W. (William) Sanday.

A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans online

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xxxvi [xxxv]. I. The degree of relevance of each of these
passages to the argument is indicated by the paraphrase : see also
the additional note at the end of ch. x.

As a whole this conglomerate of quotations has had a cnrious history.
The quotations in N.T. frequently react upon the text of O.T., and tliey have
done so here: vv. 13-18 got imported bodily into Ps. xiv [xiii LXXj as an
appendage to ver. 4 in tlie 'common' text of the LXX n; KOivri, i.e. the
unrevised text current in the time of Oricen). They are still found in Codd.
N* B R U and many cursive MSS. of LXX (om. N<='A), though the Greek
commentators on the Psalms do not recognize them. From interpolated
MSS. such as these they found their way into Lat.-Vet., and so into
Jerome's first edition of the Psalter (the 'Roman'), also into his second
edition (the 'Galilean,' based upon Origen's Hexapla), though marked with
an obelus after the example of Origen. The obelus dropped out, and they
are commonly prhited in the Vulgate text of the Psalms, which is practically
ihe Galilean. From the Vulgate they travelled into Coverdale's liible
{h.Vt. 1535); from thence into Matthew's (Rogers') Bible, which in the


Psalter reproduces Coverdale (A. D. 1537), and also into the 'Great Bible'
(first issued by Cromwell in 1539, and afterwards with a preface by Cranmer,
whence it also bears the name of Cranmer's Bible, in 1540"!. The Psalter of
the Great Bible was incorporated in the liook of Common Prayer, in which
it was retained as being familiar ai d smoother to sing, even in the later
revision which substituted elsewhere the Authorized Version of 1611. The
editing of the Great Bible was due to Coverdale, who put an • to the
passages found in the Vulgate but wanting in the Hebrew. These marks
however had the same fate which befell the obeli of Jerome. They were
not repeated in the Prayer-Book ; so that English Churchmen still read the
interpolated verses in Ps. xiv with nothing to distinguish them from the rest
of the text. Jerome himself was well aware that these verses were no part
of the Psalm. In his commentary on Isaiah, lib. xvi, he notes that St. Paul
quoted Is. lix. 7, 8 in Ep. to Rom., and he adds, quod tnulti ignorantes. de
tertio decimo psalmo sumptum putant, qui versus {orLxoC. in edit tone Vulgata
[i. e. the Koivi] of the LXX] additi sunt et in Hebraico non habentur (Hieron.
0pp. ed. Migne, iv. 601 ; comp. the preface to the same boojc, ibid. col. 568 f. ;
also the newly discovered Commentarioli in Psalmos, ed. Morin, 1895, p. 34 f.).

10. Some have thought that this verse was not part of the
quotation, but a summary by St. Paul of what follows. It does
indeed present some variants from the original, SiVatos for -koiwv
XprjcTTOTrjTa and ov8f els for ovk tcrnv tas evos. In the LXX this clause
is a kind of refrain which is repeated exactly in ver. 3. St. Paul
there keeps to his text ; but we cannot be surprised that in the
opening words he should choose a simpler form of phrase which
more directly suggests the connexion with his main argument.
The dUaioi ' shall live by faith ' ; but till the coming of Christianity
there was no true BiKams and no true faith. The verse runs too
much upon the same lines as the Psalm to be other than a
quotation, though it is handled in the free and bold manner which
is characteristic of St. Paul.

11. ouK eo-TiK 6 (Tuvidv : non est qui intelligat (rather than qui
inlelligil) ; Anglicb, ' there is none to understand.' [But A B G,
and perhaps Latt. Orig.-lat. Ambrstr., WH. text read crwiav, as also
(B)C WH. tex! (KCnrav, without the art. after LXX. This would =
non est intelligens, non est requirens Deum (Vulg.) ' There is
no one of understanding, there is no inquirer after God.*J

6 o-wiiv : on the form see Win. Gr. § xiv, 16 (ed. 8 ; xiv, 3 E. T.) ; Hort,
Intr. Notes on Orthog. p. 1 67 ; also for the accentuation, Fri. p. 1 74 f.
Both forms, avi Uoj and awicu, are found, and either accentuation, avviwv or
owiojv, may be adopted : probably the latter is tr be preferred ; cf. i]<pi* from
d<ploj Mk. i. 34, xi. 16.

12. oLfia : ' one and all.'

TjxpeiciOTjCTai' : Heb. = ' to go bad,' * become sour,' like milk ;

comp. the dxpe'tos 8ov'\os of Malt. xxv. 30.
TTOiJiv {sine artic.) A B G &c. WH. text.
XpTjaTOTTjTa = ' goodness ' in the widest sense, with the idea ol
' utility ' rather than specially of ' kindness,' as in ii. 4.


<E(i)S tvos : cp. the Latin idiom ad unum omnes (Vulg. literally usque ad
ununi). B 67**, WH. marg. omit the second ovk ia-rw \ovk ioTiv ttoiZv
XprjOTOTriTa iws fvos^. The readings of B and its allies in these verses are
open to some suspicion of assimilating to a text of LXX. In ver. 14 B 17
add aiiTuv {Siv rb arojjia avTwv) corresponding to axnov in B's text of Ps. x. 7
[ix. 28].

13. T<£<j)os . . . eSoXioCaai'. The LXX of Ps. v. 9 [10] corre-
sponds pretty nearly to Heb. The last clause = rather linguam
iuam blanda77i reddunt (^poh'unt), or perhaps lingua sua blandiuntur
(Kautzsch, p. 34): 'their tongue do they make smooth' Cheyne ;
' smooth speech glideth from their tongue ' De Witt.

cSoXiotJcrav : Win. Gr. § xiii, 14 (ed. 8 ; xiii, if. E. T.). The termina-
tion -nav, extended from imperf. and 2nd aor. of verbs in -pa. to verbs in -co, is
widely found ; it is common in LXX and in Alexandrian Greek, but by no
means confined to it ; it is frequent in Boeotian inscriptions, and is called by
one grammarian a ' Boeotian ' form, as by others * Alexandrian.'

16s do-mSui': Ps. cxl. 3 [cxxxix. 4]. The position of the poison-
bag of the serpent is rightly described. The venom is more
correctly referred to the bite (as in Num. xxi. 9; Prov. xxiii. 32),
than to the forked tongue (Job xx. 16): see art. 'Serpent' in

14. Ps. X. 7 somewhat freely from LXX [ix. 28] : nv o/jS? to
arofxa avTov ytfiei Kai iriKpim Koi 86\qv. St. Paul retains the rel. but
changes it into the plural : (rrofia avrav B 17, Cypr., WH. marg.

mKpia : Heb. more lit. =/raudes.

15-17. This quotation of Is. lix. 7, 8 is freely abridged from the
LXX ; and as it is also of some interest from its bearing upon
the text of the LXX used by St. Paul, it may be well to give the
original and the quotation side by side.

Rom. iii. 15-17. Is. lix. 7, 8.

o^tis 01 TToSer avrtou eK^^eat alfia' ol ii TrdSer aitrcov yeni novrjpiav

avvrpi/Mfta icai ToKaiTrcopia iv rais rpexovai^ raxivoi eKx^ai alfta [^Koi oi
68ois avTcoVf Koi 686v tlprjvrji ovK !tia\oyi(r[Jiol nurwi/ BiaXoyiaiicn diro
ryvcMToy. <j)6va>v\. avvrpipfia koi ToKainapia

iv Tois oSots avTO)v koi. 686v elprjvrji
OVK oiSacrt [koi ovk fori Kpiais iv
TaTs oSoIf auTwi/J.

aJpM ivalrtof Theodotion, and probably also Aqtiila and Symmachos.
[From the Hexapla this reading has got into several MSS. of LXX.]

iippovojv (for diTo <p6vwv) A N : o'tlam N^ B Q*, &c. : eyvuaav A Q^ marg.
(Q = Cod. Marchalianus, XII Holmes) minusc. aliq.

19. What is the meaning of this verse ? Does it mean that the
passages just quoted are addressed to Jews (6 vopos =0. T. :

8o EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [ill. 10. 20

vofxov TT]V iroKaiav ypa(f)fiv ovofia^fi, ^s fitpos rh npo^r^riKa Euthym.-
Z g.), and therefore they are as much guilty before God as the
Gentiles ? So most commentators. Or does it mean that the
guilt of the Jews being now proved, as they sinned they must also
expect punishment, the Law (6 voixoi = the Pentateuch) affirming
the connexion between sin and punishment. So Gif, Both interpre-
tations give a good sense. [For though (i) does not strictly prove
that all men are guilty but only that the Jews are guilty, this was
really the main point which needed proving, because the Jews were
apt to explain away the passages which condemned them, and held
that — whatever happened to the Gentiles — they would escape.]
The question really turns upon the meaning of 6 vo^ios. It is
urged, (i) that there is only a single passage in St. Paul where
6 i/d/xoj clearly =0. T. (i Cor. xiv. 21, a quotation of Is. xxviii. 11) :
compare however Jo. x. 34 (= Ps. Ixxxii. 6), xv. 25 (= Ps.
XXXV. 19); (ii) that in the corresponding clause, toTs iv tw vofia
must = the Law, in the narrower sense; (iii) that in ver. 21 the
Law is expressly distinguished from the Prophets.

Yet these arguments are hardly decisive : for (i) the evidence is
sufficient to show that St. Paul might have used 6 vojios in the wider
sense ; for this one instance is as good as many ; and (ii) we must
not suppose that St. Paul always rigidly distinguished which sense
he was using ; the use of the word in one sense would call up the
other (cf. Note on o Qavaros in ch. v. 12).

Oltr. also goes a way of his own. bnt makes i v6noi = Law in the
abstract (covering at once for the Gentile the law of conscience, and for the
Jew the law of Moses), which is contrary to the use of o v6nos.

\iyei , . . XaXei ; Xe-yeii/ calls attention to the substance of what
is spoken, XaXelv to the outward utterance ; cf. esp. McClellan,
Gospeis, p. 383 flf.

<|)paYY] : cf. avaTrok6yi]Tos i. 20, ii. I ; the idea comes up at each
step in the argument.

uTToSiKos: not exactly 'guilty before God,' but 'answerable to
God.' {iTToSiKos takes gen. of the penalty; dat. of the person
injured to whom satisfaction is due (twv St-n-Xacrtojv {ittoSikos eo-roj
tS f3\a(f)0ivTL Plato, Lcgx- S46 B). So here: all mankind has
offended against God, and owes Him satisfaction. Note the use
of a forensic term.

20. 810T1 : ' because,' not ' therefore,' as AV. (see on i. 19).
Mankind is liable for penalties as against God, because there is
nothing else to afford them proteciion. Law can open men's
eyes to sin, but cannot remove it. Why this is so is shown in
vii. 7 ff.

SiKaiojOi^aerai : ' shall be pronounced righteous,' certainly not
' shall be made righteous ' (Lid.) ; the whole context {tva nav arono

til. ^1-26.J THE NEW SYSTEM 8l

(pfiayfj, viToSiKos, ivantop airov) has reference to a judicial trial and

irdcra cr&p^ : man in his weakness and frailty (i Cor. i. 29 ; i Pet
L 24).

imyvumi : 'dear knowledge'; see on L a 8, 3a.


JII. 21-28. Iferg then the new order of things comes in.
hi it is offered a Righteousness which comes from God but
embraces man^ by no deserts of his but as a free gift on the
part of God. This righteousness^ (i) though attested by the
Sacred Books, is independent of any legal system (ver. 21) ;
(ii) it is apprehended by faith in Christ, and is as wide as
mans need (vv. 22, 23) ; (iii) // is made possible by the
propitiatory Sacrifice of Christ (vv. 24, 25) ; which Sacrifice
at once explains the lenient treatmefit by God of past sin
and gives the most decisive expression to His righteousness
(vv. 25, z6).

^^ It is precisely such a method which is offered in Christianity.
We have seen what is the state of the world without it. But now,
since the coming of Christ, the righteousness of God has asserted
itself in visible concrete form, but so as to furnish at the same
time a means of acquiring righteousness to man — and that in
complete independence of law, though the Sacred Books which
contain the Law and the writings of the Prophets bear witness to
it. ^'^This new method of acquiring righteousness does not turn
upon works but on faith, i.e. on ardent attachment and devotion to
Jesus Messiah. And it is therefore no longer confined to any
particular people hke the Jews, but is thrown open without distinc-
tion to all, on the sole condition of believing, whether they be Jews
or Gentiles. "The universal gift corresponds to the universal need.
All men alike have sinned ; and all alike feel themselves far from
the bright effulgence of God's presence. "Yet estranged as they
are God accepts them as righteous for no merit or service of theirs,
by an act of His own free favour, the change in their relation to
Him being due to the Great Deliverance wrought at the price of the
Death of Christ Jesus. '^'^When the Messiah suffered upon the



Cross it was God Who set Him there as a public spectacle, to
be viewed as a Mosaic sacrifice might be viewed by the crowds as-
sembled in the courts of the Temple. The shedding of His Blood
was in fact a sacrifice which had the effect of making propitiation
or atonement for sin, an effect which man must appropriate through
faith. The object of the whole being by this public and decisive
act to vindicate the righteousness of God. In previous ages the
sins of mankind had been passed over without adequate punishment
or atonement : ^ but this long forbearance on the part of God had in
view throughout that signal exhibition of His Righteousness which
He purposed to enact when the hour should come as now it has
come, so as to reveal Himself in His double character as at once
righteous Himself and pronouncing righteous, or accepting as
righteous, the loyal follower of Jesus.

21. vvvi %i : ' now,' under the Christian dispensation. Mey. De
W. Oltr. Go. and others contend for the rendering ' as it is,' on the
ground that the opposition is between two s/a/es, the state under
Law and the state without Law. But here the two states or
relations correspond to two periods succeeding each other in order
of time ; so that vvvi may well have its first and most obvious
meaning, which is confirmed by the parallel passages, Rom. xvi.

25, 26 fiv(TTT]p'iOv . . . (j)avfpcx)devTOS . . . vvv, Eph. ii. 12, 1 3 vvvt
§6 , . , (y(vf)6r]T€ (yyvs, Col. i. 26, 27 fiV(TTTjpwv to dTTOKtKpvfifievov , . .
vvv Sf €(f)avepQ}6r}, 2 Tim. 1. 9, lO X"/'"' ''"')'' ^odelcrav . . , irpo xpovav
ataivicov (pavfpMBelcrav 8e vvv, Heb. ix. 26 vvvi 8e ana^ eVi (TVVTt\ela

T(ov nlavav . . . TTfcfiavepooTat. It may be observed (i) that the N. T.
writers constantly oppose the pre-Christian and the Christian
dispensations to each other as periods (comp. in addition to the
passages already enumerated Acts xvii. 30 ; Gal. iii. 23, 25,
iv. 3, 4; Heb. i. i) ; and (ii) that 4>av(pova6iu is constantly used
with expressions denoting time (add to passages above Tit. i. 3
Kaipols Idiois, I Pet. i. 20 eV iaxaTov twv xpovav). The leading
English commentators take this view.

An allusion of Tertullian's makes it probable that TVTarcion retained this
verse ; evidence fails as to the rest of the chapter, and it is probable that he
cut out the whole of ch. iv, along with most other references to the history
of Abraham (Tert. on Gal. iv. 21-26, At^v. Marc. v. 4).

Xwpis I'Ofiow: 'apart from law,' ' independently of it,' not as
a subordinate system growing out of Law, but as an alternative
for Law and destined ultimately to supersede it (Rom. x. 4).

StKaioaunj 06ou : see on ch. i. 17. St. Paul goes on to define
his meaning. The righteousness which he has in view is essen-


tially the righteousness of God ; though the aspect in which it is
regarded is as a condition bestowed upon man, that condition is
the direct outcome of the Divine attribute of righteousness, work-
ing its way to larger reahzation amongst men. One step in this
realization, the first great objective step, is the Sacrificial Death of
Christ for sin (ver. 25) ; the next step is the subjective appre-
hension of what is thus done for him by faith on the part of the
believer (ver. 22). Under the old system the only way laid down
for man to attain to righteousness was by the strict performance
of the Mosaic Law ; now that heavy obligation is removed and a
shorter but at the same time more effective method is substituted,
the method of attachment to a Divine Person.

'ire<|>ai'e'pa)Tai. Contrast the completed (fxivepaais in Christ and
the continued dnoKaXvyj/n in the Gospel (ch. i. 16) : the verb
(pavfpovaOai is regularly used for the Incarnation with its accompani-
ments and sequents as outstanding facts of history prepared in the
secret counsels of God and at the fitting moment ' manifested ' to
the sight of men; so, of the whole process of the Incarnation,
I Tim. iii. 16; 2 Tim. i. 10; I Pet. i. 20; i Jo. iii. 5, 8: of the
Atonement; Heb. ix. 26 : of the risen Christ, Mark xvi. 12, 14 ;
John xxi. 14: of the future coming to Judgement, i Pet. v. 4 ;
I Jo. ii. 28. The nearest parallels to this verse which speaks of
the manifestation of Divine ' righteousness' are 2 Tim. i. 10, which
speaks of a like manifestation of Divine 'grace,' and i Jo. i. 2,
which describes the Incarnation as the appearing on earth of the
principle of ' life.'

(lapTupoo/i^nfj K. T. K. : another instance of the care with which
St. Paul insists that the new order of things is in no way contrary
to the old, but rather a development which was duly foreseen and
provided for : cf. Rom. i. a, iii. 31, the whole of ch. iv, ix. 25-33 >
X. 16-21; xi. i-io, 26-29; XV. 8-12; xvi. 26 &c.

22. 8^ turns to the particular aspect of the Divine righteousness
which the Aposde here wishes to bring out ; it is righteousness
apprehended by faith in Christ and embracing the body of believers.
The particle thus introduces a nearer definition, but in itself only
marks the transition in thought which here (as in ch. ix. 30; i Cor.
ii. 6 ; Gal. ii. 2 ; Phil. ii. 8) happens to be from the general to the

iriaTcus MtjaoO Xpio-rou : gen. of object, ' faith in Jesus Christ.'
This is the hitherto almost universally accepted view, which has
however been recently challenged in a very carefully worked out
argument by Prof. Haussleiter of Greifswald {Der Glaube Jesu
Christi u. der chrisiUche Glaube, Leipzig, 1891).

Dr. Haussleiter contends that the gen. is subjective not objective, that like
the 'faith of Abraham' in ch. iv. 16, it denotes the faith (in God) which
Christ Himself maintained even through the ordeal of the Crncifixion, that


this faith is here put forward as the central feature of the Atonement, and
that it is to be grasped or appropriated by the Christian in a similar manner
to that in which he reproduces the faith of Abraham. If this view held
good, a number of other passages (notably i. 17) would be affected by it.
But, although ably carried out, the interpretation of some of these passages
seems to us forced ; the theory brings together things, like the iriffTis 'Ir]<Tov
XpiGTov here with the marts Qeov in iii. 3, which are really disparate; and
it has so far, we believe, met with no acceptance.

Ttjo-ov Xpi(TToO. B, and apparently Marcion as quoted by Tertullian,
drop 'IrjfTov (so too \VH. marg. 1 ; A reads tv Xpiarw 'Itjaov.

KQi tiTi irdvTas om. N* A B C, 47. 67**, Boh. Aeth. Arm., Clem. -Alex.
0:ig. Did. Cyr.-Alex. Aug.: ins. DEFGKL &c. em Travras alone is
found in Jo. Damasc. Vulg. codd., so that ety itavTai ical (nl Trai'ray would
seem to be a conflation, or combination of two readings originally alterna-
tives. If it were the true reading €ts would express 'destination for' all
believers, iiri 'extension to' them.

23. ou ydp ecTTi SiaaToX^. The Apostle is reminded of one of
his main positions. The Jew has (in this respect) no real advantage
over the Gentile ; both alike need a righteousness which is not their
own ; and to both it is offered on the same terms.

■^fiapTOK, In English we may translate this 'have sinned' in
accordance with the idiom of the language, which prefers to use
the perfect where a past fact or series of facts is not separated by
a clear interval from the present : see note on ii. 12.

ucTTepoCi'Tai : see Moitro, Homeric Grammar, § 8 (3); mid. voice =
^feel want.' Gif. well compares Matt. xix. 20 tI tn larTepa ;
(objective, 'What, as a matter of fact, is wanting to me?') with
Luice XV. 14 Koi avTos TJp^uTo vaTfpe'iadat (subjective, the Prodigal
begins Xofeel his destitution).

TTjs 8o?T)s. There are two wholly distinct uses of this word :
(i) = 'opinion' (a use not found in N. T.) and thence in
particular 'favourable opinion,' 'reputation' (Rom. ii. 7, 10;
John xii. 43 &c.); (2) by a use which came in with the
LXX as translation of Heb. *li23 = (i) * visible brightness or
splendour' (Acts xxii. 11 ; i Cor. xv. 40 ff.); and hence
(ii) the brightness which radiates from the presence of God,
the visible glory conceived as resting on Mount Sinai (Ex.
xxiv. 16), in the pillar of cloud (Ex. xvi. 10), in the tabernacle
(Ex. xl. 34) or temple (i Kings viii. 11; 2 Chron. v. 14), and
specially between the cherubim on the lid of the ark (Ps. Ixxx. i ;
Ex. XXV. 22; Rom. ix. 4 &c.); (iii) this visible splendour
symbolized the Divine perfections, 'the majesty or goodness of
God as manifested to men' (Lightfoot on Col. i. 11 ; comp. Eph.
i. 6. 12, 17; iii. 16); (iv) these perfections are in a measure
communicated to man through Christ (esp. 3 Cor. iv. 6,
iii. 18). Both morally and physically a certain transfiguration
takes place in the Christian, partially here, completely hereafter
(( omp. e.g. Rom. viii. 30 €'3d|ujei/ with Rom. v. 3 tV ATrtfit rra


So^rjs Tov Q(ov, Vlii. 18 Tijv tJ.eWovaav 86^av aTroKaXvcpdijiai, 2 TilTl,

li. 10 So^rjs ataviov). The Rabbis held that Adam by the Fall lost
six things, 'the glory, life (immortality), his stature (which was
above that of his descendants), the fruit of the field, the fruits of
trees, and the light (by which the world was created, and which
was withdrawn from it and reserved for the righteous in the world
to come)/ It is explained that ' the glory ' was a reflection from
the Divine glory which before the Fall brightened Adam's face
(Weber, Allsyn. Theol. p. 214). Clearly St. Paul conceives of this
gk»ry as in process of being recovered: the physical sense is also
enriched by its extension to attributes that are moral aud

The meaning of 5<5£a in this connexion is well illustrated by 4 Ezr. vii. 43
[ed. Bensly = vL 14 O. F. Fritzsche, p. 607], where the state of the blessed
is described as neque meridiem, neque noctem, neque ante lucem [perh. lor
anielucium ; vid. Bensly ad loc.\ neque nitoretn, neque claritatem, neque
lucem, nisi sohimmodo splcndorcm claritatis Allissitni [perh. = aitav^an 'n.
SS^rjs 'TipiaTov]. In quoting this passage Ambrose has soia Dei fulgehit
claritas ; Dominus enim erit hix omnium [jci. Rev. xxi. 24). The blesstd
themselves ^hine with a brightness which is reflected from the face of God ■
ibid. w. 97, 98 [Bensly = 71, 72 O. F. P^itziche^ quomodo incipiet (fiikfi)
viiltus eorum fulgere sicut sol, et qitomodo incipient stcllaium adsimilaii
lumini . . ./esiinanf enim videre vultum \eius\ cui serviunt viventes et
a quo incipient gloriosi mocedem recipere (cf. Matt. xiii. 43).

24. SiKaioufjiei'oi. The construction and connexion of this word
are difficult, and perhaps not to be determined with certainly,
(i) Many leading scholars (De W. Mey. Lips. Lid. Win. Gr. § xlv.
6 b) make btKaiovfifvoi mark a detail in, or assign a proof of, the
condition described by varfpovvrcu. In this case there would be
a slight stress on 8u>pedv: men are far from God's glory, because the
state of righteousness has to be given them ; they do nothing for
it. But this is rather far-fetched. No such proof or further
description of varfpoivrai is needed. It had already been proved
by the actual condition of Jews as well as Gentiles ; and to prove
it by the gratuitousness of the justification would be an inversion
of the logical order, (ii) va-Ttpovvrai 8iKaiovp.evoL is taken as = varc

poiivTai Koi SiKniovvrai (Fri.) Or = vaTepovpevot SiKaiovvrai (

But this is dubious Greek, (iii) 8iKaiovpfvot is not taken with what
precedes, but is made to begin a new clause. In that case there is
an anacoluthon, and we must supply some such phrase as nws
Kavx^peda; (Oltr.). But that would be harsh, and a connecting
particle seems wanted, (iv) Easier and more natural than any of
these expedients seems to be, with Va. and Ewald, to make ov yap
. . . vartpoipTai practically a parenthesis, and to take the nom.
?>iKai(jvpfvot ' as suggested by Troires in ver. 23, but in sense referring
rather to rovs Ttia-Tevovrai in ver. 22.' No doubt such a construction
would be irregular, but it may be questioned whether it is too


irregular for St. Paul. The Apostle frequently gives a new turn to
a sentence under the influence of some expression which is really
subordinate to the main idea. Perhaps as near a parallel as any

"'Ould be 2 Cor. viii. l8, 19 a-vvtTrfjJi'^afifv 8e TOP abf\(f>ov . . ov
6 enaivoi fv tw evayyeXi'w . . . ov /jlovov 8e, dWa Kui x(ip0T0VTj6fts (aS if

05 enaivHTni had preceded).

Swpeai' TT] auTou x^P'-f'- Each of these phrases strength^^ns the

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