But is not this
a gloss, on the text of Polyb. ? It is found in the margin of Cod. Urbin.]

do-ocGcToos, ' false to their engagements ' (awd^Kat) ; cf. Jer. iii. 7,
LXX.

do-iTC)i'8oos after daropyovs (Trench, Syn. p. 95 ff.) is added
from 2 Tim. iii. 3 [C K L P].

32. oLTives : see on ver. 25 above.

TO 8iKaiojp,a : prob. in the first instance (i) a declaration that
a thing is 8iKaiov [ro SiKo/w^a Tov lofiov =; * that which the Law lays
down as right,' Rom. viii. 4]; hence, 'an ordinance' (Luke i. 6;
Rom. ii. 26 ; Heb. ix. i, lo; ; or (ii) ' a declaration that a person
is ^iKaioi,' 'a verdict of not guilty,' 'an acquittal': so esp. in
St. Paul (e.g. Rom. v. 16). But see also note on p. 31.

«in7v6vT€s : imyiviiaKovra (B) 80, WH. tnarg.

iroioocrii' . . . croi'eoSoKouo-i. There has been some disturbance of
the text here : B, and apparently Clem. Rom., have itoLovvtt^ . . .
(Tvvev8oKovvTes ] and SO too D E Vulg. (am. fuld.) Orig.-lat. Lucif
and other Latin Fathers, but inserting, non intellexerunt {ovk
iv6r](T(tv D). WH. obelize the common text as prob. corrupt : they
think that it involves an anticlimax, because to applaud an action
in others is not so bad as to do it oneself; but from another point
of view to set up a public opinion in favour of vice is worse than
to yield for the moment to temptation (see the quotation from
ApoUinaris below). If the participles are wrong they have probably
been assimilated mechanically to iipaa-aovTts. Note that ■nouiv ■=■
/acere, to produce a certain result ; npnaafiv =: agere, to act as
moral agent : there may be also some idea of repeated action.

o-ui/euSoKooo-i denotes ' hearty approval ' (Rendall on Acts xxii.
20, in Expos. 1888, ii. 209) ; cf. i Mace. i. 57 o-uffvSoKn rw rd/xo) :
the word occurs four times besides in N. T. (Luke, Epp. Paul.).

ifKpoTfpoi 5J irovrjpoi, kcu o Karap^a^, koI 6 ffwSpapcjv. tov Si voKii
rd avvfvhoKtlv yupof TiOr/nt Kara, to \fyufifvov, fl (Ofwpfts KXivTrjw^



I. 18-32.] FAILURE OF THE GENTILES 49

ovvirptx** avT^. 6 ftiv yap troitav, /xtOvajv t^ ir&Ott, iJTTarai rijs vpa^toK'
i ti awevSoxSiy, (Kris &v tov vaOovs, novij/uq x/'"'/^*''*'** owTpkxd T9; kok^
(ApoUiQaris in Cramer's Catena).

St. Paul's Description of the Condition of the
Heathen World.

It would be wrong to expect from St. Paul an investigation of
the origin of different forms of idolatry or a comparison of the
morality of heathen religions, such as is now being instituted in the
Comparative Science of Religion. For this it was necessary to
wait for a large and comprehensive collection of data which has
only become possible within the present century and is still far from
complete. St. Paul looks at things with the insight of a religious
teacher \ he describes facts which he sees around him ; and he con-
nects these facts with permanent tendencies of human nature and
with principles which are apparent in the Providential government
of the world.

The Jew of the Dispersion, with the Law of Moses in his hand,
could not but revolt at the vices which he found prevailing among
the heathen. He turned with disgust from the circus and the
theatre (Weber, Allsyn. Theol. pp. 58, 68). He looked upon the
heathen as given over especially to sins of the flesh, such as those
which St. Paul recounts in this chapter. So far have they gone as
to lose their humanity altogether and become like brute beasts
[ibid. p. 67 f.). The Jews were like a patient who was sick but
with hope of recovery. Therefore they had a law given to them to
be a check upon their actions. The Heathen were like a patient
who was sick unto death and beyond all hope, on whom therefore
the physician put no restrictions (}bid. p. 69).

The Christian teacher brought with him no lower standard, and
his verdict was not less sweeping. 'The whole world,' said St.
John, ' lieth in wickedness,' rather perhaps, 'in [tlie power of] the
Wicked One' (i Jo. v. 19). And St. Paul on his travels must
have come across much to justify the denunciations of this chapter.
He saw that idolatry and licence went together. He knew that
the heathen myths about their gods ascribed to them all manner
of immoralities. The lax and easy-going anthropomorphism of
Hellenic religion and the still more degraded representations, with
at times still more degraded worship, of the gods of Egypt and the



5© EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [l. 18-32.

East, were thrown into dark relief by his own severe conception of
the Divine Holiness. It was natural that he should give the
account he does of this degeneracy. The lawless fancies of men
invented their own divinities. Such gods as these left them free to
follow their own unbridled passions. And the Majesty on High,
angered at their wilful disloyalty, did not interfere to check their
downward career.

It is all literally true. The human imagination, following its
own devices, projects even into the Pantheon the streak of evil by
which it is itself disfigured. And so the mischief is made worse,
because the worshipper is not likely to rise above the objects of
his worship. It was in the strict sense due to supernatural influ-
ence that the religion of the Jew and of the Christian was kept
clear of these corrupt and corrupting features. The state of the
Pagan world betokened the absence, the suspension or with-
holding, of such supernatural influence ; and there was reason
enough for the belief that it was judicially inflicted.

At the same time, though in this passage, where St. Paul is
measuring the religious forces in the world, he speaks without
limitation or qualification, it is clear from other contexts that con-
demnation of the insufficiency of Pagan creeds did not make him
shut his eyes to the good that there might be in Pagan characters.
In the next chapter he distinctly contemplates the case of Gentiles
who being without law are a law unto themselves, and who find in
their consciences a substitute for external law (ii. 14, 15). He
frankly allows that the ' uncircumcision which is by nature ' put to
shame the Jew with all his greater advantages (ii. 26-29). We
therefore cannot say that a priori reasoning or prejudice makes
him untrue to facts. The Pagan world was not wholly bad. It
had its scattered and broken lights, which the Apostle recognizes
with the warmth of genuine sympathy. But there can be equally
liule doubt that the moral condition of Pagan civilization was such
as abundantly to prove his main proposition, that Paganism was
unequal to the task of reforming and regenerating mankind.

There is a monograph on the subject, which however does not
add much beyond what lies fairly upon the surface : Rogge, 2?;>
Anschauungen d. Ap. Paulus von d. religids-sittlichen CharakUr d,
Heideniums, Leipzig, 1888.



I. 18-32.] FAILURE OF THE GENTILES



51



If the statements of St. Paul cannot be taken at once as supplying the place
of scientific inquiry from the side of the Comparative History of Religion, so
neither can they be held to furnish data which can be utilized just as they
stand by the historian. The standard which St. Paul applies is not that of
the historian but of the preacher. He does not judge by the average level of
moral attainment at different epochs but by the ideal standard of that vk^hich
ought to be attained. A calm and dispassionate weighing of the facts, with
dne allowance for the nature of the authorities, will be foood ia Friedlsinder,
SitttngeuhUhte Roms, Leipzig, 1869-1 871.



Use of the Book of Wisdom in Chapter /.

I. 18-33. In two places in Epist. to Romans, ch. i and ch, ix, there are
clear indications of the use by the Apostle of the Book of Wisdom. Such
indications are not wanting elsewliere, but we have thought it best to call
attention to them especially at the points where they are most continuous and
most striking. We begin by placing side by side the language of St. Paul
and that of the earlier work by which it is illustrated.

Wisdom.

xiii. I. KoX \k rS)v opojfiivojv AyaOwv
oiiK iaxvaav flSivai rbv ovra out* rolt
(pyois TtpuaixovTii ivtyvccaay rbv
rt-)(}''tTqv.

xiii. 5. Ik fap /xcytOovs ital /toAA.oi'^s
KTiaptdrajv dvaK6yoai i ffvtaiovpfds
ovTuiv Otwpurai.

ii. 33. [6 Qibi (KTiat . . . rbv dv6pa>-
wov . . . fiKoia T^j ISiai d'iStuTTjTos *
(Cod. 248 a/., Method. Athan. Epjph. ;
ISi6t7)to9 NAB, Clem.-Alex. &c.)
iTroiTjaev,^

xviii. 9. rbv t^s OeioTTjros vdpLOv.

xiii. 8. viKiv Si ou5' avrol avvyvai-
CToi.

xiii. I. pAratoi yAp nivrts avBpojnoi
<pva(i, oU iraprjv 6(ov dyvwaia \,



Romans.
I, JO. tA yd.p dopara airrov diri ktI-
9toK it6afxov Tois voi^/wai voovp.iva
KaOopdratf



f r« dtSiot airov tSvaiut ttal Ott&rrir



*lt t6 itrat avroiit iwairoXoy^Tovf

31. IftaToxwO-qaav Iv tois Sta>^oyia-
fMoii avTwv. KoX ia/tOTladr] 1) davvtros
avrSiv Kapdia.

33. (pdaicovTU ttvat aofol ipaip&w-
Orjacw'



33. Kol ^Wa^ar ri^i' 96^av rov i^
$dpTov &eov (V ufiotujpaTi elKuyoi ijOap-
rov di'Opclinov Kal TTfTfivu/y icai TtTpa'

TOOCUV KoX ipVtTon',



xii. 24. ttal ydp rSiv ir\dvT}t bSwv
uaKpuTfpov iirXavrjOTjaav Otoiis vnoXan-
^avovTfs rd. Kal ev ^cvois twv i)(9p2v
dri/xaj VTjTTiojv StKrjv dcppuvwv \p(vaQiv-
res.

xii. I. rb d<pOopT6v aov mivpa.

xiv. 8. TO S« (pOaprbv Qeijs uvopA-
oOt).

xiii. 10. raXainojpot 5e nal iv veicpoii
al eAirtSes axnwv, otVicfS kKa\taaL¥
$eovs fpya xtipuv dvOpiu-naiv.



• The more recent editors as a rule
read idioTTjroi with the uncials and
Gen. i. 26 {. ; but it is by no means clear
that they are right : Cod. 248 em-
bodies very ancient elements and the
context generally favours dXSivTrjTot.
It still would not be certain that St



Paul had this passage in his mind.

f The parallel here is not quite
exact. St. Paul says, ' They did know
but relinquished their knowledge,'
Wisd. ' They ought to have known
but did not.'



■ a



5a



EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS



[I. 18-32,



25. oiTwef /UT^K\m{av t^v iK^SdOf
Tov @€nv (V T9) ^{v5€i, Kal iaelidaOTjm
aav Koi (\aTpfvaay ry itriati vapa. riv
KTiaavra,



24. Zib irapiSoJKev k, t, K.

a6. SicL TovTO irapiSuHfy m. T. X.



29. ircirXrjpaififVovs irAffrj iStitlaf wo-
vi]piq,TT\fov(^ia, KaKiq, fifcrrovs >p9uvov,
<p6voVf tpiSos, SoAov, KaKorjOdas, \pidv-
piaras, KarahaXovi, 9(o(jTvy(is, vlipi-
crrdy, vTnpT](pdi'ovs, dAaforay, ((ptvpiTcis
KaKwv, yovfvaiv dneidfis, dawirovs,
iaw$fTovs, iaropyovSf aveKcqpiovas.



xiii. 13, 14. diTfiKacFfy aird flicovi
ivPpujnov, fi ^6jw rivl eineXii uJpoiwatv
avru.

xiii. 17 sqq. ov« alcxiiVfTCu rZ
dipvxv TTpoaXa\wv Kai irtpl pXv vyitias
TO daBevis eirii{a\(tT(Uf irfpl Si ^cu^j t6

VtKp'uV d^iOl K. T. X.

Xiv. II. bid TOVTO KM Iv «'5(l)X0tf

iQviJJv ImaKovr) effTai, oti iv Kriapuirt
Sfov (li P5(\vyfxa (yevrjOrjaav.

xiv. 21. TO aKoivcji'TjTOV ovopux Xi0oit
Kal ^vKoit iTfpiiOtaay.

xiv. 1 2. dpxT^ ydp TTopvtiat J ivtvota
fllwXojv, ivpfOfis 5( avTWV (pdopd ^aiTJS.

xiv. 16. (iTa iv XP^^'V xpo-Twdiv t3
dfffjS^s iOoi ws vufMos i(t>vKdx6r].

xiv. 22. fiT ovK fjpKiai T^ ■ttXava-
c6at ntpl Ti^v Tvv Qfovyvwaiv, dWd Kal
(V fi(yd\q) (aivTfs dyvoias iroXeixo) rd
roaavTa kuku elprjvrjv trpoaayoptvovaiv,



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