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THE BAMPTON LECTURES

FOR MDCCCXCI1I



Works by the same Author.

Crown 8vo. 4?.

THE ORACLES OF GOD : Nine Lectures on the Nature and
Extent of Biblical Inspiration and the Special Significance of
the Old Testament Scriptures at the Present Time.

Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d.

TWO PRESENT-DAY QUESTIONS. I. Biblical Criticism.
II. The Social Movement. Sermons preached before the
University of Cambridge on Ascension Day and the Sunday
after Ascension Day, 1892.



ifiew

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.



INSPIRATION



EIGHT LECTURES

ON THE

EARLY HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF THE DOCTRINE
OF BIBLICAL INSPIRATION



Being the Bampton Lectures for 1893



BY



W. SAN DAY, M.A., D.D., LL.D.

//

DEAN IRELAND'S PROFESSOR OF EXEGESIS

FELLOW OF EXETER COLLEGE. OXFORD



jSon&on

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16TH STREET
1893

rights resei~ved\






$3



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HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY



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EXTRACT

FROM THE LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT



OF THE LATE



REV. JOHN HAMPTON,

CANON OF SALISBURY.

" I give and bequeath my Lands and Estates to the
" Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of
<! Oxford for ever, to have and to hold all and singular the
" said Lands or Estates upon trust, and to the intents and
" purposes hereinafter mentioned ; that is to say, I will and
"appoint that the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ox-
" ford for the time being shall take and receive all the rents,
" issues, and profits thereof, and (after all taxes, reparations,
''and necessary deductions made) that he pay all the re-
" mainder to the endowment of eight Divinity Lecture Ser-
" mons, to be established for ever in the said University, and
"to be performed in the manner following :

" I direct and appoint, that, upon the first Tuesday in
" Easter Term, a Lecturer be yearly chosen by the Heads
of Colleges only, and by no others, in the room adjoining
" to the Printing-House, between the hours of ten in the
" morning and two in the afternoon, to preach eight Divinity
" Lecture Sermons, the year following, at St. Mary's in Ox-
" ford, between the commencement of the last month in Lent
" Term, and the end of the third week in Act Term.



viii EXTRACT FROM CANON HAMPTON'S WILL.

" Also I direct and appoint, that the eight Divinity Lecture
"Sermons shall be preached upon either of the following
"Subjects to confirm and establish the Christian Faith, and
"to confute all heretics and schismatics upon the divine
: authority of the holy Scriptures upon the authority of
"the writings of the primitive Fathers, as to the faith and
' ; practice of the primitive Church upon the Divinity of our
" Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ upon the Divinity of the
" Holy Ghost upon the Articles of the Christian Faith, as
" comprehended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds.

" Also I direct, that thirty copies of the eight Divinity Lec-
ture Sermons shall be always printed, within two months
" after they are preached ; and one copy shall be given to the
" Chancellor of the University, and one copy to the Head of
" every College, and one copy to the Mayor of the city of
"Oxford, and one copy to be put into the Bodleian Library;
"and the expense of printing them shall 'be paid out of the
" revenue of the Land or Estates given for establishing the
" Divinity Lecture Sermons ; and the Preacher shall not be
" paid, nor be entitled to the revenue, before they are printed.

"Also I direct and appoint, that no person shall be quali-
" fied to preach the Divinity Lecture Sermons, unless he hath
"taken the degree of Master of Arts at least, in one of the
" two Universities of Oxford or Cambridge ; and that the
"same person shall never preach the Divinity Lecture Ser-
" mons twice."



PREFACE



THE Bampton Lectures are preached before an
audience which has some parallels in this country
and America, but few, if any, upon the Continent.
It is a rare thing for the Continental theologian to
be brought into such direct contact with the class of
highly trained and intelligent laity who are engaged
in the teaching of secular literature and science. We
may count it as one of the happiest of English tradi-
tions, and in fact as the main compensation for the
backwardness of much of our theology proper, that
this class has never ceased to take an active interest
in all matters connected with religion. It is ready
to listen even to what are practically monographs on
theological subjects ; and many of the best volumes
which the series has produced have been more or less
of this nature.

The present lectures can lay no claim to the char-
acter of a monograph. Their aim has been rather
to furnish a general view which shall cover as far
as possible the data, at once new and old, which go



x Preface.

to determine the conception which thoughtful men
would form of the Bible.

If it is thought that this is to attempt too much,
and that a satisfactory treatment of all parts of the
subject was not possible within the compass of eight
lectures, the writer can only assent to the criticism.
It seemed however to be more important that the
subject should be presented, if only in outline, as
a fairly complete and coherent whole, than to work
out in detail any one of the parts. That can be done
afterwards ; and in fact it is being done every day.

Another drawback has been the limited time which
is allowed for the preparation of the lectures. Be-
tween the election of the Bampton 'Lecturer and the
delivery of his first lecture is an interval of at most
ten months. For one who holds, as the present
writer does, a double office with double duties, this
interval is curtailed still further. In his case nearly
three months more had to be deducted for illness,
a loss which however was largely made up to him by
the kind indulgence of his College. For the timely
relief thus accorded to him he cannot be too grateful.

All this time books came pouring from the press at
a rate with which it was difficult to keep pace. Many
of them were of high value, and of some he wishes
that he could have made a more extended use.
He hopes that his obligations in various direc-
tions will have been sufficiently acknowledged. But
he ought perhaps to single out in particular the



Preface. xi

Introductions of Driver and Gornill to the Old
Testament and the third edition of Holtzmanns
Introduction to the New, with the works on the
Canon by Ryle, Buhl, and Wildeboer in the one case,
and by Zahn and Harnack in the other. In one
instance he fears that he has done less than justice.
The main reference to Dr. E. Konig in Lecture III
consists in part of criticism ; and this makes it all the
more incumbent upon the writer to say that the lead-
ing idea of this lecture, and indeed one of the leading
ideas of the whole book, is to the best of his belief
derived ultimately from Dr. Konig. It is becoming
almost a commonplace to say that our conception of
what the Bible is should be drawn in the first instance
from what the Biblical writers say of themselves.
This idea took a strong hold of the writer some years
ago, as he believes indirectly rather than directly
through the emphatic statement of it by Dr. Konig.
Yet when he came to read the Offenbarimgsbegriff'
des A. T., along with its independence and ability he
could not help being struck by what seemed to be
an element of arbitrariness and exaggeration. This
however has been a diminishing quantity in later
books by the same author, notably in his recent
Introduction to the Old Testament, which he wishes
had reached him a little earlier.

The writer is conscious of having criticized most
freely (especially in Lecture I) some of those for whom
he has the highest respect. This applies particularly



xii Preface.

to some of the German scholars whose names de-
servedly carry the greatest weight in England. There
are none to whom he is himself more indebted ; but
he does not wish them to impose upon his countrymen
by the weight of authority views which do not seem
to be borne out by the evidence.

The parts of these lectures which relate to the
Old Testament should be taken with the qualification
expressed on p. 1 1 9 f. The writer cannot speak in
this part so much at first hand as he can in the case
of the New. If, in spite of this, the result seems to
work out somewhat more positively in the former
case than in the latter, this is due in part to the
clear-cut form in which modern critical theories relat-
ing to the Old Testament are presented. Perhaps
also it would be true to say that in recent years
stronger work upon the whole has been done upon
the Old Testament than upon the New.

In view of this body of Old Testament criticism the
writer's own position is tentative and provisional.
He does not think that the great revolution which
seems to be expected in some quarters, from the Tell-
el-Amarna tablets or otherwise, is probable ; at the
same time his impression is that the criticism of the
near future is likely to be more conservative in its
tendency than it has been, or at least to do fuller
justice to the positive data than it has done.

In regard to the New Testament he has tried to
state the case as objectively as possible. He has thus



Preface. xiii

been led rather to understate than to overstate the
results which seem to him to have been attained so
far. But he believes that there is much still to be
done ; and he hopes most from the spirit which is
not impatient for ' results/ which does not suppress
or slur over difficulties in the critical view any more
than in the traditional, which lays its plans broadly,
and is determined to make good the lesser steps
before it attempts the greater.

Besides his large debt to books the writer is also
under obligations to friends who have done him the
kindness to read through the proofs as they were
passing through the press. He owes much to the
criticisms and suggestions which he has received in
this way, especially from Dr. Plummer, Mr. Lock, and
Mr. A. C. Headlam. He wishes that his book were
better than it is ; but he can truly say that in writing
it he has gained for himself a deepened and a
strengthened hold on the principles to which he has
given imperfect expression.

The Synopsis of Contents was issued separately at
the time of the delivery of the lectures, and has been
allowed to retain the form given to it for that purpose.

MARCHFIELD, OXFORD,
August, 1893.



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS



LECTURE I.

THE HISTORIC CANON.
ESTIMATE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT BY THE EARLY CHURCH.

Subject and method of the proposed inquiry. Two lectures to be
devoted to analysis of main points in the conception of the Canon ;
the succeeding five to an attempt to sketch constructively the pro-
cess by which that conception was reached ; the last to retrospect
and summary. pp. 1-4.

Idea of a Canon extended from O. T. to N. T. Two landmarks in
the history of the N. T. Canon, about 400 A.D. and 200 A.D. pp. 4-6.

I. Contents of N. T. (i) c. 400 A.D. Practically the same as our own
over the greater part of Christendom. This result very partially due
to Synodical decisions (African Synods of 393, 397, 419 [Council of
Laodicea c. 363], Trullan Council 0^692); far more in the West to the
influence of the Vulgate, in the East to that of leading Churchmen
(Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Amphilochius, Gregory Nazianzen).

Only considerable exception the Syrian Church which recognised
no more than three (two) Epp. Cath. and rejected Apoc. These books
wanting in Peshitto, but added in later Syriac Versions. pp. 6-12.

Contents of N. T. (2) c. 200 A.D. : approximate date of Muratorian
Fragment. Solid nucleus of four Gospels, thirteen Epp. Paul., Acts.

Divergent views on this subject. It is questioned (i) that the Four
Gospels were everywhere accepted ; (ii) that Epp. Paul, stood on an
equal footing with Gospels and O. T. ; (iii) that Acts formed part of
the collection. In each case with but slight real support from the
evidence. . pp. 12-23.

Writings struggling for admission to the Canon : i Pet., i Jo. all but
fixed Heb., Jac., Apoc. 2 [3] Jo., Jud., 2 Pet. . . .pp. 23-26.

Writings which obtain a partial footing but are dislodged : Ew., sec.
Heb., sec. Aegypt., sec. Pet. Epp. Clem., Barn. Didache', Pastor
Leucian Acts, Predicatio Petri, Acta Paul, et Thecl., &c. Apoc. Pet.

pp. 26-28.



xvi Synopsis of Contents.

II. Properties ascribed to the Canonical Books. The N. T. is (i) a
sacred book ; (2) on the same footing with O. T. a proposition ques-
tioned but true ; (3) inspired by the Holy Spirit, or bearing the
authority of Christ ; (4) this inspiration is even ' verbal ' and extends
to facts as well as doctrines ; (5) it carries with it a sort of perfection,
completeness, infallibility; (6) the N. T. Scriptures are appealed to as
(a) the rule of faith, (b) the rule of conduct ; (7) they are interpreted
allegorically like a sacred book, and complaints are made of perverse
interpretation pp. 28-42.

Yet along with this high doctrine there are occasional traces of (i)
the recognition of degrees of inspiration ; (2) a natural account of the
origin of certain books (e.g. the Gospels) pp. 42-47.

III. Criteria by which books were admitted to the New Testament.
(i) Apostolic origin ; (2) reception by the Churches ; (3) conformity
to established doctrine ; (4) conformity to recognised history ;
(5) mystical significance of numbers. .... pp. 47-58.

Note A. The Canons of the Quinisextine Council, of Carthage, and of
Laodicea. pp. 59-61.

Note B. Harnack's Theory of the Growth of the New Testament
Canon pp. 61-63.

Note C. Debateable Points relating to the AlogiT . . pp. 64-65.

Note D. The use of the New Testament by Clement of Alexandria.

pp. 65-69.



LECTURE II.

THE HISTORIC CANON.

ESTIMATE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE FIRST CENTURY
OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA.

The critical period in the history of the Bible is the forming of
Canon of O. T. Our first clear view of an O. T. Canon is obtained in
the century which follows the Birth of Christ. For this we have
Philo, N. T., Josephus, supplemented by the Talmud. . pp.7O~72.

I. Properties ascribed to O. T. in these writings. O. T. (i) is a sacred
book ; (2) is inspired by God difference in this respect between Philo
and Josephus ; (3) has a normative value ; (4) is interpreted allegori-
cally ; (5) prophetically determines the course of future events ;
(6) has a minute perfection which implies, at least in the case of
Philo, an inspiration that might be called ' verbal.' . . pp. 72-90.

II. Contents of O. T. Many other religious books of Jewish origin
in circulation during first century besides the Canonical. Distinction
between so-called Palestinian and Alexandrian Canon not so much



Synopsis of Contents. xvii

geographical as between popular and learned or official usage. Both
Philo and Josephus have wide views of the range of inspiration and
yet treat the Canonical Books only as authoritative. So too in N. T.,
though there are traces of acquaintance with Apocrypha. With
Josephus and the Rabbis of the end of first century the Canon is
really complete. There is however still some hesitation as to certain
books, especially Cant., Eccles., Esther. . . . pp. 90-98.

Divisions of Jewish Canon point back to circumstances of its origin.
Traceable from soon after 132 B. c., and correspond to so many stages
in the formation of the Canon : (i) the Law, 444 B.C.; (2) the Pro-
phets, probably in third century B.C. ; (3) the Hagiographa or Kethubitn,

C. IOO B.C pp. 98-105.

III. Criteria by which books were admitted to the Canon. History
of the word 'Apocrypha': (i) milder Jewish sense, = not read in
public ; (ii) stronger sense, increasingly common in Christian circles,
= ' heretical.' Discussions in the Jewish Schools mainly concerned
with fitness of books for public reading. In Philo, Josephus and the
Talmud the leading positive principle was Prophecy. The closing of
the Canon supposed to coincide with cessation of prophecy. Sym-
bolism of numbers as applied to O. T. . . . pp. 105-115.

Before entering on larger inquiry it is right to explain the attitude
adopted to the criticism of O. T. The critical theories come with
great force, though they seem open to qualification in certain direc-
tions. They are assumed here hypothetically and provisionally, as
a minimum. The data which they supply for a doctrine of inspiration
cannot well be less and may be more. Leading points in the critical
position. pp. 115-122.

Note A. On the Date of the Formation of the Jewish Canon, p. 123.



LECTURE III.

THE GENESIS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. THE PROPHETIC
AND HISTORICAL BOOKS.

Belief in Inspiration postulates belief in a Personal, or in Hebrew
phrase, ' Living ' God. Granted such a God, and it is not strange that
He should put Himself in communication with man. pp. 124-128.

I. The Prophets. The prophetical inspiration is typical of all inspi-
ration, and is the form in which its working can be most easily traced.

Yet the Hebrew prophets are not without large analogies in other
religions. Examples from the Books of Samuel and Judges. The
prophetic order. Prophecy as a profession, with professional failings ;
half-hearted prophets and false prophets. . . . pp. 128-135.

b



xviii Synopsis of Contents.

A comparative glimpse of the religion of a kindred race supplied
by the Moabite Stone. This has much in common with the religion
of Israel, but it has its dark side, human sacrifice and consecrated
licentiousness. The problem is, How did the prophetic religion
escape this immixture of evil ? Most easily answered by what we
call Inspiration, *'. e. the hypothetical cause of that which is distinctive
and superior in the religion of the Bible. . . . pp. 135-140.

There is a 'purpose of God according to selection ' (Rom. ix. n):
among nations, Israel ; in Israel, the prophetic order ; among the
prophetic order, the higher prophets are chosen to be organs of
revelation. Yet the lower prophets, and even the so-called 'false
prophets,' also had their function. .... pp. 140-143.

Characteristics of the higher prophecy. The prophets only in a
secondary degree statesmen or social reformers; before all things
preachers of religion pp. 143-145.

Whence did they derive their authority ? They claimed to speak
in the name of God. We believe this claim to be true ; that in
a real objective sense, God did cause the prophets to say what He
willed should be said pp. 145-147.

For these reasons : (i) the strong assurance of the prophets
themselves, and the clear testimony as to theii* own consciousness
which their writings reveal to us ; (2) the general recognition of the
claim by their contemporaries ; (3) the remarkable consistency in so
long a line of prophets, not easily compatible with hallucination ;
(4) the difficulty of accounting for the prophets' teaching as the
product of ordinary causes, whether in (i) the prophets themselves,
(ii) their race, (iii) the constitution of the human mind ; (5) by the
immense permanent significance and value of the prophetic teaching.

pp. 147-155.

II. The Historical Books: called by the Jews 'The Former Pro-
phets.' The earlier historians of Israel for the most part prophets.
To understand the way in which they worked we must get rid oi
modern associations, and remember (i) that Hebrew history-writing
is as a rule anonymous and involved no idea of literary property; (2)
that it was carried on not so much by individuals as by successions
of individuals often belonging to the same school or order ; (3) that
the histories were propagated by single copies which each possessor
might enlarge or annotate pp. 155-160.

Where lies the inspiration of the Historical Books ? Double
function of the historian, to narrate and to interpret. Hebrew
narrative varies in value : it has some special merits, but also some
defects. The inspiration lies rather in the interpretation of the
Divine purpose running through the history. . . pp. 160-165.

Note A. Modem Prophets. . ... . . pp. 166-167.



Synopsis of Contents. xix



LECTURE IV.

THE GENESIS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
THE LAW AND THE HAGIOGRAPHA.

I. The Law. Different estimate of the Law at different periods :
(i) with the Jews ; (2) in N. T. ; (3) by modern criticism. But though
from the critical point of view it may be better to start from the
Prophets, the work of Moses is prior both in time and in importance.

pp. 168-173.

In the Law as it has come down to us there are three elements :
(i) an element derived from Moses himself, indeterminate in detail
but fundamental; and the development of this (2) by prophets, (3) by
priests. The cultus not to be undervalued. Though a temporary
system, it secured the devoted attachment of many psalmists, and
embodied principles which find their final realization in Christianity.
It was also a safeguard to the revelation. . . . pp. 173-188.

II. The Hagiographa. Inspiration of the writers of these books
not primary like that of lawgivers and prophets, but mediate and
secondary. Expressive of the intense hold which the principles
implanted by lawgivers and prophets took on other classes. A pro-
phetic nation. pp. 188-191.

The Psalms. Date of the Psalter important, but as yet sub judice.
Made up of a number of smaller collections ; analogous to our hymn-
books. Prophetic element in Psalter : perhaps more literary than
strictly prophetic, but an instance of the way in which different
forms of inspiration shade off into each other. Permanent signi-
ficance of Psalter as the classical expression of religious emotion.

pp. 191-199.

The Wisdom-Literature. The * wise men ' as a class by the side of
prophets and priests. Proverbs, like the Psalter, highly composite ;
made up of collections which contain the contributions of many
minds : cc. xxv-xxix probably earliest, and cc. i. 7~ix latest, at
least of main divisions. We thus get an ascending scale of doctrine.
The Wisdom-teaching in its basis common to Israel with surrounding
nations, esp. Edom. Shrewd observations on life. These with Heb.
centre more and more in religion, and at last rise from detached
comments on conduct and morals to a comprehensive view of Divine
Wisdom as seen in the creation and ordering of the world : a con-
ception momentous in its influence upon later theology, the foundation
of the Christian doctrine of the Logos. . . . pp. 199-204.

Job. Struggles with a problem the sufferings of the righteous to
which it does not give a complete solution. Still marks a great
advance. Full of deep lessons which are not the less prompted by

b2



xx Synopsis of Contents.

God because they are reached in natural sequence. The central
impulse comes from that vital grasp upon God and religion which
marks the presence and energy of the Spirit. . . pp. 204-207.

Ecclesiastes. Pessimism, but religious pessimism. Well that such
a book should be included in the Canon. The saving clauses in
Ecclesiastes psychologically probable and not interpolations.

pp. 208-211.

Song of Songs. As now understood, an idyll of faithful human
love, and nothing more. Not quoted in N. T. or inspired in any
sense in which the word has been hitherto used. Still a Providential
purpose may have been served by its inclusion in the Canon. Another
proof of the catholicity of Scripture. And the associations which have
gathered round its language justify to some extent its mystical ap-
plication. ......... pp. 211-212.

Esther. The most doubtful book in the Canon : Jewish rather than
Christian ; like Cant, not quoted in N. T. Gained its place mainly by
acquiescence in Jewish usage pp. 212-214.

Daniel. The use of ancient names became common in later Jewish
literature : an innocent device (cp. esp. Eccles.) growing out of (i) the
absence of any idea of literary property, (ii) prophetic instinct seeking
to clothe itself with authority in a non-prophetic age. Daniel is not
to be taken as history, but that it had a really prophetic character is



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