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A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans online

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in God. The union of man with God depends upon the intimate
union of the Father and the Son.

Bfov must be accepted as against Xpiarov on decisive authority. The
latter reading arose from a desire to assimilate the expression to 2 Cor. v. 10.

IL St. Paul supports his statement of the universal character of
God's judgement by quoting Is. xlv. 23 (freely ace. to the LXX).
In the O. T. the words describe the expectation of the universal
character of Messianic rule, and the Apostle sees their complete
fulfilment at the final judgement.

^lofAoXoyiiCTeTai t<3 Ojeu, ' shall give praise to God/ according to
the usual LXX meaning ; cf. xv. 9, which is quoted from Ps. xvii
(xviii). 50.

fS iyd/, Xiyu Kvpios is substituted for Kar' ipavrov dfivtStu, cf. Num. xiv. a8
&C. ; for irdaa fXSiaaa k.t.K. the LXX reads 6p.(iTai it. 7. rbv Qiov.

12. The conclusion is : it is to God and not to man that each of
us has to give account. If Gfoi be read (see below), it may again
be noted how easily St. Paul passes from Kvpios to Bfo's (see on
ver. 10 and cf. xiv. 3 with xv. 7).

There are several minor variations of text. oZv is omitted by B D F G P
and perhaps the Latin authorities, which read itaque. For ScLaet of the TR.



590 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [XIV. 12-11

WH. rfad Sino^&ffft with B D F G Chrj's., the Latin authorities reading redJil
(but Cyprian dabif). t^ Qt^ at the end of the sentence is omitted by B F G
Cypr. Aug. In all these cases B is noticeable as appearing with a group
which is almost entirely Western in character.

13. The Apostle now passes to another aspect of the question.
He has laid down very clearly the rule that all such points are in
thsmselves indifferent ; he has rebuked censoriousness and shown
that a man is responsible to God alone. Now he turns completely
round and treats the question from the other side. All this is
true, but higher than all is the rule of Christian charity, and this
demands, above all, consideration for the feelings and consciences
of others.

Mtjk^ti o8v . . . Kpii'tojieK marks the transition to the second ques-
tion by summing up the first.

Kpimxe: for the play on Vi^crds cf. xii. 3, 14, xiii. i. 'Do not
therefore judge one another, but judge this for yourself, i. e. deter-
mine this as your course of conduct' : cf. 2 Cor. ii. i.

TO fjLT) TiBeVai . . . Tw d8E\(|>(3 . . . aKdi'SaXoi'. riBevai is Suggested
by the literal meaning of oKav^akov, a snare or stumbling-block
which is laid in the path. St. Paul has probably derived the word
(TKav^akov and the whole thought of the passage from our Lord's
words reported in Matt, xviii. 6 f. See also his treatment of the
same question in i Cor. viii. 9 f.

•irp6<rK0(in,o . . . TJ should perhaps be omitted with B, Arm. Pesh. As
Weiss points out, the fact that fj is omitted in all authorities which omit irp.
proves that the words cannot have been left out accidentally. vpoaKOfi/jM
would come in from i Cor. viii. 9 and ver. 20 below.

14. In order to emphasize the real motive which should influ-
ence Christians, namely, respect for the feelings of others, the
indifference of all such things in themselves is emphatically stated.

iv Kupiw 'ItjctoO. The natural meaning of these words is the
same as that of eV Xp. (ix. i) ; to St. Paul the indifference of all
meats in themselves is a natural deduction from his faith and life
in Christ. It may be doubted whether he is here referring expressly
to the words of Christ (Mark vii. 15; Matt. xv. 11); when doing

so his formula is irapeXa^ov ano roil Kvpiov. •

Kon'6;'. The technical term to express those customs and habits,
which, although ' common ' to the world, were forbidden to the

pious Jew. Jos. Anf. XIII. i. I tw kouov ^iov irpoDprnxtvovs '.
I Mace, i. 47> 62 ; Acts X. 14 ort ovdenoT* ecpayov nav Koivoy KOt
aKildaprov,

81* lauToO, ' in itself,' ' in its own nature.*

That 5i' iavTov is the right reading is shown by (i) the authority of NBC
also of 3 (Cod. Patiriensis, see Introduction, § 7) supported by many later
MSS., the Vulgatr, and tlie two earliest commentators Orig.-lat. In Domiri*
ergo lesu nihil commune per seinctipsum, hoc est naiura sui dicitur, and
Chrys. Tp <\>v(!u ^rjalv ovStv &Ka6apTov and (2) by the contrast with t^



XIV. 14-17.] ON SCRUPULOUSNESS 39 1

\oyi^oftevq). S«' avrov, 'through Christ* (so Theodrt. and later comm.) U

a correction.

€1 fiT] Tw XoyiJofjieVw k.t.X- Only if a man supposes that the
breach of a ceremonial law is wrong, and is compelled by public
opinion or the custom of the Church to do violence to his belief, he
is led to commit sin ; for example, if at the common Eucharistic
meal a man were compelled to eat food against his conscience it
would clearly be wrong.

15. et Y'^P- The ydp (which has conclusive manuscript authority)
implies a suppressed link in the argument. 'You must have
respect therefore for his scruples, although you may not share
them, for if,' &c.

XuiretTai. His conscience is injured and wounded, for ht wiliully
and knowingly does what he thinks is wrong, and so he is in danger
of perishing (dTniXXue).

uirep oS XpiCTTos direflafc. Cf. I Cor. viii. 10, II. Christ died
to save this man from his sins, and will you for his sake not give
up some favourite food ?

16. fjiT) |3Xao-4>Y]|ji,£ta9(D K.T.X. Let not that good of yours, i. e. your
consciousness of Christian freedom (cf. i Cor. x. 29 ff fkfvGfpla fiov),
become a cause of reproach. St. Paul is addressing the strong, as
elsewhere in this paragraph, and the context seems clearly to point,
at least primarily, to opinions within the community, not to the
reputation of the community with the outside world. The above
interpretation, therefore (which is that of Gilford and Vaughan),
is better than that which would refer the passage to the reputation
of the Christian community amongst those not belonging to it
(Mey-W. Lips. Liddon).

17. Do not lay such stress on this freedom of yours as to cause
a breach in the harmony of the Church ; for eating and drinking are
not the principle of that kingdom which you hope to inherit.

ri Pao-iXeia too 06oG. An echo of our Lord's teaching. The
phrase is used normally in St. Paul of that Messianic kingdom
which is to be the reward and goal of the Christian life ; so
especially i Cor. vi. 9, 10, where it is laid down that certain classes
shall have no part in it. Hence it comes to mean the principles or
ideas on which that kingdom is founded, and which are already
exhibited in this world (cf. i Cor. iv. 20). The term is, of course,
derived through the words of Christ from the current Jewish con-
ceptions of an actual earthly kingdom; how far exactly such
conceptions have been spiritualized in St. Paul it may be difficult
to say.

Ppuats Kal 17(5(715. If, as is probable, the weak brethren are
conceived of as having Judaizing tendencies, there is a special point
in this expression. ' If you lay so much stress on eating and drinking
as tp make a point of indulging in what you will at all costs, you are



392 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [XIV. 17-20.

in danger of falling into the Judaizing course of interpreling the
Messianic prophecies literally, and imagining the Messianic kingdom
to be one of material plenty ' (Iren. V. xxxiii. 3).

These words are often quoted as condemning any form of
scrupulousness concerning eating and drinking; but that is not
St. Paul's idea. He means that 'eating and drinking' are in
themselves so unimportant that every scruple should be respected,
and every form of food willingly given up. They are absolutely
insignificant in comparison with ' righteousness ' and * peace ' and

SiKatocrui'r) k.t.X. This passage describes man's life in the
kingdom, and these words denote not the relation of the Christian
to God, but his life in relation to others. 8iKaioavvT] therefore is not
used in its technical sense of the relation between God and man,
but means righteousness or just dealing ; elpfiw] is the state of peace
with one another which should characterize Christians ; x^P" is the
joy which comes from the indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the

community ; of. Acts ii. 46 fure'KdfJ.^avov rpocpi^s tv dyaXXtdo-ft kqI
d<pe\6TrjTi aapblas.

18. The same statement is generalized. The man who, on the
principle implied by these virtues (eV toutco, not eV toutois), is Christ's
servant, i. e. who serves Christ by being righteous and conciliatory
and charitable towards others, not by harshly emphasizing his
Christian freedom, is not only well-pleasing to God, but will gain
the approval of men.

SoKijjios T019 a.vdp(jiTToi<i. The contrast to ^'\a(T(f)r]fi(i(T6(o of ver. 16.
Consideration for others is a mark of the Christian character which
will recommend a man to his fellow-men. 86kihov, able to stand
the test of inspection and criticism (cf. 2 Tim. ii. 15).

19. OiKo8op,T)S : cf. I Cor. xiv. 26 jravra Trpos olKobonfjV yivtaQa,

I TheSS. V. I I olKoSoflflTt fls TOP €Va.

Si&noixev (N A B F G L P 3) is really more expressive than the somewhat
obvious coriection 8tuKUfi(v (C D E, Latt.). D EF G who add ((>v\d^wp.(¥
after dXXr)\ovs.

20. KardXue . . . tpyov keeps up tne metaphor suggested by
olKohopr)^. 'Build up, do not destroy, that Christian community
which God has founded in Christ.' Cf. i Cor. iii. 9 Qioi yap iap-tv

avvfpyni. GfoG ytcopyiov, Qeov olKoSofir) tare. The WOrds dp^vr) and

oiKodopf) both point to the community rather than the individual
Christian.

TtdvTa fiei' Ka9ap(£: cf. 1 Cor. X. 23 iravra t^eartv, dXX' ov vavra

<rv/j^//.'€i. Ttavra f^eariv, dXX' oil irdpra oiKo5op.fi,

dXXo KaK^c: the subject to this must be supplied from navra. It
is a nice question to decide to whom these words refer. (1) Are
they addressed to the strong, those who by eating are likely to give
offence to others (so Va. Olir., and the majority of commentaries)?



XIV. 20-23.] ON SCRUPULOUSNESS 393

or (2) are they addressed to the weak, those who by eating what they
think it wrong to eat injure their own consciences (so Gif. Mey.-W.
and others) ? In the former case 8ia niioaKoiinaros (on the Std cf. ii.
27, iv. 11) means 'so as to cause offence,' in the latter 'so as to
take offence' (Tyndale, 'who eateth with hurt of his conscience').
Perhaps the transition to ver. 21 is slightly better if we take (i).

21. A thing in itself indifferent may be wrong if it injures the
consciences of others ; on the other hand, to give up what will injure
others is a noble act.

KoX^i' : cf. I Cor. vii. i and for the thought i Cor. viii. 13 Sio'n-fp,

ti ^pZfxa <TKavda\i^ei tov abf\(p6v /xou, <>v fXTj (pdyay Kpea ets tov alwva, iva

fif] TOV d8f'K(f)6u jjLov cKavSaXlcra). We know the situation implied
in the Corinthian Epistle, and that it did not arise from the existence
of a party who habitually abstained from flesh : St. Paul was
merely taking the strongest instance he could think of. It is
equally incorrect therefore to argue from this verse that there was
1. sect of vegetarians and total abstainers in Rome. St. Paul
merely takes extreme forms of self-deprivation, which he uses as
instances. ' I would live hke an Essene rather than do anything to
offend my brother.'

The TR. adds after irpoffKoirru the gloss fj aeavSaKl^eTat fj &a9fvti with B
Western and Syrian authorities (N^BDEFGLP, &c., Vulg. Sah., Bas.
Chrys.). They are omitted by N A C 2, Pesh. Boh.. Orig. and Orig.-lat. This
is a very clear instance of a Western reading in B ; cf. xi. 6.

22. trb iriaTii' ^v cx*^5. Your faith is sufficient to see that all
these things are a matter of indifference. Be content with that
knowledge, it is a matter for your own conscience and God. Do
not boast of it, or wound those not so strong as yourself.

The preponderance of authorities (N ABC, Vulg. codd. Boh , Orig.-lat.)
compels US to read ^v Ix^'s. Tiie omirsion of ^c (DEFGLP2, Vulg.
iodd. Syrr. Boh., Chrys. &c.) is a Western correction and an improvement.

fioKapios K.T.X. Blessed (see on iv. 6, 7) because of his strong
faith is the man who can courageously do what his reason tells him
that he may do without any doubt or misgiving Kpivwv, to 'judge
censoriously so as to condemn,' cf. ii. i, 3, 27). 8oKt/^«f« (i. 28,
ii. 18) to ' approve of after testing and examining.'

23. 6 8e SiaKpivoixekos : see on iv. 20. If a man doubts or
hesitates and then eats, he is, by the very fact that he doubts,
condemned for his weakness of faith. If his faith were strong he
would have no doubt or hesitation.

■nay 8e 6 ouk Ik. iricrTews, djiapria Iotlv. nicms is subjective, the
Strong conviction of what is right and of the principles of salvation.
' Weakly to comply with other persons' customs without being
convinced of their indifference is itself sin.' This ma.xim (i) is not
concerned with the usual conduct of unbelievers, (2) must not be



394 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [XIV. 23-XV. 1.

extended to cases difTerent in character from those St. Paul is
considering. It is not a general maxim concerning faith.

This verse has had a very important part to play in controversy. How
important may be seen from the use made of it in Augustine Contra lulianum
iv, one passage of which (§ 32) may be quoted: Ex quo colli gitur, etiam
ipsa bona opera quae faciwtt infideles. non ipsorum esse, sed illius qui bene
ulilur ma/is. Ipsorutn atttem esse peccata qtiibus et bona male faciunt ;
quia ea non fideli, sed infideli, hoc est stulta et noxia faciunt voluntate:
qualis vohtfitas, nullo Christiana dubitante, arbor est mala, quaefacere non
potest nisi fructus malos, id est. sola peccata. Omne enim, velis nolis. quod
non est ex fide, peccatum est. Since this time it has been used to support the
two propositions that works done before justification are sin and consequently
that the heathen are unable to do good works. Into the merits of these
controversies it will be apart from our purpose to enter. It is sufficient to
notice that this verse is in such a context completely misquoted. As Chry-
sostom says, ' When a person does not feel sure, nor believe that a thing is
clean, how can he do else than sin ? Now all these things have been
spoken by Paul of the object in hand, not of everything.' The words do
not apply to those who are not Christians, nor to the works of those who
are Christians done before they became such, but to the conduct of believing
Christians ; and faith is vsed somewhat in the way we should speak of
a ' good conscience * ; ' everything which is not done with a clear conscience
is sin.' So Aquinas, Siimvia i. 2, qu. xix, art. v. omne quod non est ex fide
peccatum est. id est, omne qteod est contra conscientiam.

On the doxology (xvi. 25-27), which in some MSB, finds a place here, see
the Introduction, § 8.

XV. 1. The beginning of chap, xv is connected immediately
with what precedes, and there is no break in the argument until
ver. 13 is reached; but towards the close, especially in vv. 7-13,
the language of the Apostle is more general. He passes from the
special points at issue to the broad underlying principle of Christian
unity, and especially to the relation of the two great sections of the
Church — the Jewish and the Geniile Christians.

64>£iXojiei' 8e. Such weakness is, it is true, a sign of absence of
faith, but we who are strong in faith ought to bear with scruples
weak though they may be. 01 Sumioi not, as in i Cor. i. 26, the
rich or the powerful, but as in 2 Cor. xii. 10, xiii. 9, of the morally
strong.

Paardteif : cf. Gal. vi. 2 dXX^Xwv ra ^apr] PaaraCfTt. In classical

Greek the ordinary word would be ^e'petc, but ^aard^nv seems to
have gradually come into use in the figurative sense. It is used of
bearing the cross both literally (John xix. 17), and figuratively
(Luke xiv. 27). We find it in later versions of the O. T. In Aq.,
Symm. and Theod. in Is. xl. 11, Ixvi. 12; in the two latter in
Is. l.xiii. 9; in INIatt. viii. 17 quoting Is. liii. 3: in none of these
passages is the word used in the LXX. It became a favourite word
in Christian literature, Ign. Ad Poly c. i, Etist. ad Diog. § 10 (quoted
by Lft.).

(iTj lauTOis dp^axeii': cf. I Cor. X. 33 KaQu^s Kayia irdvra naa-iv

apecTKu, fir) (rjr&v to ipavrov avpfpfpov, where St. Paul is describing his



XV. 2-4.] ON SCRUPULOUSNESS 395

own conduct in very similar circumstances. He strikes at the root
of Christian disunion, which is selfishness.

2. €is TO dyaSok irpog oiKo8op,iii» : cf. xiv. l6 vficjv to dyaOov, 19 ra
Tijs otKoSo/j^s TJji fls dWfjXovs. The end or purpose of pleasing them
must be the promotion of what is absolutely to their good, further
defined by olKo8ofj.^, their edification. These words limit and
explain what St. Paul means by 'pleasing men.' In Gal. i. 10
(cf. Eph. vi. 6 ; i Thess. ii. 4) he had condemned it. In i Cor. ix.
20-23 he had made it a leading principle of his conduct. The rule

is that we are to please men for their own good and not our own.

The yap after tfcaaros of the TR. should be omitted. For jJ/^coj' some
authorities (F G P 3, Vulg., many Fathers) read viJiuv.

3. Kal Y^P 4 Xpiaros k.t.X. The precept just laid down is
enforced by the example of Christ (cf. xiv. 15). As Christ bore
our reproaches, so must we bear those of others.

Ka9ws Y^'YP<^'^''"ai. St. Paul, instead of continuing the sentence,
changes the construction and inserts a verse of the O. T. [Ps.
Ixviii (Ixix). 10, quoted exactly according to the LXX], which he
puts into the mouth of Christ. For the construction cf. ix. 7.

The Psalm quoted describes the sufferings at the hands of the
ungodly of the typically righteous man, and passages taken from it
are often in the N. T. referred to our Lord, to whom they would
apply as being emphatically 'the just one.' Ver. 4 is quoted
John XV. 25, ver. 9 a in John ii. 17, ver. 9 b in Rom. xv. 3, ver. 12
in Matt, xxvii. 27-30, ver. 21 in Matt, xxvii. 34, and John xix. 29,
ver. 22, f. in Rom. xi. 9, ver. 25 a in Acts i. ao. (See Liddon,
ad loc.)

01 6c€i8io-(jioi K.T.X. In the original the righteous man is repre-
sented as addressing God and saying that the reproaches against
God he has to bear. St. Paul transfers the words to Christ, who is
represented as addressing a man. Christ declares that in suffering
it was the reproaches or sufferings of others that He bore.

4. The quotation is justified by the enduring value of the O. T.
TrpoeYpa<|)T), 'were written before,' in contrast with r^ynripav.

cf. Eph. iii. 3 ; Jude 4, but with a reminiscence of the technical
meaning of ypd<})(iv for what is written as Scripture.

SiSao-KaXiav, 'instruction': cf. 2 Tim. iii. 16 ndaa ypa<pr) 6t6-
itvcvcTTOs Koi u)<pikmos TTpoi diBaaKaXiav.

TT]i' eXiTiSa : the specifically Christian feeling of hope. It is the
supreme confidence which arises from trust in Christ that in no cir-
cumsiances will the Christian be ashamed of that wherein he trusuth
(Phil. i. 20); a confidence which tribulation only strengthens, lor
it makes more certain his power oi endurance and his experience
of consolation. On the relation of patience to hope cf. v. 3 and
I Thess. i. 3.



396 EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS [XV. 4-6.

This passage, and that quoted above from 2 Tim. iii. 16, lay
down very clearly the belief in the abiding value of the O. T.
which underlies St. Paul's use of it. But while emphasizing its
value they also limit it. The Scriptures are to be read for our
moral instruction, ' for reproof, for correction, for instruction which
is in righteousness ' ; for the perfection of the Christian character,
' that the man of God may be complete, furnished unio every good
work'; and because they establish die Christian hope which is in
Christ. Two points then St. Paul teaches, the permanent value of
the great moral and spiritual truths of the O. T., and the witness
of the O. T. to Christ. His words cannot be quoted to prove more
than this.

There are In this verse a few idiosyncrasies of B which may be noted but
need not be accepted ; iypafrj (with Vulg. Orig.-lat.) for vpofypa(pTj ;
iravTa before (is t^v fjfi. (with P); t^s 7rapaK\Tjeeojs repeated after ex^^M*"
(with Clem.-Al.). The TR. with N<= A L P 3, &c. substitutes TrpoeypaipT] for
iypatprj in the second place, and with C*<" D E F G P, &c., Vulg. Boh. Hard,
omits the second hi6,.

6. After the digression of ver. 4 the Apostle returns to the sub-
ject of vv. 1-3, and sums up his teaching by a prayer for the unity
of the community.

h 8e ©€09 TTJs UTTOfiOiajs KOI Tr]S irapaKXi^O'ews : cf. o 9for ttjs ttp^injs
(ver. 33; Phil. iv. 9; i Thess. v. 23; Heb. xiii. 20), ttjs tXnidos

(ver. 13), ndarjs TrapaKXijcrews (2 Cor. i. 3), 7rd(rr]s x^piTOS (l Pet.

V. 10).

TO auTo <})po>'cti' : cf. Phil. ii. 2—5 TvXrjpixraTi fiov TTjp x^P^"* *"" ^^
avTo (ppouriTf . . . tovto (ppovelre iv vpiv o Kai iv Xp. I.

Kard XpiCTToi' 'Itjo-ouk: cf. 2 Cor. xi. 17 o XaX5, ov tcarh Kvptov
XaXw : Col. ii. 8 ov Kara Xp. : Eph. iv. 24 Tov Kaivov avSpoorrov tov

Kara Qeov KTiadivra (Rom. viii, 27, which is generally quoted, is not
in point). These examples seem to show that the expression must
mean ' in accordance with the character or example of Christ.'

Stprj for So'iy, a later form, cf. 2 Thess. iii. 16; a Tim. i. 16, 18 ; ii. 25;

Eph. L 1 7 (but with variant Swr) in the last two cases). Xp. 'Irja. (B D E G L,
&C., Boh. Chrys.), not 'Itja. Xp. N A C F P 2 Vulg., Orig.-lat. Theodrt.

6. Unity and harmony of worship will be the result of unity
of life.

A/AoOufxaSoK, ' with unity of mind.' A common word in the Acts
(i. 14, &c.).

Toif Qeoy Kal iraTcpa tou Kupiou ■f\[i.!x>v 'Itjo-ou Xpio-Tou. This expres-
sion occurs also in 2 Cor. i. 3 ; xi. 3 1 ; Eph. i. 3 ; i Pet. i. 3. In
Col. i. 3, which is also quoted, the correct reading is tw Qeco Trnrpl
TOV Kvptov TjiJiibv 'I. X. Two translations are possible : (i)' God even
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ' (Mey.-W. Gif. Lid., Lips.).
In favour of tliis it is pointed out that while irarrjp expects some
correlative word, ©«>s is naturally absolute ; and that 6 Beds Koi



XV. 6-8.] ON SCRUPULOUSNESS 397

naTTjp occurs absolutely (as in I Cor. XV. 24 Srav irapaSiSoI rljv ^nai-
\tiav Tw Geo) Koi jrarpi), an argument the point of which does not
seem clear, and which suggests that the first argument has not
much weight. (2) It is better and simpler to take the words in
their natural meaning, * The God and Father of our Lord Jesus
Christ' ; (Va. Oltr. Go. and others), with which cf. Eph. i. 17 o Qebs
Tov Kvp'iov fjpcov 'I. X. : Matt, xxvii. 46 ; Jn. xx. 17 ; Heb. i. 9.

7. The principles laid down in tliis section of the Epistle are
now generalized. All whom Christ has received should, without
any distinction, be accepted into His Church. This is intended
to apply especially to the main division existing at that time in the
community, that between Jewish and Gentile Christians.

810 irpoCTXajAPai/eo-Oe dXXi^Xous k.t.X. : the command is no longer
to the strong to admit the weak, but to all sections of the com-
munity alike to receive and admit those who differ from them ; so
St. Paul prob ibly said ipas, not tjpas. The latter he uses in ver. i,
where he is identifying himself with the ' strong,' the former he uses
here, where he is addressing the whole community. On Sid cf. Eph.
ii. II ; I Thcss. v. 11 : on iTiJoa-\aix^dv((j6f see xiv. i, 3.

iixas is read by K AC EFGL, Vulg. L'oh. Syrr., Orig.-lat. Chrys ; fiftSa
by B D P3. B is again Western, and its authority on tlie distinction between
ijHai and vixa% is less trustworthy than on most otlier points (see WH. ii.
pp. 318, 310).

CIS %6iav ©ecu with irpocriKaQfTo'. 'in Order to promote the
glory of God.' As the following verses show, Christ has sum-
moned both Jews and Greeks into His kingdom in order to
promote the glory of God, to exhibit in the one case His faithful-
ness, in the other His mercy. So in Phil. ii. 11 the object of
Christ's glory is to promote the glory of God the Father.

8. St. Paul has a double object. He writes to remind the Gen-
tiles that it is through the Jews that they are called, the Jews that
the aim and purpose of their existence is the calling of the Gentiles.
The Gentiles must remember that Christ became a Jew to save
them ; the Jew that Christ came among them in order that all the
families of the earth might be blessed : both must realize that the
aim of the whole is to proclaim God's glory.

This passage is connected by undoubted links (5io ver. 7 ; X/yo»
yiip ver. 8) with what precedes, and forms the conclusion of the
argument after the manner of the concluding verses of ch. viii. and
ch. xi. This connexion makes it probable that ' the relations of



Online LibraryW. (William) SandayA critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans → online text (page 62 of 71)