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in his usual confused style of eclecticism, suggests both opinions without
seeming to see that they are incompatible relics of divergent schools of
doctrine.'

15. oiTifes: see on i. 25.

iv%ixKv\iVTa.\. : eVSet^is implies an appeal to facts ; demonstralio
rebus gestis facta (P. Ewald, De Vocis SuvftSijo-fwr, &c., p. 16 n.).

TO cpyof TOO i/o'fAou : ' the work, course of conduct belonging to '
(i.e. in this context 'required by' or 'in accordance with') 'the
Law ' : collective use of fpyov as in ver. 7 above.

[Probably not as Ewald op. cit. p. 1 7 after Grotius, opus legis tst id, quod
lex in Judaeis efficit, nempe cognitio liciti et illiciti.'\

<Top,)i.apTupouCTif]s ouTwi' TT]s cTUKGiSiiacws. This phrase is almost
exactly repeated in ch. ix. i avu^iapr. /xot t^s a-wfid. fxov. In both
cases the conscience is separated from the self and personified as
a further witness standing over against it. Here the quality of the
acts themselves is one witness, and the approving judgement passed
upon them by the conscience is another concurrent witness.

awtt^atut. Some such distinction as this is suggested by the original
meaning and use of the word awubijais, which -= * co-knowledge,' the know-
ledge or reflective judgement which a man has by the side of 01 in conjunction
with the original consciousness of the act. This second consciousness is easily
projected and personified as confronting the first.

The word is quoted twice from Menander (342-391 B. c), Monost. 597
(cf. 654) a-naaiv ^fiiv t) avvdhriais 9(us ^ed. Didot, pp. 101,103). I' i^ sig-
nificant that both the word and the idea are completely absent from Aristotle.
They rise into philosophical importnnce in the more introspective moral
teaching of the Stoics. The two forms, t^ awubos and fj avvfO^rjais appear
to be practically corwertible. Eiiictetus {Fragm. 97) compares the con-
science to a wai5i7a>7c/j in a passage which is closely parallel to the comment
of Origen on this verse of Ep. Rom. (ed. Lommatzsch, vi. 107) spirilus . . .



II. 15.] TRANSITION TO THE JEWS 6l

velut paedagogus ei [sc animae] qtiidam seciatus et rector ut earn de metioribm
moneat vel de culpis castiget et argtiat.

In Biblical Greek the word occurs first with its full sense in Wisd. xvii. lo.
[ill a«J 5J Trpoa(i\T]<pf ral xo^^'ra [iroyTjpia'] ffwexofiivr) rrj (Tvv(i8;)aft In
Philo ri avvdSos is the form used. In N. T. the word is mainly Pauline
occurring in the speeches of Acts xxiii. i, xxiv. 16; Rom. 1 and 2 Cor,
Past. Epp., also in Heb.) ; elsewhere only in i Pet. and the pertt aduli
John viii. 9. It is one of the few technical terms in St. Paul which seem 10
have Greek rather than Jewish affinities.

The ' Conscience ' of St. Paul is a natural faculty which belongs to all
men alike (Rom. ii. 15), and pronounces upon the character of actions, both
their own (2 Cor. i. 13) and those of others (2 Cor. iv. 2, v. 1 1). It can be
over-scrupnlous (i Cor. x. 25), but is blunted or ' seared ' by neglect of its
warnings (i Tim. iv. 2).

The usage of St. Paul corresponds accurately to that of his Stoic con-
temporaries, but is somewhat more restricted than that wliich obtains in
modem times. Conscience, with the ancients, was the faculty which passed
judgment npon actions after they were done (.in technical language the con-
tcientia consequens moralis), not so much the general source of moial
obligation. In the passage before us St. Paul speaks of such a source
(kavToh etffi vofioi); but the law in question is rather generalized from the
dictates of conscience than antecedent to them. See on the whole subject
a treatise by Dr. P. Ewald, D$ Vocis 'ZwuSriaim apud script. N. T. vi eu
^testate (Lipsiae, 18S3).

fi6Ta|i^ dXXii]\o)K. This clause is taken in two ways: (i) of the
' thoughts/ as it were, personified, Conscience being in debate
with itself, and arguments arising now on the one side, and now on
the other (cf. Shakspeare's ' When to the sessions of sweet silent
thought, I summon up remembrance of things past ') ; in this case
ftera^v aWfj^iov almost = 'alternately,' 'in mutual debate'; (ii)
taking the previous part of the verse as referring to the decisions
of Conscience when in private it passes in review a man's own
acts, and this latter clause as dealing rather with its judgements on
the acts of the others; then fifra^v dXkri'Kau will = 'between one
another,' * between man and man,' ' in the intercourse of man
with man ' ; and Xoyiaficbv will be the ' arguments ' which now
take one side and now the other. The principal argument in
favour of this view (which is that of Mey. Gif. Lips.) is the em-
phatic position of fxera^v dWfj'Koiv, which suggests a contrast between
the two clauses, as if ihey described two different processes and
not merely different parts or aspects of the same process.

There is a curious parallel to this description in Assump. Moyt.^ i. 13
Creavit enim orbem terrarum propter plebem suam, et non coepit earn
inceptionem aea/urae . . . palam facere, ut in ea gtntti arguantur tt humili-
ter inter se disputationibus arguant st.

Toll' XoyiCTfiwi' : the \oyi<rfio'i are properly * thoughts * conceived in

the mind, not ' arguments ' used in external debate. This appeara
from the usage of the word, which is frequently combined with
Kap8ia (ttoXXoi Xoyiafjioi e'v ica/jS,a liiS/jos- Prov. xix. 2 I ; cf. Ps. xxxii. 1 I ;

Prov. vi 18): it ia used of secret "plots* (Jer. xviii. 18 d*vT'



62 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [II. 15- 16

Xoyiaafitda tm 'Upfiiiav XoyicTfinv, ' devisc dcviccs '), and of the Divine

intentions (Jer. Xxix [xxxvi] II Xoymvuai ((p' vfiat Xoyiaiiov (lpTji>t)s).

In the present passage St. Paul is describing an internal process,
though one which is destined to find external expression ; it is the
process by which are formed the moral judgements of men upon
their fellows.

* The conscience * and * the thoughts ' both belong to the same persons.
This is rightly seen by Klopper, who has written at length on the passage
before us {Paulinische Studien, Kbnigsberg, 1887, p. 10) ; but it does not
follow that both the conscience and the thoughts are exercised upon the same
objects, or that ^eTafu aK\i]\o}v must be referred to the thoughts in the
sense that influences from without are excluded. The parallel quoted in
support of this (^Matt. xviii. 15 /xtra^v aov Kal avrov (xovov) derives that part
of its meaning from fiovov, not from ftera^v.

^ Kal : ' or even,* * or it may be,' implying that dTroX. is the ex-
ception, KaTTjy. the rule.

16. The best way to punctuate is probably to put (in English)
a colon after ver. 13, and a semi-colon at the end of ver. 15: ver.
16 goes back to diKaioiBrjaovrai in ver. 13, or raUier forms a conclu-
sion to the whole paragraph, taking up again the *V rjut'ija of ver. 5.
The object of vv. 13-15 is to explain how it comes about that
Gentiles who have no law may yet be judged as if they had one :
they have a second inferior kind of law, if not anv written precepts
yet the law of conscience; by this law they will be judged when
quick and dead are put upon their trial.

Orig., with his usual acuteness, sees the difficulty of connecting ver. 16 with
▼er. 15, and gives an answer which is substantially right. The 'thoughts
accusing and condemning ' are not conceived as rising up at the last day but
now. They leave however marks behind, veiut in certs, ita tn corde nostra.
These marks God can see (ed. Lomm. p. 109).

tv Tinepoi oT€ {tt \VH. marg.) : tv^ Vh^Pf B, WH. fext: h fiftipa y A,
Pesh. Boh. aL, WH. marg.

8ia 'I-qffoO Xpio-Tow (et WH. marg.) : 5»ii Xpiarov 'Iijaoi! NB, Orig., Tisch.
WH. text.

Kpifei : might be Kplvu, as RV. marg., fut. regarded as certain.

KOTcL TO euayyeXioi' p,0M. The point to which St. Paul's Gospel,
or habitual teaching, bears witness is, not that God will judge the
world (which was an old doctrine), but that He will judge it through
Jesus Christ as His Deputy (which was at least new in its applica-
tion, though the Jews expected the Messiah to act as Judge, Enoch
xlv, xlvi, with Charles' notes).

The phrase majb. rh dafi. /xov occurs Ronu xvl. 2$, of the specially
Pauline doctrine of 'free grace'; a Tim. ii. 8, (i~l of the resurrection ol
Christ from the dead, (ii) of His descent from the seed of David.

We note in passing the not very intelligent tradition (introduced by (paal
Si, Eus. If. E. III. iv. 81, that wherever St. Paul spoke of 'hi* Gospel' h<
meant the Gospel of St. Luke.



II. 17-28.] FAILURE OF THE JEWS 63



FAHiUEE OP THE JEWS.

II. 17-29. The Jew may boast of his possession of a special
Revelation and a written Law, but all the time his practice
shows that he is really no better than the Gentile (vv. 17-24).
And if he takes his stand on Circnmcision, that too is of
valne only so far as it is moral and spiritual. In this moral
and spiritual circumcision the Gentile also may share (vv.
25-29).

"Do you tell me that you bear the proud name of Jew, that
you repose on a written law as the charter of your salvation ? Do
you boast that Jehovah is your God, " that you are fully ac-
quainted with His revealed Will, that you adopt for yourself a high
standard and listen to the reading of the Law every Sabbalh-day ?
" Do you give yourself out with so much assurance as a guide to
the poor blind Gentile, a luminary to enlighten his darkness ? '"Do
you call your pupils dullards and yourself their schoolmaster? Are
they mere infants and you their teacher? You, who have all
knowledge and all truth visibly embodied for you in the Law?
" Boastful Jew ! How does your practice comport with your
theory ? So ready to teach others, do you need no teaching your-
self? The eighth "and seventh commandments which you hold
up to others — do you yourself keep them ? You profess to loathe
and abhor idols ; but do you keep your hands from robbing their
temples? '^'You vaunt the possession of a law; and by the
violation of that law you affront and dishonour God Who gave it.
''^As Isaiah wrote that the Gentiles held the Name of God in
contempt because they saw His people oppressed and enslaved, so
do they now for a different reason — because of the gross incon-
sistency in practice of those who claim to be His people.

'* True it is that behind the Law you have also the privilege of
Circumcision, which marks the people of Promise. And Circum-
cision has its value if you are a law-performer. But if you are
a law-breaker you might as well be uncircumcised. '^^ Does it not
follow that if the uncircumcised Gentile keeps the weightier statutes
of ihe Moral Law, he will be treated as if he were circumcised?
'' And uncircumcised as he is, owinjr to his Gentile birth, yet if he



64 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [ll. 17.

fulfils the Law, his example will (by contrast) conoemn you who
with the formal advantages of a written law and circumcision, only
break the law of which you boast. ** For it is not he who has the
outward and visible marks of a Jew who is the true Jew ; neither
is an outward and bodily circumcision the true circumcision.
^* But he who is inwardly and secretly a Jew is the true Jew ; and
the moral and spiritual circumcision is that which really deserves
the name. The very w'ord ' Jew ' — descendant of Judah — means
'praise' (Gen. xxix. 35). And such a Jew has his 'praise,* not
from man but from God.

17. El 81 M A B D* al, Latt. Pesh. Boh. Arm. Aeth., &c. : 'iS*
D^L al. Hard., Chrys. aL The authorities for d Se include all the
oldest MSS., all the leading versions, and the oldest Fathers : tfif is
an itacism favoured by the fact that it makes the construction
slightly easier. Reading «i 8e the apodosis of the sentence begins
at ver. 21.

'lou8aio9 : here approaches in meaning (as in the mouth of a Jew
it would have a tendency to do) to 'Io-pa»;XiVijr, a member of the
Chosen People, opposed to the heathen.

Strictly speaking, 'E/3/xiroi, opp. 'EXAjji/jar^y, calls attention to langnnge;
'lovSaroy, opp."EXA»;v, calls attention to nationality ; '\a parfXiirp -= a member
of the theocracy, in possession of full theocratic privileges (Tiench, Syn.
§ xxxix, p. 132 ff.). The word 'lov^aios does not occur in LXX (though
'lovta'Ca ^i6s is found four times in 2 Mace), but at this date it is the common
word ; 'E^pafos and 'laparjKhrjs are terms reserved by the Jews themselves,
the one to distinguish between the two main divisions of their race (the
Palestinian and Greek-speaking), the other to describe their esoteric status.

For the Jew's pride in his privileges comp. 4 Ezra vi. 55 f. Aatc autem
omnia dixi coram te, Domine, quoniam dixisti eas (sc. gentes) nil esse, et
quoniam salivae assimilata* sunt, et quasi stillicidium de vase similasti
habundantiam eorum.

eiroi'Ofjial^j] : ' bearest the name ' : inovofMaCfiv^' to impose a name,'
pass. ' to have a name imposed.'

^iramTraoT] vit^^'. 'have a law to lean upon': so (without art.)
t^ABD*; but it is not surprising that the later IMSS. should
make the statement more definite, ' lean upon the Law.' For i-nav.
(requiescis Vulg.) cf. Mic. iii. 11 ; Ezek. xxix. 7 : the word implies
at once the sense of support and the saving of ill-directed labour
which resulted to the Jew from the possession of a law.

KauxSaai iv 0ew : suggested by Jer. ix. 24 ' let him that glorieth
glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth Me, that 1 am
the Lord.'

Kavxdaai : for kuvx^, stopping at the first step in the ptoces* of con-
tiactioa {jtavx^-taai, navxaaat, Kai/x$). This is one of the forms which used



II. 17-20.] FAILURE OF THE JEWS 6^

to be called * Alexandrine,* but which simply belong to the popular Greek
current at the time (Hort, Introd. p. 304'). Kavxaaai occurs also in i Cor.
iv. 7, KaTUKavxo-oai Rom. xi. 18 ; comp. uSvvaaai Luke xvi. 25, and from un-
contracted verbs, (paytaat . . . -irUaai Luke xvii. 8, bvvaaai Matt. v. 3O (but
hxivri Mark ix. 32) ; see Win. Gr. xiii. 2 b (p. 90).

18. t6 9Ati)io. Bp. Lightfoot has shown that this phrase was
so constantly used for ' the Divine Will ' that even without the art.
it might have that signification, as in i Cor. xvi. la [On Revision,
p. 106 ed. I, p. 118 ed. 2).

, SoKifid^ets Tcl 8ia<j>e'poi'Ta : probas uiiliora Cod. Clarom. Rufin.
Vulg. ; non modo prae malis bona sed in boiiis optima Beng. on
Phil. i. 10, where the phrase recurs exactly. Both words are
ambiguous: fioKt/^ia^fti/ = (i) 'to test, assay, discern'; (ii) 'to
approve after testing' (see on i. 28); and rh. Siacpe'pnvra may be
either ' things which differ,' or ' things which stand out, or excel.'
Thus arise the two interpretations represented in RV. and RV.
marg., with a like division of commentators. The rendering of
RV. marg. ('provest the things that differ,' *hast experience of
good and bad ' Tyn.) has the support of Euthym.-Zig. (diaKplven to.

dia(pfpovTa ciXXrjXaiv' olov KaKov koI kukov^ dperriv Koi KaKiavJ, Fri. De W.

Oltr. Go. Lips. Mou. The rendering of RV. ('approvest the
things that are excellent') is adopted by Latt. Orig. (i/a ut non
solum quae sint bona scias, verum etiam quae sint meliora et uiiliora
discernas), most English Versions, Mey. Lft. Gif. Lid. (Chrys. does
not distinguish; Va is undecided). The second rendering is the
more pointed.

Karrjxoup.ei'os Ik toG cojxou : of. Acts. xv. 21.

19. irtiroiOas k.t.\. The common construction after triiroiBai is on : ace.
and infin. is very rare. It seems better, with Vaughan, to take aeavrov
closely with -niiToiBas, 'and art persuaded as to thyself that thou art,' &c.

68i)y6v . . . TV(j>\wv. It is natural to compare Matt. xv. 14 rv<p\oi elaiv
oSriyol rv(p\5)v k.t.X. ; also xxiii. 16, 24. Lips, thinks that the first saying was
present to the mind of the Apostle. It would not of course follow that it
was current in writing, though that too is possible. On the other hand the
expression may have been more or less proverbial : comp. Wiinsche, Erldut.
d. Evang. on Matt, xxiii. 16. The same epithet was given by a Galilaean
to R. Chasda, Baba Kama fol. 52a.' When the Shepherd is angry with the
sheep he blinds their leader; i.e. when God determines to punish the
Israelites, He gives them tmworthy rulers.'

20. iraiSeuTT^i' : ' a schoolmaster,' with the idea of discipline,
correction, as well as teaching; cf. Heb. xii. 9.

I'tjTrtoji' : 'infants,' opp. to rfheioi, 'adults,' as in Heb. v. 13, 14.

^.op^diaiv : ' outline,' ' delineation,' ' embodiment.' As a rule
(Txfjfia = outward form as opp. to inward substance, while p-oijipq
= outward form as determined by inward substance ; so that
<Txw^ is the variable, p-npcprj the permanent, element in things : see
Lft. P/iil. p. 125 ff. ; Sp. Comm. on i Cor. vii. 31. Nor does the
present passage conflict wiih this distinction. 1 he Law was a real



66 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [ll. 20-23.

expression of Divine truth, so far as it went. It is more diflficult to

account for 2 Tim. iii. 5 ^xovres yLOpc^iixTiv (vae^das Tr]v St dvvafiiv
avrrji rjpvqfitvoi.

See however Lft. in Joum. of Class, and Sacr. Philol. (1857") iii. 115
' They will observe that in two passaj^es where St. Paul does speak of that
which is unreal or at least external, and does not employ axniJ^<^, he still
avoids using fiopcprj as inappropriate, and adopts ^opilxaais instead (Rom. ii.
20 ; 2 Tim. iii. 5), where the termination -cuitjs denotes "the aiming after or
affecting the ixop(pT}."' Can this quite be made good?

21. oiJi': resumptive, introducing tiie apodosis to the long pro-
tasis in vv. 17-20. After the string of points, suspended as it were
in the air, by which the Apostle describes the Jew's complacency,
he now at last comes down with his emphatic accusation. Here
is the ' Thou art the man ' which we have been expecting since
ver. I.

KX^iTTtiv : infin. because Krjpiaaojv contains the idea of command.

22. pSeXuaao/xekos : used of the expression of physical disgust,
esp. of the Jew's horror at idolatry.

Note the piling up of phrases in Deut. vii. 26 Ka\ ovk tlaoifftis PSeKvyfm
■^ 0^ [here of the gold and silver plates with which idols were overlaid] tU
t6v oIkuv aov, KOI ear) dvaOrjua aicrnep tovto. ■npoaoxO^'TfjLaTi vpoaoxOiels koX
^5e\iiyiJ.aTi P5e\v^ri, oti dvaOrj/M eartv. Comp. also Dan. xii. II ; Matt. xxiv.
15, &c. One of the ignominies of captivity was to be compelled to carry
the idols of the heathen : Assump. Mays. viii. 4 cogentur palam baiulare idola
eorum inquinata.

lepoCTuXeis. The passage just quoted (Deut. vii. 26 with 25),
Joseph. Ant. IV. viii. 10, and Acts xix. 37 (where the town-clerk
asserts that St. Paul and his companions were ' not iep6a-v\oi) show
that the robbery of temples was a charge to which the Jews were
open in spite of their professed horror of idol-worship.

There were provisions in the Talmud which expressly guarded against
this: everything which had to do with an idol was a PdeXvyfia to him unless
it had been previously desecrated by Gentiles. But for this the Jew might
have thought that in depriving the heathen of their idol he was doing a good
work. See the passages in Delitzsch ad loc. ; also on UpoavKia, which must
not be interpreted too narrowly, Lft., £ss. on Supern. Rel. p. 299 f. ;
Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, p. 144 n, where it is noted
that UpoavXla was just one of the crimes which a provincial governor could
proceed against by his own imperium.

The Kng. Versions of UpoavXeis group themselves thus : ' robbest God of
his honour' Tyn. Cran. Gcnev. ; 'doest sacrilege' (or equivalent) Wic.
Rhem. AV. RV. marg. ; 'dost rob temples' RV.

23. It is probably best not to treat this verse as a question.
The questions which go before are collected by a summary accu-
sation. Gif, with a delicate sense of Greek compo.sition, sees
a hint of this in the change from participles to the relative and

indie. (6 SiddcTKcov ... 6c Kav^^avai).



II. i4-27.] FAILURE OF THE JEWS 67

24. A free adaptation of Is. lii, 5 (LXX). Heb. ' And con-
tinually all the day long My Name is blasphemed ' : LXX adds to
this St' vnas and <V toIs edveaiv. St. Paul omits ^lanavTos and changes

fxov to Tov Qeov.

The original meant that the Name of God was reviled by the
tyrants and oppressors of Israel : St. Paul, following up a suggestion
in the LXX {81 v^as), traces this reviling to the scandal caused
by Israel's inconsistency. The fact that the formula of quotation
is thrown to the end shows that he is conscious of applying the
passage freely : it is almost as if it were an after-thought that the
language he has just used is a quotation at all. See the longer
note on ch. x, below.

25. vofiov 'n-pa.(TOT[)s. On the absence of the art. see especially the scholarly
note in Va. : ' It is almost as if vufxov vpaaativ and v6/j.ov vapaParTjs were
severally like voixoOeruv, voixo<J>v\aKHv, &c., vofioOtrrjs, voiio^i^aoKakos, &c.,
one compound word: if thou be a law-doer . . . if thou be a law-transgressor,
&c., indicating the character of the person, rather than calling attention to
the particular_/i7;-»j or designation of the law, which claims obedience.'

Yt'yovtv : ' is by that very fact become.' Del. quotes the realistic ex-
pression given to this idea in the Jewish fancy that God would send his
angel to remove the marks of circumcision on the wicked.

26. €is ircpiTOfj.T);' XoYiaSi^aeTai : \oy'i^i(j6ai el's rt = Xoyiffff^ai €tr rh
(tvai Ti, els denoting result, ' so as to be in place of,' ' reckoned as
a substitute or equivalent for ' (Fri., Grm.-Thay. s. v. Xoyi^onai i a).

Of the synonyms rrjpeTv, (pvXaaaeiv, TtXtTv ; rripuv = ' to keep an eye upon,*
'to observe carefully' (and then do); (pvXaaaeiv = 'to guard as a deposit,'
'to preserve intact' against violence from without or within; reXuv = 'to
bring (a law) to its proper fulfilment ' in action ; rrjpuv and (pvkaaativ are
both from the point of view of the agent, reXeiv from that of the law which
is obeyed. See Westcott on Jo. xvii. 1 2 ; 1 Jo. ii. 3.

27. Kpivei: most probably categorical and not a question as
AV. and RV. ; = ' condemn ' by comparison and contrast, as in
Matt. xii. 41, 42 'the men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judge-
ment with this generation and shall condemn it,' &c. Again we
are pointed back to vv. 1-3 ; the judge of others shall be himself
judged.

•q Ik <j>uaea)s cLKpoPuaTia : unclrcumcision which physically re-
mains as it was born. The order of the words seems opposed to
Prof. Burton's rendering, ' the unclrcumcision which by nature
fulfils the law* (« (f)va. = (jivaei V. 14).

8id of 'attendant circumstances' as in iv. ii, viiL 25, xiv. 20;
Anglic^ ' with,' with all your advantages of circumcision and the
possession of a written law.

The distinction between the literal Israel which is after the flesh
and the true spiritual Israel is a leading idea with St. Paul and
is worked out at length in ix. 6 fF. ; see also pp. 2, 14 sup. We may

t 3



68 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [II. 27-29.

compare Pliil. iii. 3, where St. Paul claims that Christians represent
the t;ue circumcision.

28. 6 <v T(^ 4)av€p5. The Greek of this and the next verse is elliptical,
and there is some ambiguity as to how much belongs to the subject and how
much to the predicate. Even accomplished scholars like Dr. Gifford and
Dr. Vaughan differ. The latter has some advantage in symmetry, making
the missing words in both clauses belong to the subject ('Not he who is
[a Jew] outwardly is a Jew . . . but he who is [a Jew] in secret is a Jew') ;
but it is a drawback to this view of the construction that it separates Trepiro/xiJ
and Kaphias : Gif , as it seems to us rightly, combines these (' he which is
inwardly a Jew [is truly a Jew], and circumcision of heart ... [is true
circumcision 'J). Similarly Lips. Weiss (but not Mey.).

29. irepiTo/x^ KapSi'as. The idea of a spiritual (heart-) circum-
cision goes back to the age of Deuteronomy ; DeuL x. 16 nfpnt-

fielade ttjv (TKKrjpoKapSiav vp.mu : Jer. iv. 4 nfpiTfirjOrjTe ra Geo) vpavj Kai
ntpiTtpeaOt rrjv aKXrjpn<ap8tav vpmV. cf. Jer. ix. 26; Ezek. xliv. 7;

Acts vii. 51. Justin works out elaborately the idea of the Christian
circumcision, Dial. c. Tryph 114.

6 eiran'os. We believe that Dr. Gifford was the first to point
out that there is here an evident play on the name * Jew ' : Judah
s=' Praise ' (cf. Gen. xxix. 35 ; xlix. 8).



CASUISTICAIi OBJECTIOITS ATTSWERED.

III. 1-8. This argument may suggest three objections:
\) If the moral Gentile is better off than the immoral Jew^
what becomes of the Jew's advantages ? — ANSWER. He still
lias majiy. His [e.g^ are the promises (w. 1-2). (ii) But
has not the Jews unbelief cancelled those promises? —



Online LibraryW. (William) SandayA critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans → online text (page 22 of 71)