Copyright
W. (William) Sanday.

Sacred sites of the gospels, with illustrations, maps and plans online

. (page 1 of 10)
Online LibraryW. (William) SandaySacred sites of the gospels, with illustrations, maps and plans → online text (page 1 of 10)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


OF THE



..iwjljss:;^;;;^^!^.-.,,,,^^









an






*i|^^i!




'^^^^a.









JERUSALEM AND THE

TEMPLE OF HEROD
I FROM THE NORTH EAST




jq





ijit^-



SACEED SITES OF THE
GOSPELS

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS AND PLANS

BY

W. SANDAY, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D

LADY MARGARET PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY AND CANON OF

CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD

HON. FELLOW OF EXETER COLLEGE

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

PAUL WATERHOUSE, MA., F.R.I.B.A.




OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1903






HENRY FROWDE, M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIA^ERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK






UNIVERSITATI CANTABRIGIENSI

HUNC LIBELLUM QUANTULUMCUMQUE

GRATO ANIMO

D. D.

AUCTOR



vi PREFACE

handmaids of Science — may sometimes have to
contribute to questions that in their way are of
some importance. I was confirmed in this feeUng
by what was almost the last piece of literature to
pass through my hands, the article of Dr. Zahn's
mentioned in a note on p. 93. This article un-
fortunately came to my notice later than it should
have done and not until the sheets of the book were
already in type. I should much like to discuss it
on a really adequate scale and without any avoidance
of technicalities ; and I hope to embrace an oppor-
tunity of doing this. But the questions involved so
go to the root of the whole textual criticism of the
New Testament, that it seems well to wait until we
have Prof, von Soden's great work on the Text —
now, I am glad to think, nearing completion —
actually before us. In the meanwhile it is perhaps
right for me to say that on the particular point at
issue, much as I regret to find myself in opposition
to some whom I respect most highly as authorities,
I am not as yet shaken in my own opinion.

This is not the only instance in which the position
of a controverted question has altered somewhat
while the book has been preparing. I can only hope
that the Index may make it possible for the reader
to keep pace with such changes and to correct an
earlier impression by a later, where that is neces-
sary. Of all the decisions that I had come to, the
site of Capernaum is that as to which my own
doubts are strongest.



PREFACE vii

The first three chapters were dehvered in substance
as lectures after my return in the summer term of
last year. I have allowed them to keep the lecture
form, though I have since added a short chapter
that was not delivered in the same way. The
whole work has been strictly a irapepyov, that has
been written at odd moments in the midst of other
work ; and I should not be surprised if it bore some
marks of this origin. As it progressed the ambition
grew in me to try to present to the eye of the reader
some of those features in the Palestine of the present
that I had myself found most suggestive, and at
the same time to enable him to follow me in the
steps by which I was myself seeking to reconstruct
the Palestine of the past.

For the first of these purposes it was sufiicient to
reproduce a few selected photographs, for the second
it was necessary to have recourse to professional aid.
And in this connexion I must express my warmest
thanks to my friend Mr. Paul Waterhouse, M.A.,
F.E.I.B.A., to whom I am indebted for the perspec-
tive view of ancient Jerusalem which forms the
frontispiece, and for the plan and sections of the
Herodian Temple, as well as for the notes explaining
the details of his work. It will be seen with what
keen interest and skill Mr. Waterhouse has entered
into this inquiry. It has been a special pleasure to
me that we have worked together in such complete
agreement. The maps and the plan of Jerusalem
have been made for me by Messrs. Darbishire and



viii PEEFACE

Stantbrd of Oxford, whom I must also thank for
their intelligent and willing co-operation. And I
should not like to leave unacknowledged the taste
and good judgement so freely placed at my disposal
at the Clarendon Press,

One who ventures to write on Palestine without
being an Orientalist is obliged to take much at
secondhand- In the transliteration of Arabic names
I have in the main followed Baedeker, with one or
two conce^ons to more familiar forms. My friend
and colleague Dr. Driver very kindly corrected the
greater part of the proofe for me in this respect.

It wiLL I believe, sufficiently appear from the
notes where my obligations have been greatest.
Special acknowledgements are due to the Committee
of the Palestine Exploration Fund, who readily gave
permission for the use of their maps and phot^^graphs.
The -more outlying objects (e.g. Plates XVJI — XIX.
XXI X X 1 1 1 B, XXXV) are taken from their series.
With a few exceptions the remaining photographs
are by the American Colony at Jerusalem (Tester)
or by B-iiiEls of Beirut.

C^xjoET'. Easier. 1903,



COXTEXTS

PAGE

L The Exteekal Aspect of Paixsttsx ly the Tixe

OF Christ i

Notes os Plates I-XXII . . . . .18

n. Sites orxsiDE Jeeusalek 20

Notes ok Plates XXIII-XXXVI . . . -49

III. Sites rs JEBUSAT.rM ...... 51

Notes ok Plates XXXVll-L .... 89

IV. Some Recekt Litef^ttp^ 90

Notes ok Plates LI-LV 105

The Tehple of Hebod [Paul Waterhoxise] . . . 106

The Plak of Jebusalem 118

Ikdex 121



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS AND
PLANS

FeONTISPIECE [P. WaTERHOUSe] PAG



Plates

I.

II.

III.

IV.



V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.



XI.

XII.
XIII.



XVI A.
XVI B.
XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.
XXI.
XXII.



I-XXII between i8, 19

Approach to Jerusalem (from SW.).
Saracenic Jerusalem : Damascus Gate.
Saracenic Jerusalem : Street Scene.
Saracenic Jerusalem : Dome of the Eock (general

view).
Saracenic Jerusalem : Dome of the Eock (exterior).
Saracenic Jerusalem : Dome of the Eock (interior).
The Holy Places : Chapel of the Holy SepiUchre.
The Holy Places : Golgotha.
The Holy Places : Cave of the Nativity.
Church of the Nativity. (Early Christian Work.

Constantine's Basilica at Bethlehem.)
Crusading Castles : Belfort {Kal'at esli-ShaUf).
Crusading Castles : Castle of Baniyas.
Crusading Castles : Castellum Peregrinorum

(Atmt).
Herodian and Eoman Jerusalem : so-called Tombs

of Absalom, St. James, and Zechariah.
Herodian and Eoman Jerusalem : Tomb of Helena

of Adiabene, 41-54 a.d. (so-called Tombs of

the Kings).
Herodian Palestine : Site of Samaria {Sehaste).
Samaria : Street of Columns.
Eoman Palestine: Tell Hum (supposed ruins of

Synagogue).
Eoman Palestine : A>/r ^iVim (supposed ruins of

Synagogue).
Eoman Palestine : Mcwn (supposed ruins of

Synagogue).
Eoman Palestine : Mole of Caesarea.
Eoman Palestine : Euins of Gerasa (Decapolis).
Ford of Jordan (near Jericho).



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS AND PLANS xi



Map of Environs of Jerusalem .

Map of Environs of NAblus

Map of Sea op Galilee ....

Plates XXIII-XXXVI . . . .

Nazareth : The Virgin's Fountain.



to face


pages
20


to face


32


to face


48



between 50, 51



XXIII A.

XXIII B.

XXIV.

XXV.

XXVI.

XXVII.

XXVIII.



XXXI.

XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.

XXXV.
XXXVI.



Nazareth : Cliif of Precipitation (probable).

Cana ? {Kefr Eerma).

Nain.

Bethany.

Bethlehem.

Supposed (but less probable) Site of Emmaus
{cl-Kubebeh).

Jacob's Well, with Crusaders' Church (now-
enclosed).

Joseph's Tomb : Village of Sychar : Mount
Ebal.

Magdala (looking NE.) and Plain of Gennesaret.

Magdala (looking SW.).

'Ain et-Tabiglia.

Aqueduct at Klian Minyeh.

Tell Hum : Field of Euins.

Tiberias (looking N.).



Plates XXXVII-L . . . . . letween 88,89

XXXVII. Jerusalem: Site of Herod's Palace (SW. angle).
XXXVIII. Herod's Palace : Tower Hippicus (lower courses
probably Herodian).
XXXIX. So-called Pool of Bethesda.
XL. Pool of Siloam.

xLi. Kidron Valley : S. Wall of Temple : Virgin's
Fountain (in the bend).
XLii. Substructures of the Temple (' Solomon's

Stables ').
XLiii. The Golden Gate.
XLiv. View fi-om Gordon's Calvary.
XLv. Gordon's Calvary.
XLVi. The Garden Tomb.
XLVii. St. Helena's Chapel.



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS AND PLANS

PLATES PAGES

XLViii. So-called Zion Suburb.
XLix. So-called Tomb of David : The Cenaculum.
L. Interior of the Cenaculum.

Plates LI-LV between 104, 105

LI. Typical Scenes : A Village on the Maritime

Plain (Lydda).
Lii. Typical Scenes: A Village near Jerusalem

(Ain Kdrim).
Liii. Typical Scenes : Cliff overlooking plain, near

Nazareth.
Liv. Typical Scenes : The Wilderness of Judaea.
Lv. Finis Judaeae : the Eock of Masada, v^here the
Jews made their last stand against Titus.

Plan of Herod's Temple [P. Waterhouse] . . after 116
Sections of Ditto in pocket

Plan op Jerusalem after 119

Map of Palestine At end



ABBEEVIATIONS

D. B. Dictionary of the Bible.

NhZ. Neue Jcirchliche Zeitschrift.

PEFQ. Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement.

R. 'E. , PRE ^ Hauck-Herzog, Protestantische Real-EncyMopadie.

ZDPV. Zeitschrift des Deutschen Paldstina-Vereins.

Z. ntl. Wiss. Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft.




THE EXTERNAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE
IN THE TIME OF CHRIST

The traveller who goes to the Holy Land in the hope
of recovering some impression of the external conditions
of the life of Christ has a difficult task before him. In
Palestine there is no Pompeii to take him back at one
step into the very heart of the past, and not only of the
past vaguely, but of the particular past of which he is in
search ; to preserve it for him, as it were, hermetically
sealed all through the centuries, and to set it before his
eyes certainly authentic and unadulterated, free from
all admixture of anything save that which he is seeking.
An experience like that of Palestine serves to bring
home to us the immense and unique value of Pompeii
in helping us to revive for ourselves the picture of
ancient life. "What would we not give for such an
example on the soil of Palestine, really and indisput-
ably belonging to the time before the destruction of
Jerusalem by Titus in 70 A. d. ?

As it is, we have to work our way painfully back to
the past from the present by a long process of analysis,
elimination and reconstruction. We have to take the
present as it were to pieces, and put aside those elements
in it that are not relevant, and then to put together as
well as we can the few crumbling and disfigured frag-
ments that are left. We speak of the ' unchanging East' ;



2 THE EXTEENAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE

and it is true that there are certain common attributes
of Eastern peoples that have a way of persisting through
change. But, in the case of Palestine, the larger part
of what we seek does not come under this description.
We have only to think of the succession of more or
less alien elements intruded into the unhappy country
since the date that we are considering. First the
Eoman in greater dominance; then the Byzantine;
then the Saracen ; then the Crusader ; then the Saracen
again, stronger and more pervading than before ; then
the Turk ; not to speak of the modern invasion, German
colonies, colonies of modern Jews, Roman Catholic
religious orders in great numbers and force, Russian
churches and huge establishments for pilgrims, British
and American schools and missions.

All these last bear their modernness upon their face,
and are easily put aside. But the others have entered
into the grain more deeply. Most of all, most by far,
the Saracen. If we ask what it is that gives Jerusalem
its stamp most conspicuously to the eye at the present
day, we should answer, undoubtedly the Saracen.

Of all the successive layers deposited one above the
other on the sacred soil, the Saracenic is uppermost^.

In the first place, the whole of the vast Temple area,
though very much pre-Saracenic in its substructures and,
so to speak, in its lower courses and materials, has yet
been so transformed and adapted to Saracenic ends that
the Saracen really dominates over all besides. And
the Temple area, as we now see it, culminates in the
Mosque of Omar or Dome of the Rock, which is beyond
all comparison the most striking and beautiful thing
* ' La ville est restee sarrasine' (Pierre Loti, Jenisalem, p. 52).



IN THE TIME OF CHRIST 3

in Jerusalem. Here, too, the columns and capitals and
marbles may be actually taken from pagan temples or
Constantinian or Byzantine cburches ; and it may be
true enough that the original architects and workmen
were Christians who developed their art from Byzantine
models ; but none the less here, as in so many instances
elsewhere, the presiding genius is Saracenic, and the
wonderful effect that we now see was given to it by the
Saracens : the outer casing of encaustic tiles, the deep
rich mosaic, not in lines of figures as at Ravenna, but
in conventional patterns of flowers set in vases and
covering the walls with their luxuriant growth, the
endless play and glow of stained glass, the artistic
bands of Cufic writing, the arabesques of cornice and
dome.

The Temple area is Saracen ; the city walls also are
Saracen. However far back the foundations may go in
some sections, and although it may be true that the
latest and most characteristic features are due to Soliman
the Magnificent in 1537, i. e. in the Turkish period, it
is the Saracenic spirit that really prevails. And as we
wind our way through the bazaars and tortuous streets,
and mingle in the many-coloured crowd, we feel that
we are as much in a city that is essentially Saracenic as
if we were in Damascus or in the old quarter of Cairo.

And I imagine that the same holds good of the
smaller towns and villages. The dome and minaret are
almost always the most picturesque and prominent
objects. Only in comparatively few cases, as at Bethle-
hem, Nazareth and Cana of Galilee, does the Christian
spirit really take the lead, and that spirit is at best
in the form of mediaeval Byzantinism.



4 THE EXTEENAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE

It is probable enough that in the time of our Lord
there was also a very distinct Arabian element, clans
of nomads settling on both sides of the Jordan ; but
there can be little doubt that since that day the process
of ' Arabization ' has gone much further. The great
impulse, of course, was given by the conquest and rule
of the successors of Mahomet ; but in the last two
centuries other causes have contributed to the same
result ^

On the fact of this * Arabization ' we have the expert
testimony of Mr. Hogarth : —

' A certain degree of similarity in human character
and an even greater similarity of language prevails
over an immense area, where races of most various
origin have all been assimilated more or less by the
one which occupies the healthy crown of the land, the
Arabian of Nejd ^.'

Unfortunately this Arabian influence is not good for
the country. The Bedawin has virtues and attractions
on his native steppes which he is apt to lose in settled
life; and he is a bad cultivator.

' For some centuries Palestine has been in the evil case
of having to receive from time to time broken remnants
of Hamad tribes worsted in desert warfare, who must
perforce take up the uncongenial status of fellahm. Such
have no skill in agriculture and no heart. They im-
poverish the land and lightly abandon it to denudation
and sand-drift ; and it is largely due to them that
Palestine, especially in the south of Judaea, is the waste
that it is ^.'

' Hogarth, The Nearer East, p. 256. ' Ibid. p. 255.

* Ibid. p. 264.



IN THE TIME OF CHRIST 5

In spite of these adverse conditions, and in spite of
tlie misgovernment whicli lies like a dead weight upon
the land, one seems to see some signs of recuperation.
But these are due to immigration of a different kind.
Under any other government the prosperity of Palestine
would advance by leaps and bounds.

Among the immigrants are the Jews, who of late
have returned to Palestine in great numbers. And it
might be thought that their restoration to their ancient
home would help us in imagination to repeople the
land as it was. But the Jews of the present — at least
the Jewish settlers in Palestine — must be different beings
from those of the past. The Jews, as they live for us
in the pages of Josephus, were fierce, turbulent and
fanatical, but of an unquenchable spirit and daring.
But to the Jews, as we see them now, none of these
epithets would be applicable. On this head I may
quote Mr. Eider Haggard, whose impressions entirely
coincided with our own : —

' As I had been informed that this city [Tiberias] was
for the most part occupied by Jews, I was curious to
see them, thinking that upon their native soil we should
find representatives of the race more or less as it was
when it defied the Roman eagles. I was destined to
disappointment. Here were no harsh-eyed, stern-faced
men, such as I had pictured. Here even was no Hebrew
as we know him, strenuous, eager, healthy, and cosmo-
politan. Far different are those Jews, for the most
part of Russian or Polish origin, who dwell in Tiberias.
At a little distance, in their dressing-gown-like robe, it
is not easy to say whether individuals are men or women.
Indeed, even when studied face to face their aspect is
singularly sexless. Their complexions are curiously pallid



6 THE EXTERNAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE

and unwholesome, while the hair of the men, often of
a burning red, is arranged in two thin curls, which
hang down oilily on either side of the forehead in
front of the ears, like spare ringlets from the cTievelures
of our great-aunts. I asked David [the dragoman], who
had dwelt among- them for years, what this curious-
looking folk did for a living. He replied : " Oh ! they
just sit about." So far as I could learn, this seems to
describe the facts, but I understand that the means to
sit about on are, for the most part, subscribed by
charitable Hebrews in Europe and elsewhere. Many
of the men are, however, engaged in a study of the
Talmud, an occupation for which Tiberias is traditionally
famous ^.'

The same description would hold good for the Jews'
quarter of Jerusalem, which is the most crowded, filthy,
and poverty-stricken of all the quarters of the city.
But I believe there is some difference between the
Ashkenazim (or Jews from the north, i. e. mainly from
Poland, Russia, &c,), who are the more numerous, and
the Sephardim (or Jews from the south, more particularly
Spain), to the advantage of the latter. I also understood
that the Jewish colonies, which at first were a heavy
drain on their wealthy supporters in the West, now
that they are handed over to the Alliance Israelite and
the Jewish Colonization Society, are more systematically
managed, and are improving. Mr. Robinson Lees, who
lived for some years among them, says that ' some of

* A Winter Pilgrimage i7i Palestine, Italy, and Cyprus (London, 1901),
p. 217. There is even stronger language in Fulleylove and Kelman,
The Holy Land (London, 1902), p. 98. Mr. Kelman however recog-
nizes that ' the spirit of the people is not broken by oppression as
is the spirit of the Fellahin. The Jew takes what comes and says
little ; but he believes in himself, his past and his future, with a faith
indomitable as it is daring.'



IN THE TIME OF CHRIST 7

the Jews are very industrious, and work from early mom
till late at night for very low wages ^.' Dr. Wheeler,
of the Medical Mission, who has also worked much
among them, speaks with enthusiasm of many of their
qualities. They probably live up to their religion, as
they understand it, more strictly than most Christians.
In this, and in their intense tenacity, they are true
descendants of their forefathers. But these had probably
more of the appearance of the Arab, and at least a finer
physique and freer and bolder bearing. There are many
sketches of ' typical Jews of Jerusalem ' in Mons. Tissot's
remarkable book ^ ; but they will give a better idea of
the Pharisees and Sadducees than of the Zealots, who
more nearly represent the mass of the nation.

'Men, and not walls, make a city.' But in the
endeavour to recall the image of the past we must
make a study of the buildings as well as of the men.
And here again we find ourselves baffled. It is true
that there is no lack of ruins. Indeed, it might well
be said that Palestine is a land of ruins. No unfortunate
land has been so much fought over, harried, plundered
and devastated — Roman trying to stamp out the irre-
pressible Jew, who in his turn instigates the ruthless
Persian, Moslem seeking to wipe out traces of the
Christian, or Christian seeking to wipe out traces of
the Moslem; and wild Eastern hordes (like the Khares-
mians^ in 1244) destroying for sheer destruction's sake.

' Jerusalem and its People, p. 29.

^ The Life of our Lord Jesus Christ (richly illustrated) : London
and Paris, 1897.

^ These were a Turcoman tribe from the Sea of Aral and the Oxus,
whose widespread dominion had been broken up by Genghis Khan in



8 THE EXTERNAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE

And then in time of peace the ravages of fire have been
added to the ravages of the swotd.

It is often disappointing to find how little there is,
even on the most sacred of sites, that is really ancient
or in any sense primitive. The greater part of the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre dates only from the last
century. After I know not how many previous destruc-
tions and restorations, a disastrous fire destroyed most
of it in 1808 ; and the dome that we now see was only
finished in a nondescript style in 1868. The Chapel of
the Holy Sepulchre itself dates from the same period.
A few bits^ of old work may be seen here and there,
e. g. portions of a cornice in the fa9ade, and the pillars
and capitals in St. Helena's Chapel ; but these are almost
lost on the mass of modernization. The Cenaculum,
or Upper Room, is part of a Franciscan church, later
than the crusades and not built till the fourteenth
century. Justinian's church, now the mosque el-Alisa 2,
has been so cut about and has so lost its true proportions
as to be hardly recognizable. The greatest amount of
authentic material is to be seen in the Church of the
Nativity at Bethlehem, the nave of which seems to be
really the work of Constantine.

We need not indeed doubt that there are considerable

1220. Ten thousand of them were called in as mercenaries by the
Fatimide Sultan Eyyub, and perpetrated fearful massacre and destruc-
tion in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It is to the Tartars and Mongols
from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries that are due the worst
devastations in the East. Many regions have not recovered to this day.

> On these see especially Strzygowski, Orient oder Bom (1901),
p. 129 S.

2 ' i. e. the far-of (mosque), to which Mohammed pretended to
have been transported by night (Kor. 17. i), so called in opposition
to the mosque of Mecca' (Dr. Driver).



IN THE TIME OF CHEIST 9

remains from the first century of our era still existing.
But they are doubly buried. Many of them are far
below the surface. For instance, the ground of what
was once the Tyropoeon (the valley between the eastern
and western hill) is from fifty to eighty feet below the
present level. And much that does not lie as deep as
this is either built into or covered by houses. In spite
of all that has been done by the engineers of the
Palestine Exploration Fund, or by the independent
researches of Dr. Schick and others, far more still
remains to do. It is not easy to conduct architectural
research beneath the foundations of a closely packed
city.

The objects of Christian veneration that are nearer
to the surface have been buried in another way. They
are, and have been in the past, so thickly overlaid with
ornament, placed there by devout worshippers, that it
is well if any portion of the original is still visible.

I have said that the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, as
we see it, is quite modern. The French writer Pierre
Loti calls it a ' kiosk ^ ' ; and that best describes its
external appearance. "We should give it the epithet
'fantastic/ and almost 'tawdry' — which are obviously
not the epithets that we should wish to give to the scene
of our Lord's sepulchre and resurrection. Internally
it is divided into two portions: the outer is called the
Chapel of the Angels ; the inner chapel, which is roughly
about six feet square, is so completely encased with
marble and gilding that no one would guess that it
represented a rock-tomb. And yet the living rock may

^ Vt sup. p. 56 : ' Le grand kiosque de marbre, d'un luxe a demi bar-
bare et surcharge de lampes d 'argent.'



10 THE EXTEENAL ASPECT OF PALESTINE

be seen in a cupboard used for keeping tapers, which
opens out of the marble panelling. It seems that both
Constantine (326-336) and Modestus (616-626), who


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Online LibraryW. (William) SandaySacred sites of the gospels, with illustrations, maps and plans → online text (page 1 of 10)