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A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans online

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nearest word rrf rpa.

KaTaiaxuvQ-f\a€Tai. Either an incorrect translation of the Hebrew,
or based on a different reading. The RV. of Isaiah reads ' shall
not make haste.'

In the O. T. neither of these passages has any direct Messianic
reference. In both Jehovah is the rock founded on Zion. In
Is. viii. 14 He is represented as a 'stumbling-block' to the
unbeliever; in Is. xxviii. 16 He is the strength of those that believe
in Him. But from the very beginning the word \i6os was applied
to Christ, primarily with reference to Ps. ex viii. 22 'the Stone
which the builders rejected ' (Matt. xxi. 42 ; Mark xii. 10 ; Luke
XX. 17; Acts iv. II by St. Peter). The other passages in which
the word \iSos was used in the LXX came to be applied as here,
and in Eph. ii. 20 uKpoycovialov is used almost as a proper name.
By the time of Justin Martyr Xldos is used almost as a name of the

Christ : t'orw koI ravra ovtu>s 6';^oiTa as Xe'-yets, ical on TradrjTos Xpiaroi
iTpne(fir]Tfv6r] fieWdv (ivai Koi \i6os K(K\r]Tat {Dial. 36. p. 122 C. cd.
Otto) .' o yap XpKTTos ^aaiXfis koi Upfvs koi 6(6s Kai Kvpios koi ayyeXos
Koi (ii/dpcoTTos Kal apxi(TTpaTr}yns Kai \l6os (ib. 34. p. 1 1 2 D.) These

quotations seem to imply that X/^or was a name for the Messiah
among the Jews, and that Justin wishes to prove that Christ fulfils
that tide, and this seems to be corroborated by quotations from
Jewish writings, not only in later books but even earlier. In Is.
viii. 14, SaJiliedrin 38. i Filius Davidis non venit donee duae
domus patrum ex Israele deficiant, quae sunt Aechmaloiarcha Baby-
lonicus et princeps tcrrae hraeliticae q. d. Et erii in Sanciuariian
et in lapidem percussionis et petram offensionis duabus domibiis
Israel. Is. xxviii. 16 is paraphrased by the Targum Jonathan,
Ecce ego constituam in Sion regan, regem fortem, poteniem et
terribilem ; corroborabo eum et confortabo eum dicit Propheta.
lusti autem qui crediderint haec cum venerit tribulatio non co/7i-
movebuntur, and some apparently read regem Messias regem
polentcm. Ps. cxviii. 22 is paraphrased by the same Targum,
Puerum despexerunt aedificaiores, qui fuit inter filios Israel et
meruit constitui rex et dominator. For these and other reff. see
Schoettgen, ii. 160, 606.

A comparison of Romans and i Peter shows that both Apostles
agree in quoting the same passages together, and both have



283 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [IX. 33-X. 1.

a number of common variants from the normal text of the LXX,
This may have arisen from St. Peter's acquaintance with the
Romans ; but another hypothesis may be suggested, which will
perhaps account for the facts more naturally. We know that to
prove from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ, was the constant
practice of the early Christians. Is it not possible that even as early
as this there may have been collections of O. T. texts used for con-
troversial purposes arranged according to their subjects, as were
the later Tesiiviotiia of Cyprian, where one of the chapters is headed:
Quod idem et lapis dictus sit ( Test. ii. 1 6) ? See on ix. 25, 26 supra,
X. 1. There is no break in the argument between this chapter
and vv. 30-33 of chap, ix ; but before expanding this part of the
subject, the Apostle pauses for a moment, impelled by his own
strong feelings and the deep tragedy of his countryman's rejection,
to express his sorrow and affection.

Marcion admitted into his text ver. a-4, which he was able to nse at
a proof text of his fundamental doctrine that the Jews had been ignorant of
the ' higher God.' The whole or almost the whole passage which follows
X. 5-xi. 32, he appears to have omitted, Zahn, p. 518. Tert. Adv. Marc. v. 13.

dSeXfjjoi. The position increases the emphasis of a word always
used by the Apostle when he wishes to be specially emphatic.
The ihouglit of the Christian brotherhood intensifies the contrast
with the Israelites who are excluded.

^iv : without a corresponding fie. The logical antithesis is given
in ver. 3.

euSoKto : ' good will,' * good pleasure/ not 'desire,' which the word
never means.

The word illoKia means 'good pleasure ' either (1) in relation to oneself

when it comes to mean 'contentment,' Ecclus. xxix. 23 \v\ /Jiiicpa) nal /xfydkcp
eiiSuiciav 6X* • ib. xxxv (xxxii). 14 oi opOpi^ovrts (itprjaovat fiidoKiav : 2 Thess.
i. 1 1 Kat nXTjpuarj rraaav ev!^oKiai' A'yaOwavvqs Kol epyov marfODS tv SvvAixti : Ps.
Sol. xvi. 12 : or (2' in relation to others, 'good will,' ' benevolence,' Ecclns.
ix. 1 2 /^^ (vooicTiur)i fv fvSoicia dcjfdwv : Phil. i. 15 rivis ftiv Sid <p9uvov /caj
ipiv, rivls hi Kal 5i' eiiSoKiay tov Xpiarov KTjpvaaovaiv : (3) in this sense it
came to be used almost technically of the good will of God to man, Eph.
i. 5 Kard T^f fiiSoKiay tov OehrjuUTOs airrov: i. 9 Kara r^v eiiSoKiay airov:
Ps. Sol. viii. 39.

The above interpretation of the word is different from that taken by Fritzsche
{adioc), Lft. (ad Phil. i. 15), Grm. Thayer, Lex. (s. v.), Philippi and Tholuck
(aJ loc). The word seems never to be used unqualified to mean ' desire ' ; the
instance quoted by Lft. does not support it.

1^ S^tjCTis : non orasset Paulus si absolute reprobati essent. Beng.

CIS awTTjpiai' = tj/a ffto^&xrtj cf. ver. 4 <t£ diKaioavvrjv and 1. 5 *'*
vnaKarji/ niffTews.

The additions ij before irpAy rov B(6v and iariv before «f» aotrrfpiav in
the TR. are gianimatical explanations. The reading tow ''lapa-qX for aiirSn
may have been merely an explanatory gloss, or may have arisen tluough the
verse being the beginning of a lesson in church services.



X. 2-4.J THE UNBELIEF OF ISRAEL 283

2. ixapTupu ydp. This gives the reason for St. Paul's grief.
He had been a Jew Trepta-aoTepas (rfKarrji {jTTapxoiV (^Gz\. i. 14J cf.
Acts xxii. 3) and hence he knew only too well the extent both of
their zeal and of their ignorance.

IriKov 0eou. Obj. genitive : ' zeal for God * (not as in a Cor.
xi. 2). An O. T. expression : Judith, ix. 4 fCnXwa-av t6v CrjXou <tov:
Ps. Ixviii [Ixix] ; cxviii [cxix]. 139 6 C'i^oi rov o'kov aov : i Mace,
ii. 58 C^^o? vofiov. Jowett quotes Philo, Leg. ad Cai'um, § 16 (Mang.
ii. 562) ' Ready to endure death like immortality rather than suffer
the neglect of the least of their national customs.' St. Paul selects
the very word which the Jew himself would have chosen to express
just that zeal on which more than anything else he would have
prided himself.

KOT ii:i-y{V(]i(Tiv. The Jews were destitute, not of yvuxnt, but of
the higher disciplined knowledge, of the true moral discernment
by which they might learn the right way. iniyvaxris (see Lft. on
Col. i. 9, to whose note there is nothing to add) means a higher
and more perfect knowledge, and hence it is used especially and
almost technically for knowledge of God, as being the highest
and most perfect form : see on i. 28 and cf. iii. 20.

3. dYKooufTcs Y'^P* This verse gives the reason for oi xar
fiTiyvcoaiv, and the antithesis to f) pev €v8oKia. dyvoovvres means ' not
knowing,' ' being ignorant of,' not ' misunderstanding.' St. Paul
here states simply the fact of the ignorance of his fellow-country-
men ; he does not yet consider how far this ignorance is culpable :
that point he makes evident later (vv. 14 sq.).

TTji' ToO 0eou SiKaioffui'Tji' . . . TTjK ISiav. St. Paul contrasts two
methods of righteousness. On the one side there was the righteous-
ness which came from God, and was to be sought in the manner
He had prescribed, on the other was a righteousness which they
hoped to win by their own methods, and by their own merit.
Their zeal had been blind and misdirected. In their eagerness to
pursue after the latter, they had remained ignorant of and had not
submitted to the method (as will be shown, a much easier one)
which God Himself had revealed.

u-n-eTciYTjcroi'. Middle, ' submit themselves,' cf. Jas. iv. 7 ; i Pet.
ii* 13; V. 5 ; Winer, § xxxiv, 2. p. 327 E.T.

The second hiKaioavv-qv after lUav of the TR. is supported by K only
among good authorities, and by Tisch. only among recent editors; it is
omitted by A B D E P, Vnlg. Boh. Arm., and many Fathers.

4. TeXos Y"^P v6\i.o\} K.T.X. St. Paul has in the preceding verse
been contrasting two methods of obtaining SiKaioaivT] ; one, that
ordained by God, as ix. 32 shows, a method ex Trla-Tecos ; the other
that pursued by the Jews, a method 8ia v6nov. The latter has ceased
to be possible, as St. Paul now proves by showing that, by the coming
of Christ Law as a means of obtaining righteousness had been




284 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [X. 4.

brought to an end. The ydp therefore introduces the reason, not
for the actual statement of ver. 3, that the Jews had not submitted
to the Divine method, but for what was implied — that they were
wrong in so doing.

T^os : ' end,' ' termination.' Law as a method or principle of
righteousness had been done away with in Christ. ' Christ is the
end of law as death is the end of hfe.' Gif. Cf. Dem. C. Eubuliden,

1306, 25 KiiiToi naaiv (<ttiv dvOpoinois t(\os tov ^iov 6di'aT0S ((JUOtcd

by Fri. and by many writers after him).

The theological idea of this verse is much expanded in later
Epistles, and is connected definitely with the death of Christ : Eph.
ii. 15 'He abolished in His flesh the enmity, even the law of
commandments contained in ordinances'; Col. ii. 14 'Having
blotted out the bond written in ordinances that was against us,
which was contrary to us : and He hath taken it out of the way,
nailing it to the cross.' This last passage is paraphrased by Lft. :
' Then and there [Christ] cancelled the bond which stood valid
against us (for it bore our own signature), the bond which engaged
us to fulfil all the law of ordinances, which was our stern pitiless
tyrant. Ay, this very bond hath Christ put out of sight for ever,
nailing it to His cross, and rending it with His body, and killing
it in His death.' And as he points out, a wider reference must
be given to the expression; it cannot be confined to the Jews.
The ordinances, although primarily referring to the Mosaic law,
' will include all forms of positive decrees in which moral or social
principles are embodied or religious duties defined ; and the " bond "
is the moral assent of the conscience which (as it were) signs and
seals the obligation.'

' Although the moral law is eternal, yet under the Gospel it loses
its form of external law, and becomes an internal principle of life.'
Lid.

voiiov : ' Law ' as a principle (so Weiss, Oltramare, Gif.), not
the Law, the Mosaic Law (so the mass of commentators). It is
not possible indeed to lay stress on the absence of the article here,
because the article being dropped before reXoy it is naturally also
dropped before vofxov (see on ii. 13), and although St. Paul might
have written t6 yap rfKns tov vofiov, yet this would not exactly have
suited his purpose, for re'Kos is the predicate of the sentence thrown
forward for emphasis. But that the application of the term must
be general is shown by the whole drift of the argument (see below),
by the words nair\ tu, iri(TT(vovTi proving that the passage cannot be
confined to the Jews and consequently not to the Mosaic law, and
by the correct reading in ver. 5 rfjv ck vouov (see critical note).

Tlie interi>retaiion of this verse has been much confused owing
to incorrect tranvLuions of reXos (fulfilment, aim), the confusion of
'd/xoi and 6 vofioi, and a misapprehension of the drift of the passage



X. 4, 6.] THE UNBELIEF OF ISRAEL a«5

That the version given above is correct is shown (i) by the mean-
ing of T«Xof. It is quite true that Christ is the reXeiuxris of ihe
Law, that in Him what was typical has its fulfihnent ; but riXm
never means TeXdaans (as it is taken here by Orig. Erasmus, &c.).
Again, it is equally true that the Law is the naiduyaySs that b;ings
men to Christ, and that Christ can be described as the object or
goal of the Law (as the passage is taken by Chrys., other fathers,
and Va. amongst English commentators) : but t(\os is only used
once in this sense in St. Paul's Epistles (i Tim. i. 5), Xpto-ro'r would
become the predicate, WXc? would then require the article, and vofxos
would have to be interpreted of the Jewish Law. The normal
meaning of the word, and the correct one here, is that of 'termina-
tion ' (so Aug. De W. Mey. Fri. Weiss, Oltramare); (2) by the
meaning of vofios (see above). This is interpreted incorrectly of the
Jewish Law only by almost all commentators (Orig. Chrys. anl
all the Fathers, Erasmus, Calv. De W. Mey. Va.) ; (3) by the
context. This verse is introduced to explain ver. 3, which asserts
that of two methods of obtaining righteousness one is right, the
other wrong. St. PavJ here confirms this by showing that the one
has come to an end so as to introduce the other. It is his object
to mark the contrast between the two methods of righteousness
and not their resemblance.

But the misinterpretation is not confined to this verse, it colours
the interpretation of the whole passage. It is not St. Paul's aim to
show that the Jews ought to have realized their mistake because
the O. T. dispensation pointed to Christ, but to contrast the two
methods. It is only later (vv. 14 f.) that he shows that the Jews
had had full opportunities and warnings.

€is SiKaioaoi't]!' iraj'Ti tu ttio'tcuoi'ti : * SO that SiKaioavinj may come
to everyone that believes/ 'so that everyone by believing may

obtain dKaioaCvrjJ

Omni credentiy tractatur rh credtnti ▼. 5 sq., rh omni v. 11 sq. vavTi,
0mni ex iudaeis et gentibus. Beng.

5-10. St. Paul proceeds to describe the two modes of obtaining
iiKaioavvT) in language drawn from the O. T., which had become
proverbial.

5. M&)aT]s T^p ypd<^c\. k.t.X. Taken from Lev. xviii. 5, which is
quoted also in Gal. iii. 12. The original (a noii]aas avBpoino^ (ijaeTai
iv avTols) is slightly modified to suit the grammar of this passage,
TTjv hi.Kaio(jvvT)v Trji/ fK vofiov bcipg made the object of Trotrjo-a?. St. Paul
quotes the words to mean that the condition of obtaining life by
law is that of fulfilment, a condition which in contrast to the other
method described immediately afterwards is hard, if not im-
possible. On this difficulty of obeying the law he has laiJ siress
again and again in the first part of the EpisUe, and ii is this



286 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [X. 5-8.

that he means by Tii* cd/xoi/ ruv ivroXav in Eph. iL 15 (quoted
above).

^TjcreTai : shall obtain life in its deepest sense both here and

hereafier (see pp. 180, 196).

There are a number of small rariations in the text of this verse, (i) 8t»

is placed before t^c Sitcaioffwyjv by N* A D*, Vulg. Boh., Orig.-lat., after »'<5/jou
by N<= B DO E F G K L P &c., Syrr., Chrys. Thdrt. &c. (a) « « v6fiov is read
by N B, 6« Tov i'6fiov by the mass of later authorities. (3) 6 iroiTjcras is
read without any addition by N* AD E, Vnlg., Grig, 'at., avra is added by
B F G K L P &c., Syrr., Chrys. Thdrt. &c., earn by d** e f. {4) avepwiros is
om. by F G, Chrys. ( 5) iv aiiTri is read by N A B minusc. pauc., Vulg. Boh.
Orig.-lat.. €1/ alrois D E F G K L P &c. Syrr., Chrys. Thdrt. &c.

The original text was on rtiv hiKaioavv-qv rtjv kie vonov 6 voi-qaai avdpwriui
(rjaeTai iv avrfi. The alteration of avra . . . auroTs came fiom a desire to
make the passage correspond with the LXX, or Gal. iii. 13 (hence the
omission ol dvOpwiro^), and this necessitated a change in the position of on.
TOV vo^ov arose from an early misinterpretation. The mixed text of B ypa<pei
T^f SiKatoavvTjv rfjv ex vofiov on o rroirjffas aura avOpwnos ^rjaerai iv avrr} and
of D ypn(pfi OTi Tfjv SiKaioavvtjv ttjv (k tov vofiov 6 -notriaas dvOpconos (rjafTat
(v avToii are curious, but help to support N A Vulg. Boh.

6-8. The language of St. Paul in these verses is based upon the
LXX of Deut. XXX. ri-14. Moses is enumerating the blessings of
Israel if they keep his law : ' if thou shalt obey the voice of the
Lord thy God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which
are written in this book of the law ; if thou turn unto the Lord thy
God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul ' ; he then goes on
(the RV. translation is here modified to suit the LXX) : ' " [For this
commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard
for thee, nor is it far from thee. ^' Not in heaven above] saying,
Who shall go up for us into heaven [and receive it for us, and having
heard of it we shall do it? "Nor is it beyond the sea], saying.
Who will go over to the further side of the sea for us, [and receive it
for us, and make it heard by us, and we shall do it ?] '* But the
word is very nigh thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, [and in thy
hands, that thou mayest do it].' The Apostle selects certain words
out of this passage and uses them to describe the characteristics of
the new righteousness by faith as he conceives it

It is important to notice the very numerous variations between the
quotation and the LXX. In the first place only a few phrases are
selected : the portions not quoted are enclosed in brackets in the translation
given above. Then in those sentences that are quoted there are very con-
siderable changes : (1) for the \(~/cuv of the LXX, which is an ungrammatical
translation of the Hebrew, and is without construction, is substituted fxfi
cItt^s (V TTJ Kap5i(f GOV from Deut. viii. 17, ix. 4 : (a) for n's hiavfpaati iJ/iiV cJs
t6 Tiipnv T^j OaXdaarjs is substituted t/s Karaji-qotTai ds ttjv d^vaaov in order
to make the passage better suit the purpose for which it is quoted : (3) in

t The Bohairic Version is quoted incorrectly in support of this reading.
The earn read there does not imply a variant, but was demanded hy the idiom
of the language.



X. 6.]



THE UNBELIEF OF ISRAEL 287



ver. 8 the words ff<p65pa . . . iv rats x*/"^* <^<"' ^re omitted (this agrees with
the Hebrew), as also iroieiv avrS.

6. r\ 8e cK irioreus 8iKatoo-uvT| outu Xeyei. It is noticeable that
St. Paul does not introduce these words on the authority of Scripture
(as ver. 11), nor on the authority of Moses (as ver. 5), but merely
as a declaration of righteousness in its own nature. On the
personification compare that of Wisdom in Prov. i. 20; Lk. xi. 49 ;

of irapciKkria-is Heb. xii. 5.

Tis &yaP-f\(TGrai els tov ovpav6v ; In (he original passage these
words mean : The law which I command you is not far off, it is
not in heaven, so that you will have to ask, Who will go up to bring
it down for us ? it is very near and not hard to attain. St. Paul
uses the same words to express exactly the same idea, but with
a completely different application. ' The Gospel as opposed to
the Law is not difficult or hard to attain to.'

TOUT co-Ti, XpiCTTor KaTayttYei^ : ' that is to say, to bring Christ
down.' Just as Moses had said that there was no need for anyone
to go up into heaven to bring down the law, so it is true — far more
true indeed — to say that there is no need to go into heaven to
bring down the object of faith and source of righteousness — Christ.
Christ has become man and dwelt among us. Faith is not a
difficult matter since Christ has come.

The interpretations suggested of this and the following verses
have been very numerous, tovt earw occurs three times in this
passage, and we must give it the same force in each place.
In the third instance (ver. 8) it is used to give a meaning or
explanation to the word to pruia, which occurs in the quotation ; it
introduces in fact what would be technically known as a ' Midrash'
on the text quoted (so Mey. Lid. Lips, and apparently Va. Gif.^.
That is the meaning with which the phrase has been used in
ix. 8, and is also the meaning which it must have here. The
infinitive cannot be dependent on tovt' eo-rt (for in all the passages
where the phrase is used the words that follow it are in the same
construction as the words that precede), but is dependent on
d 1/0/3?'; frerat which it explains : so Xen. Mem. I. v. 2 (Goodwin, Greek

Aloods and Tenses, § 97) «t l3ovXoin(6a ra iniTpf^ai. j) TraZSdS TratSeCo-at,

tf xP'ihtara SiaTwaai. In this and similar cases it is not necessary to
emphasize strongly the idea of purpose as do Fri. {nempe ut Christum
in orbem lerrarum deducat) and Lips, (ndmlich um Christum herabzu-
holen), the infinitive is rather epexegetical (so apparently Va. Gif.).
The LXX here reads Ws dva^TjatTai . . . koL \7j\j/(TaL ; the construction
is changed because tovt eariv koI KuTu^et would hardly have been
clear.

Of other interpretations, some do not suit the grammar. ' That
would be the same thing as to say Who will bring Christ down?'
would require rit icard|et toj/ XpiaTop. Weiss translates ' that would



a88 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [X. 6-8

be the same thing as to bring Christ down,' apparently making
the infinitive dependent on tovt tanv. Other translations or para-
phrases do not suit the context : ' Do not attempt great things,
only believe ' : or, ' Do not waver and ask, Is Christ really come ?
only believe.' The object of the passage is not to exhort to faith
or to show the necessity of faith — that has been done in the early
part of the Epistle ; but to prove that the method of faith was one
which, for several reasons, should not have been ignored and left
on one side by the Jews.

7. r\, Tis KaTaPi]<TeTai . . . drayayeiK : *nor is it necessary to
search the depth, since Christ is risen from the dead.' St. Paul

substitutes ris Kara^TjaeTm (Is rfjv cijSvaa-ov for the moie Ordinary TLs

Sianepdafi f|^'lv ds to Trtpav ttjs duXdcTarjs, both because it makes a
more suitable contrast to the first part of the sentence, and because
it harmonizes better with the figurative meaning he wishes to draw
from it. a^vaaos in the O. T. meant originally the * deep sea,' ' the
great deep' or 'the depths of the sea,' Ps. cvi (evil). 26 dva^ai-

vovaiv ems twv ovpavwv, Ka\ Karafialvovaiv ecos rav u^v<t(tuv, and the deep

places of the earth, Ps. Ixx (Ixxi). 20 Ka\ « rmv d.^va-acov t^s y^s
naXiv dvrjyayls ftf, and SO had come to mean Tartarus or the Lower
World; top 8e rdprapov ttjs d^vacrov Job. xli. 23, where the reference
to rdpTapos is due to the LXX ; cf. Eur. Phoeti. 1632 (1605) tnpTdpov
a^vaa-a xacr/ioTa. Elsewhere in the N. T. it is so used of the abode
of demons (Luke viii. 31) and the place of torment (Rev. ix. i).
This double association of the word made it suitable for St. Paul's
purpose; it kept up the antithesis of the original, and it also
enabled him to apply the passage figuratively to the Resurrection of
Christ after His human soul had gone down into Hades.

On the descensus ad inferos, which is here referred to in indefinite
and untechnical language, cf. Acts ii. 27 ; i Peter iii. 19 ; iv. 6; and
Lft. on Ign. Magn. ix ; see also Swete, Apost.-creed, p. 57 ff.

8. t6 pTjfio Tf)s iriaTcws. * The message, the subject of which is
faith ' ; Trt'o-Ttr does not mean ' the faith,' i. e. ' the Gospel message '
(Oltramare), but, as elsewliere in this chapter, faith as the principle
of righteousness. Nor does the phrase mean the Gospel message
which appeals to faith in man (Lid.), but the Gospel which preaches
faith, cf. X. 17. On pi)p.a cf i Peter i. 25 t6 fie pripa Kvplov fievu

fis Tov atii/a. TovTo Se fort to prip,a to fvayytXiadev els iifias.

o KT)pu'craofX€v. This gives the reason why the new way of
righteousness is easy to attain, being as it is brought home to every
one, and suggests a thought which is worked out more fully in
ver, 14 f.

In what sense does St. Paul use the O. T. in w. 6-8 ? The
difficulty is this. In the O. T. the words are used by Moses of
the Law : how can St. Paul use them of the Gospel as against the
Law?



X. 8.] THE UNBELIEF OF ISRAEL 289

The following considerations will suggest the answer to be given .

(i) The context of the passage shows that there is no stress
laid on the fact that the O. T. is being quoted. The object of the
argument is to describe the characteristics of SiKaioa-Cvr} e/e niaTfas,
not to show how it can be proved from the O. T.

(2) The Apostle carefully and pointedly avoids appealing to
Scripture, altering his mode of citation from that employed in the
previous verse. Mosen non citat, quia sensum Mosis non sequitur,
sed tantum ab illo verba muiuatur, Vatablus, ap. Crii. Sacr. ad loc.

-(3) The quotation is singularly inexact. An ordinary reader
fail ly well acquainted with the O. T. would feel that the language
had a familiar ring, but could not count it as a quotation.

(4) The words had certainly become proverbial, and many
instances of them so used have been quoted. Philo, Quod omn.



Online LibraryW. (William) SandayA critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans → online text (page 49 of 71)