Wallace Walter Atwood.

New geography, book II online

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And still later, when the Autumn
Changed the long, green leaves to yellow,
And the soft and juicy kernels
Grew like wampum hard and yellow,

Then the ripened ears he gathered,

Stripped the withered husks from off them, . . .

And made known unto the people

This new gift of the Great Spirit. — Longfellow



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In this series Book One has introduced the child to
the study of geography in a most delightful and most
effective way. After visiting homes in various parts of
the world an introductory study is made of the different
nations of the* earth. Book Two follows a wholly new
method of treatment, avoids repetition of matter pre-
sented in Book One, and guides the pupil to a much
fuller knowledge and understanding of geography.

Human geography is the keynote of the series. Em-
phasis is given to the study of those factors that have a
controlling influence upon the life and activities of people.
The " New Geography " becomes an applied science of
fundamental significance to all American citizens.

The natural regions of the world, differing as they do
in surface features, climate, and resources, have produced
widely different occupations and modes of life. They
serve, therefore, as the best units for study.

Regional geography is not a new idea ; it is the goal
toward which the best scientific thought and the best
pedagogy have long been progressing. The simplicity
and the logic of this approach has each year won new
supporters. The one thing lacking has been a textbook
constructed on this principle.

Regional maps. The natural regions of the United
States as shown in this book are the work of the
geographers of the Association of American Geographers
and of the United States Geological Survey. For the
other countries of the world the leading authorities of
several nations have been studied. The consistent use of
one simple color scheme on the maps enables the pupil
to gain most easily a picture of the different physical
settings in which the scenes of huin3,ix Hffe are enacted.

Other maps. A new "fiiid very u&efOT series of eco-
nomic and commercial \njaps .eltow; gi:a,pHically the
chief exports and im^0rt3;:Th&*ro'u'tes of inland trans-
portation are also clearly shown. From these maps the
essential facts of commercial geography can be readily
comprehended and easily remembered.

The relief and vegetation maps are also entirely new.
By a skUlful use of color they show the relief, drainage, and
distribution of vegetation. The series of colored rainfall
maps indicate effectively the periods of heavy or of light
rainfall that are of such great importance in agriculture.

Comparative map studies are introduced as a new
feature. With maps in the hands of each pupil, show-
ing the relief, drainage, vegetation, rainfall, and distri-
bution of population, the data are available for the
solution of many excellent problems.

Problem method. The understanding of the geographic
conditions in a natural region is the fundamental basis
for the discussion of problems relative to the life and
occupations of the people living in that region. Numer-
ous concrete problems and topics for discussion have been
formulated, and many practical exercises that may be
assigned for library or home study have been prepared.

Picture study. The illustrations are accompanied by
very full legends ; each view teaches some importa,nt
fact. A remarkable series of aeroplane drawings of the
great cities and their surroundings assists in a proper
emphasis on urban geography.

Mathematical geography. While all necessary infor-
mation has been given as needed, mathematical geog-
raphy in general has been postponed until the pupil has
become familiar with the details that should serve as
the basis for such world-wide or universal conceptions.

The United States — a world power. At the close of
the book the pupil is brought back to his own country.
Against the background of world conditions he now
examines our natural resources, the role they play in
our industrial life, and the care that should be taken
to conserve them. This leads to the treatment of our
inland and foreign commerce and the development of
our international relations and responsibilities.

Acknowledgments. In the preparation of this book
Mr. Frye, Mrs. Atwood, Mr. William T. Oliver, several
map experts, many government departments, many
railroads and chambers of commerce, the Pan American
Union, and members of the author's staff and that of
Ginn and Company have given most valuable assistance.

The proof sheets were criticized by Miss Nellie B. Allen
of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, by Mrs. Jane Perry Cook of
the Chicago Normal College, and by Mr. Grant E. Finch
of the Montana Normal School.

To all the author expresses his sincere thanks.

Harvard University


• ,-. 420.6










The United States 1

Northern Division of the Appa-
lachian Highlands (New England) 5
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain . . 14
Southern Division of the Appalachian

Highlands 26

Interior Highlands 38

Central Plains 39

Great Plains 53

Rocky Mountains 59

Western Plateaus 65

Pacific Mountains and Lowlands . 70 ^

Comparative Map Studies ... 82

Possessions of the United States 83

Alaska 83

Hawaiian Islands 87

Panama Canal Zone 88

Porto Rico 90

Virgin Islands 91

Philippine Islands 92

Guam 95

Samoan Islands 95

The Nation as a Whole ... 98

Canada 103

Appalachian Highlands .... 103

Laurentian Upland 104

Hudson Bay Lowland 105

Central Plains 105

Great Plains 106

Western Mountains and Plateaus . 108

Newfoundland and Labkadok . 110

Mexico Ill

Centkal America 114

West Indies 115

Trinidad 120

Bermud.\ Islands 120

The Continent of North America 121

Comparative Map Studies . . . 124


Introduction 125

Natural Regions 127

Brazil 130

The Guianas 134

Venezuela 136

Colombia 138


Ecuador 138

Peru 140

Bolivia 142

Chile 144

Argentina 148

Paraguay 152

Uruguay 154

Falkland Island.s 155

Colon Archipelago 155

Comparative Map Studies . . . 156


Introduction 157

Natural Regions 158

Coast Line 162

Influence of the Ice-Sheet.s . . 162

Climate 163

Natural Resources 163

British Isles . 164

Norway and Sweden 170

Denmark 174

Iceland 175

The Netherlands 175

Belgium 177

Luxemburg 179

France 180

Switzerland 187

Germany 189

Austria 193

Hungary 194

Czechoslovakia 195

Poland 196

Baltic States 197

Finland 197

Ru.ssia 198

Small Countries South of the

Caucasus 200

Ukraine 202

Rumania 202

Mediterranean Lan^s .... 203

Spain \ . . 204

Portugal 206

Italy 207

jugo.slavia 213



Albania 213

Bulgaria 214

Greece 214

Constantinople and the Turks . 215

Comparative Map Studies . . . 216


Introduction 217

Natural Regions 220

Climate 220

Vegetation and Animal Life . 221

Natural Resources 221

British Possessions 222

French Possessions 225

Other European Possessions . . 228

Independent Countries .... 229

Comparative Map Studies . . . 230


Natural Regions 231

Climate 234

Countries op Southwestern Asia 235

Countries of West-Central Asia 239

Siberia 240

The Republic of China .... 242

Japan 246

Indo-China 249

The Malay States 251

India 252

Small Countries in the Himalaya

Mountains 254

East Indies 255

Comparative Map Studies . . . 256


Australia 257

New Zealand 263

Pacific Islands 264

Comparative Map Studies . . . 265


North Polar Region 266

South Polar Region 266




World Geography 267

The Earth ix the Universe . . 276


ixtroduction 277

Natural Resources of the United

States 278

Soils 278

Forests 284

Mineral Resources 286

Water 295

Fisheries 297

Industries Dependent upon Im-
ported Raw Materials . 299

Inland Commerce 300

Foreign Commerce 302

Summary and Conclusion . . . 304


Reference Books


Geographical Explorations . .

ii, iii

World Production Maps . . . .

iv, V

Great Trade Routes ....

vi, vii

Tables op Area and Population


Index and Pronunciations . . .



Maps in Colors

Africa, Physical (showing Natural.

Regions) 218

Africa, Political and Economic . . 227

Africa, Rainfall and Population . . 230

Africa, Colored Relief and Vegetation 230

Alaska, Political and Economic . . 84
Asia, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 232

Asia, The Near East, Political and

Economic 237

Asia, The Far East, Political and

Economic 247

Asia, Political and Economic . . 250

Asia, Rainfall and Population . . 256

Asia, Colored Relief and Vegetation 256
Australia, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 258

Australia, Political and Economic . 260

Australia, Rainfall and Population . 265

Australia, Colored Relief and Vege-
tation 265

Canada, Political and Economic . . 107

Central America, Political and Eco-
nomic 118, 119

Europe, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 161

Europe, North Sea Countries, Polit-
ical and Economic . . . . 171

Europe, Central, Political and Eco-
nomic 182, 183

Europe, Eastern, Political and Eco-
nomic 201

Europe, Mediterranean Sea Countries,

Political and Economic . . 208, 209

Europe, Rainfall and Population . 216

Europe, Colored Relief and Vegeta-
tion 216 ^

Hawaiian Islands, Political and Eco-
nomic 84

Mexico, Political and Economic . 118, 119

North America, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 122

North America, Rainfall and Popu-
lation 124

North America, Colored Relief and

Vegetation 124 \/

Philippine Islands, Political and Eco-
nomic 93

Porto Rico, Political and Economic 118, 119

South America, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 126

South America, Northern Section,

Political and Economic . . . 135

South America, Southern Section,

Political and Economic . . . 145

South America, Rainfall and Popu-
lation 156

South America, Colored Relief and /

Vegetation ....... 156 '

United States, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 2, 3

United States, Sectional Maps, Polit-
ical and Economic
New England States .... 13
Southern States, Eastern Section . 23
Southern States, Western Section 25
Middle Atlantic States .... 35
Central States, Eastern Section . 45
Central States, Western Section . 55
Northwestern States .... 73
Southwestern States .... 76
United States, Rainfall and Popula-
tion 82

United States, Colored Relief and

Vegetation . 82 i.


United States, Political (showing

Railroads) 96 97

West Indies, Political and Eco-
nomic ....... 118, 119

\Yorld Maps

Average Annual Rainfall of the

World 275

Ocean Currents and the Tempera-
ture of the Surface Water . . 275
Geographical Explorations

Appendix, Plate A
Great Trade Routes

Appendix, Plate B

Black-and-White Maps

North America

Extent of Continental Ice-Sheet
Panama Canal Zone ....
United States

Cattle-Producing Areas .

Coal Resources

Corn-Producing Areas .

Cotton-Producing Areas

Forest Areas

Gold and Silver Resources .

Iron and Copiier Resources

Lead and Zinc Resources .

Northeastern Industrial District

Oil and Gas Resources .

Sheep-Producing Areas .

Sugar-Producing Areas .

Territorial Expansion .

■\\^estward Movement of Population

Wheat-Producing Areas
World Maps

Cattle-Producing Regions .

Coal-Producing Regions

Cotton-Producing Regions .

Iron-Producing Regions

Silk-Producing Regions .

WheatrProducing Regions .

Wool-Producing Regions .







Aeroplane Drawings

Boston 9

Chicago 50

London 167

New York City 30

Paris 185

Philadelphia 32

Pittsburgh 33

Rio de Janeiro 133

San Francisco 79

. Washington 101




During the last hundred years the United States
of Anaerica has become one of the busiest nations in
the world. In every state, from the Atlantic to the
Pacific, and from the Canadian boundary to the Mexican
frontier, most of the people are very busily engaged
in some kind of work. Their occupations and many of
their customs depend chiefly upon the geographic con-
ditions in the regions where they live.

We are a hopeful and enthusiastic people. We look
forward to having better homes, more beautiful churches,
and better schools. We want the people in the country
to enjoy the advantages of good roads, mail service, the
telephone, and many other comforts, and we look for
better living and working conditions in the cities.

Every boy and every girl in this country has an
opportunity to rise to a position of great responsibility.
The schools are open to all, and everyone who is able
and willing to work hard may have the advantages
of the highest and best education. Each one will have
the responsibility of citizenship in a great nation.

To fulfill the responsibility of citizenship, to help the
home community, the state, and the nation, each one
of us should understand the geography of this country ;
and at this time, when the United States of America is
taking a larger and larger part in affairs of world-wide
importance, it is more necessary than ever before that
we know also the geography of other countries.

Variety in physical and human geography. Some
parts of the United States are warm and other parts
are cold ; some are well watered and forested, others
have a moderate rainfall and are grasslands ; and still
others are very dry. In some sections of the country
there are plains, in some parts there are plateaus, and
in other parts there are mountains. See map opposite
page 82. Vast areas of rich soils have led to farming,
and the extensive grasslands have invited many to
raise cattle, horses, and sheep. The wonderful supplies
of coal, oil, gas, and water-power, together with iron,
copper, lead, and zinc, have made possible a most re-
markable industrial development. People living on the
coast, where there are good harbors, have very natu-
rally become interested in commerce, and throughout
the land many are engaged in ti-ade and transportation.
Because the physical geography differs so widely in the
many sections, the human geography varies also.

Natural regions. For purposes of study, which should
lead to an understanding of geography, the United States
is divided into natural regions. See map on pages 2 and 3.

A natural region is a portion of the earth's surface
throughout which the geographic conditions which help
to determine life do not differ greatly. When a natural
region is very large, the climate in the distant parts
will differ, and this difference must be considered in
explaining the life of the region.

Grei t Bear 120° Lake

F Longitude 100° IWst (


O Giuu and Coaipaajr


UNITED STATES (Pages 2, 3)

1. Where are the young, rugged mountains of the United
States ? the old, worn-down mountains ? 2. Name and locate
tlie three large regions of plains in the United States.

3. Tlie longest river in the world is on this map. Which
one is it? See tables in Appendix. 4. The greatest system of
fresh-water lakes in the world is on this map. Make a list of

18. The routes of migration westward were of great im-
portance in the settlement and development of this country.
Frequent reference will be made to them in the text. Trace
each one on the map. 19. What city has grown up where
many of the western routes left the Missouri River?

20. What was the easiest route through the Appalachian
Mountains? 21. Which of the western routes avoided most
of the mountains ? 22. Which of the western routes had the
least desert country ? See map opposite paxje 82.

23. Wiiat natural regions are crossed by the parallel of 40°
north latitude? 24. What two states are separated by that
parallel ? 25. In what natural region is (ireat Salt Lake ?
Yellowstone National Park? the Grand Canyon? Mount
Mitcliell ? Pikes Peak ? Mount Whitney ?

26. In what region does the Mississippi River rise ? the
Rio Grande? the Colorado River? the Tennessee River?

Fig. 1. This steam plow is turning over the rich soil in the Great Plains.

notice the gently rolling country and contrast it with the Rocky Mountains

region shown in Fig. 2. Are any states entirely within the Great Plains ?

What states are partly included in them ?

the lakes. 5. Wiiat is the Continental Divide? Where is it?
6. Can one go by water from Chicago or Duluth to Europe ?
Describe the route. 7. The waters from what lakes flow over
Niagara Falls ? See page 41, Fig. 74.

8. What nations sent explorers to this country ? See Appen-
dix,'Plate A. Where did they go? 9. What nation sent the
men who sailed down the Mississippi River ? Who found the
mouth of this river ?

10. Learn to locate each of the natural regions. After
studying the map, write the names of the regions in a list,
close the book, and see if you can tell where each region is

11. Add to your list of the natural regions the general
elevation of each above sea level. 12. Which one of the
western plateaus has, in general, the higher elevation ?
13., Where' is the greatest delta on this map ?

14. Suppose the sea withdrew to the edge of the continen-
tal shelf, what states would be enlarged ? What state would
gain the most land? 15. What parts of the United States
have good harbors ? 16. Trace the southern limit of continental
glaciation (ice action) from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Through what states does it pass ?

17. North of that line the land in the United States, ex-
cept in tlie driftless area of Wisconsin and neighboring states;'
has been covered by glacial ice. South of that line in the high
mountains there were also glaciers. We must frequently refer
to this line, for the surface features, soils, streams, and lakes
north and south of it differ very greatly.

Fig. 2. Glacier National Park, in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been

set aside by our government as a vacation land for the people. It is a region

of rugged mountains with glacier-covered peaks and heavily wooded slopes.

In the valleys between the mountains are beautiful glacial lakes

27. In what region does the Humboldt River end ? 28. What
peak in Maine is in about the same latitude as j\Iont Blanc,
Switzerland ? See eastern margin of map.

29. What mountains in New York are about one degree
farther north than Mount Vesuvius, Italy ? 30. Are the New
England states and New York in the latitude of northern
Europe or southern Europe ?

31. Compare the latitude of Cape Henry with that of the
Strait of Gibraltar. 32. Compare the latitude of Fuji Moun-
tain, Japan, with that of the Grand Canyon in Arizona.

33. Are the Himalaya Mountains of northern India as far
north as the Sierra Nevada of California? 34. In general,
how does the_ latitude of China and the Japanese islands
compare with the latitude of the United States?

35. What Atlantic seaport is in abont the same longitude
as the Panama Canal? 3G. What is the difference in longi-
tude from Boston to San Francisco ? 37. About how far, in
miles, is it from Boston to San Francisco ? Use scale.


Fig. 3. This is Lake Sunapee in New Hampshire, one of the thousands
of beautiful lakes which are scattered among the hills and mountains of
New England. Notice its irregular shape, its islands and wooded shores,
and the cleared land surrounding the farmhouse at the right. In the distance


beyond the lake you can see the rolling upland country of the old, worn-
down Appalachians. What do the people of this region do for a living ?
Can you explain why farming is difficult in this part of New England ?
Why are there so many lakes in New England ? Of what use are they ?

England states there are many areas of good soils, although
much of the land is too hilly or too stony for farming.

The rock formations (such as granite, marble, lime-
stone, sandstone, and slate) of which the hills and
mountains are made, and often the bowlders scattered
about on the surface, are used as building materials.
Much of the United States depends upon New England
for granite and marble. i

The seashore, the islands, the many beautiful lakes
cellent harbors on the New England coast, and offshore, (Fig. 3), and the mountains serve as summer resorts,
in the cold, shallow waters, fish have always been abun- They attract thousands of visitors each year, and in a
dant. Forests once covered most of this region, and country where so many people live and work in large
there are still extensive forests in the northern parts cities, such vacation grounds are a real natural resource
of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Recently the of ever-increasing value. Many of the lakes serve as
United States government has established a national reservoirs for city water supplies, others furnish ice, and

New England

In this portion of the United States, farming, lum-
bering, and fishing were formerly the chief occupations,
but now New England is a great manufacturing district.
There must be some good reason for such a change.

Natural resources. Use map on pmje 13. There are ex-

forest in the White Moun-
tains, and much of the land
in that part of New Hamp-
shire is being purchased by
the government and will be
reforested. Almost every
farm in New England has
a wood-lot which supplies
fuel for the home.

The broad, flat areas of
the Connecticut River Low-
land are the most extensive
farm lands in this region
(Fig. 4), but the lowlands
bordering Lake Champlain
in Vermont also have fertile
soils. In each of the New

Fig. 4. Much tobacco is grown in the southern part of the Connecticut

River lowland. The leaves are picked and hung on racks like this to wilt

in the sun. Then they are taken to the barns and dried. The Connecticut

valley tobacco is used chieSy for making wrappers for cigars

in many there are good
supplies of fish.

Another natural resource
of very great importance,
and one that helps to ex-
plain why New England has
become a manufacturing
district, is the water-power.
Most of the streams, large
and small, have falls or
rapids in their com'ses, and
in those places dams have
been constructed and mills
have been erected. Many
great plants have been built
to transform the water-
power into electric power.


Fig. 6. Dairy herds like this are a very common sight in New England.

In summer the cows graze over the grassy hillsides, but in winter they are

fed indoors. The great cities of New England demand large quantities of

milk and butter, and make dairying profitable for the farmer

Even the Connecticut River, the largest stream in New
England, is used to generate electricity. In several places
a small stream has been dammed to generate electricity
on a farm, so that the farmer may light his home and
run machines with the power generated by the little
stream that flows over his land.

Climate. The rainfall in this region is enough for
agriculture and for tree growth, and it is evenly dis-
tributed; that is, about the same amount falls each

The amount that falls in a year in New England is
about 45 inches. See map on page 82. In any land
where the rainfall is over 80 inches a year, as in the
Amazon Basin, there is a very wet chmate. In places
where the rainfall is less than 20 inches, as in some of
our Western states, agriculture is unsafe without the help
of irrigation. In the great deserts of the world the rain-

Online LibraryWallace Walter AtwoodNew geography, book II → online text (page 1 of 48)