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RYE-ATWOOD GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES



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FRYE-ATWOOD GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES

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NEW
GEOGRAPHY



BOOK TWO



BY



WALLACE W. ATWOOD








GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON • NEW YORK • CHICAGO - LONDON
ATLANTA • DALLAS - COLUMBUS - SAN FRANCISCO



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PREFACE



IlllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllHllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllinni




In this series Book One has introduced the child to
the study of geography in a most delightful and
effective way. After visiting homes in various parts of
the world an introductory study is made of the different
nations of the earth. Book Two follows a wholly new
method of treatment, avoids repetition of matter pre-
sented in Book One, and guides the pupil to a much
fuller knowledge and understanding of geography.

Human geography is the keynote of the series. Em-
phasis is given to the study of those factors that have a
controlling influence upon the life and activities of people.
The " New Geography " becomes an applied science of
fundamental significance to all American citizens.

The natural regions of the world, differing as they do
in surface features, climate, and resources, have produced
widely different occupations and modes of life. They
serve, therefore, as the best units for study.

Regional geography is not a new idea; it is the goal
toward which the best scientific thought and the best
pedagogy have long been progressing. The simplicity
and the logic of this approach have each year won new
supporters. The one thing lacking has been a textbook
constructed on this principle.

Regional maps. The division of the United States into
natural regions as shown in this book is the work of
the geographers of the Association of American Geog-
raphers and of the United States Geological Survey.
For the other countries of the world the leading authori-
ties of several nations have been studied. The consistent
use of one simple color scheme on the maps enables the
pupil to gain most easily a picture of the different physical
settings in which the scenes of human life are enacted.

Other maps. A new and very useful series of polit-
ical and economic maps shows graphically the chief
exports and imports. The routes Of inland transpor-
tation are also clearly shown. From these maps the
essential facts of commercial geography can be readily
comprehended and easily remembered.

The relief and vegetation maps are also entirely new.
By a skillful use of color they show the relief, drainage, and
distribution of vegetation. The series of colored rainfall
maps indicates effectively the periods of heavy or of light
rainfall that are of such great importance in agriculture.



Comparative map studies are introduced as a new
feature. With maps in the hands of each pupil, show-
ing the relief, drainage, vegetation, rainfall, and distri-
bution of population, the data are available for the
solution of many excellent problems.

Problem method. The understanding of the geographic
conditions in a natural region is the fundamental basis
for the discussion of problems relative to the life and
occupations of the people living in that region. Numer-
ous concrete problems and topics for discussion have been
formulated, and many practical exercises that may be
assigned for library or home study have been prepared.

Picture study. The illustrations are accompanied by
very full legends ; each view teaches some important
fact. A remarkable series of aeroplane drawings of the
great cities and their surroundings assists in a proper
emphasis on urban geography.

Mathematical geography. While all necessary infor-
mation has been given as needed, mathematical geog-
raphy in general has been postponed until the pupil has
become familiar with the details that should serve as
the basis for such world-wide or universal conceptions.

The United States — a world power. At the close of
the book the pupil is brought back to his own country.
Against the background of world conditions he now
examines our natural resources, the role they play in
our industrial life, and the care that should be taken
to conserve them. This leads to the treatment of our
inland and foreign commerce and the development of
our international relations and responsibilities.

Acknowledgments. In the preparation of this book
Mr. Frye, Mrs. Atwood, Mr. William T. Oliver, several
map experts, many government departments, many
railroads and chambers of commerce, the Pan American
Union, and members of the author's staff and that of
Ginn and Company have given most valuable assistance.

The proof sheets were criticized by Miss Nellie B. Allen
of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, by Mrs. Jane Perry Cook of
the Chicago Normal College, and by Mr. Grant E. Finch
of the Montana Normal School.

To all the author expresses his sincere thanks.

WALLACE W. ATWOOD
Clark University



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY GINN AND COMPANY • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL
THE A THEN. Ill ;.M PRESS • GINN AND COMPANY • PROPRIETORS • BOSTON . U.S.A.

424.1

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CONTENTS



HE



M




NORTH AMERICA

PAGE

The United States 1

Northern Division of the Appa-
lachian Highlands (New England) 5
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain . . 14
Southern Division of the Appalachian

Highlands 26

Interior Highlands 38

Central Plains 39

Great Plains 53

Rocky Mountains 59

Western Plateaus 65

Pacific Mountains and Lowlands . 70

Comparative Map Studies ... 82

Possessions of the United States 83

Alaska 83

Hawaiian Islands 87

Panama Canal Zone 88

Porto Rico 90

Virgin Islands 91

Philippine Islands 92

Guam 95

Samoa Islands 95

The Nation as a Wholf ... 98

Canada 103

Appalachian Highlands .... 103

Laurentian Upland 104

Hudson Bay Lowland 105

Central Plains 105

Great Plains . 106

Western Mountains and Plateaus . 108

Newfoundland and Labrador . 110

Mexico Ill

Central America 114

West Indies 115

Trinidad 120

Bermuda Islands 120

The Continent of North America 121

Comparative Map Studies . . . 124

SOUTH AMERICA

Introduction 125

Natural Regions 127

Brazil 130

The Guianas 134

Venezuela 136

Colombia 138



PAGE

Ecuador 138

Peru 140

Bolivia 142

Chile 144

Argentina 148

Paraguay 152

Uruguay 154

Falkland Islands 155

Colon Archipelago 155

Comparative Map Studies . . . 156

EUROPE

Introduction 157

Natural Regions 158

Coast Line '. 162

Influence of the Ice-Sheets . . 162

Climate 163

Natural Resources . . . . . 163

British Isles 164

Norway and Sweden 170

Denmark 174

Iceland 175

The Netherlands 175

Belgium 177

Luxemburg 179

Prance 180

Switzerland 187

Germany 189

Austria 193

Hungary 194

Czechoslovakia 195

Poland 196

Baltic States 197

Finland 197

Russia 198

Trans-Caucasian Republics . . 200

White Russia 200

Ukraine 202

Rumania ... 202

Mediterranean Lands .... 203

Spain 204

Portugal . 206

Italy 207

Jugoslavia 213

iii



PAGE

Albania 213

Bulgaria 214

Greece 214

Turkey 215

Comparative Map Studies . . . 216

AFRICA

Introduction 217

Natural Regions 220

Climate 220

Vegetation and Animal Life . 221

Natural Resources 221

Egypt 222

British Possessions 223

French Possessions 225

Other European Possessions . . 228

Liberia and Abyssinia .... 229

Comparative Map Studies . . . 230

ASIA

Natural Regions 231

Climate 234

Countries of Southwestern Asia 235

Countries of West-Central Asia 239

Siberia 240

The Republic of China .... 242

Japan 246

Indo-China 249

The Malay States 251

India 252

Small Countries in the Himalaya

Mountains 254

East Indies 255

Comparative Map Studies . . . 256

AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND,
AND PACIFIC ISLANDS

Australia 257

New Zealand 263

Pacific Islands 264

Comparative Map Studies . ' . . 265

POLAR REGIONS

North Polar Region 266

South Polar Region 266



5Kr,7:lG




CONTENTS



WORLD GEOGRAPHY



World Geography 267

The Earth in the Universe . . 276

THE UNITED STATES — A
WORLD POWER

Introduction 277

Natural Resources of the United

States 278

Soils 278

Forests 284

Mineral Resources 286

Water 295

Fisheries 297

Industries Dependent upon Im-
ported Haw Materials . 299

Inland Commerce 300

Foreign Commerce 302

Summary and Conclusion . . . 304

APPENDIX

Reference Books i

Geographical Explorations . . ii, iii
World Production Maps . . . iv, v
Great Trade Routes .... vi, vii
Tables of Area and Population viii
Index and Pronunciations ... xi



INDEX OF MAPS

Maps in Colors

Africa, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 218

Africa, Political and Economic . . 227

Africa, Rainfall and Population . . 230

Africa, Colored Relief and Vegetation 230

Alaska, Political and Economic . . 84
Asia, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 232

Asia, 'The Near East, Political and

Economic 237

Asia, The Far East, Political and

Economic 247

Asia, Political and Economic . . 250

Asia, Rainfall and Population . . 256

Asia, Colored Relief and Vegetation 256
Australia, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 258

Australia, Political and Economic . 260

Australia, Rainfall and Population . 265



l'AGF

Australia, Colored Relief and Vege-"

tation 265

Canada, Political and Economic . . 107

Central America, Political and Eco-
nomic 118, 119

Europe, Physical (showing Natural

Regions) 1G1

Europe, North Sea Countries, Polit-
ical and Economic . . . . 171

Europe, Central, Political and Eco-
nomic 182, 183

Europe, Eastern, Political and Eco-
nomic 201

Europe, Mediterranean SeaCountrics,

Political and Economic . . 208, 209

Europe, Rainfall and Population . 216

Europe, Colored Relief and Vegeta-
tion 216

Hawaiian Islands, Political and Eco-
nomic 84

Mexico, Political and Economic . 118, 119

North America, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 122

North America, Rainfall and Popu-
lation 124

North America, Colored Relief and

Vegetation 124

Philippine Islands, Political and Eco-
nomic 93

Polar Regions 266

South America, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 126

South America, Northern Section,

Political and Economic . . . 135

South America, Southern Section,

Political and Economic . . . 145

South America, Rainfall and Popu-
lation 156

South America, Colored Relief and

Vegetation 156

United States, Physical (showing

Natural Regions) 2, 3

United States, Sectional Maps, Polite
ical and Economic
New England States .... 13
Southern States, Eastern Section . 23
Southern States, Western Section 25
Middle Atlantic States .... 35
Central States, Eastern Section . 45
Central States, Western Section . 55
Northwestern States .... 73
Southwestern States .... 76

United States, Rainfall and Popula-
tion 82

United States, Colored Relief and

Vegetation 82




PAGE

United States, Political ... 96, 97
West Indies, Political and Eco-
nomic 118, 119

World Maps

Average Annual Rainfall . . . 275

Ocean Currents 275

Geographical Explorations . Plate A
Great Trade Routes .... Plate B



BLACK-AND-WHITE MAPS




Africa




Valley of the Nile


223


Asia




Relief Drawing of Palestine .


236


Europe




Extent of Continental Ice-Sheet .


168


North America




Extent of Continental Ice-Sheet


10


Panama Canal Zone


89


United States




Cattle-Producing Areas .


283


Coal Resources


287


Corn-Producing Areas .


278


Cotton-Producing Areas


282


Forest Areas .


2S4


Gold and Silver Resources .


293


Iron and Copper Resources


289


Lead and Zinc Resources .


292


Northeastern Industrial District .


21


Oil and Gas Resources ....


288


Sheep-Producing Areas ....


283


Sugar-Producing Areas .


279


Territorial Expansion ....


99


Westward Movement of Population


98


Wheat-Producing Areas


279


World Maps




Cattle-Producing Regions .


iv


Coal-Producing Regions


V


Cotton-Producing Regions .


V


Iron-Producing Regions


V




299


WheatrProducing Regions .


iv


AVool-Producing Regions .


iv


World Temperature Maps .


268



Aeroplane Drawings

Boston 9

Chicago 50

London 167

New York City 30

Paris 185

Philadelphia 32

Pittsburgh 33

Rio de Janeiro 133

San Francisco 79

Washington 101




NEW GEOGRAPHY

NORTH AMERICA




THE UNITED STATES



During the last hundred years the United States
of America has become one of the busiest nations in
the world. In every state, from the Atlantic to the
Pacific, and from the Canadian boundary to the Mexican
frontier, most of the people are very busily engaged
in some kind of work. Their occupations and many of
their customs depend chiefly upon the geographic con-
ditions in the regions where they live.

We are a hopeful and enthusiastic people. We look
forward to having better homes, more beautiful churches,
and better schools. We want the people in the country
to enjoy the advantages of good roads, mail service, the
telephone, and many other comforts, and we look for
better living and working conditions in the cities.

Every boy and every girl in this country has an
opportunity to rise to a position of great responsibility.
The schools are open to all, and everyone who is able
and willing to work hard may have the advantages
of the highest and best education. Each one will ha\e
the responsibility of citizenship in a great nation.

To fulfill the responsibility of citizenship, to help the
home community, the state, and the nation, each one
of us should understand the geography of this country ;
and at this time, when the United States of America is
taking a larger and larger part in affairs of world-wide
importance, it is more necessary than ever before that
we know also the geography of other countries.



Variety in physical and human geography. Some
parts of the United States are warm and other parts
are cold ; some are well watered and forested, others
have a moderate rainfall and are grasslands ; and still
others are very dry. In some sections of the country
there are plains, in some parts there are plateaus, and
in other parts there are mountains. See map opposite
page 82. Vast areas of rich soils have led to farming,
and the extensive grasslands have invited many to
raise cattle, horses, and sheep. The wonderful supplies
of coal, oil, gas, and water-power, together with iron,
copper, lead, and zinc, have made possible a most re-
markable industrial development. People living on the
coast, where there are good harbors, have very natu-
rally become interested in commerce, and throughout
the land many are engaged in trade and transportation.
Because the physical geography differs so widely in the
many sections, the human geography varies also.

Natural regions. For purposes of study, which should
lead to an understanding of -geography, the United States
is divided into natural regions. See map on pages 2 and 3.

A natural region is a portion of the earth's surface
throughout which the geographic conditions which help
to determine life do not differ greatly. When a natural
region is very large, the climate in the distant parts
will differ, and this difference must be considered in
explaining the life of the region.




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NATURAL REGIONS



MAP STUDIES — NATURAL REGIONS OF THE
UNITED STATES (Pages 2, 3)

1. Where are the young, rugged mountains of the United
States ? the old, worn-down mountains ? 2. Name and locate
the three large regions of plains in the United States.

3. The longest river in the world is on this map. Which
one is it ? See tables in Appendix. 4. The greatest system of
fresh-water lakes in the world is on this map. Make a list of




Fig. 1. This steam plow is turning over the rich soil in the Great Plains.

Notice the gently rolling country and contrast it with the Rocky Mountains

region shown in Fig. 2. Are any states entirely within the Great Plains ?

What states are partly included in them ?

the lakes. 5. In what mountains is the Continental Divide ?
6. Can one go by water from Chicago or Duluth to Europe ?
Describe the route. 7. The waters from what lakes flow over
Niagara Falls ? See page 41, Fig. 74.

8. What nations sent explorers to this country ? See Appen-
dix, Plate A. Where did they go ? 9. What nation sent the
men who sailed down the Mississippi River ? Who explored
the mouth of the Mississippi River ?

10. Learn to locate each of the natural regions. The Appa-
lachian Plateau, the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont
Belt, and the Coastal Hilly Belt make up the region which is
known as the Appalachian Highlands.

11. Make a list of the natural regions, giving the general
elevation of each above sea level. 12. Which one of the
western plateaus has, in general, the higher elevation ?
13. Where is the greatest delta on this map?

14. Suppose the sea withdrew to the edge of the continen-
tal shelf, where the water is now 100 fathoms deep, what
states would be enlarged? 15. What parts of the United
States have good harbors? 16. Trace the southern limit of
continental glaciation (ice action) on this map. Through
what states does it pass ? See page 10, Fig. 14.

17. North of that line the land in the United States, ex-
cept in the driftless area of Wisconsin and neighboring states,
has been covered by glacial ice. South of that line in the high
mountains there were also glaciers. We must frequently refer
to this line, for the surface features, soils, streams, and lakes
north and south of it differ very greatly.



18. The routes of migration westward were of great im-
portance in the settlement and development of this country.
Frequent reference will be made to them in the text. Trace
each one on the map. 19. What city has grown up where
many of the western routes left the Missouri River?

20. What was the easiest route through the Appalachian
Mountains? 21. Which of the western routes avoided most
of the mountains ? 22. Which of the western routes had the
least desert country ? See map opposite page 82.

23. What natural regions are crossed by the parallel of 40°
north latitude ? 24. What two states are separated by that
parallel ? 25. In what natural region is Great Salt Lake ?
Yellowstone National Park ? the Grand Canyon ? Mount
Mitchell ? Pikes Peak ? Mount Whitney ?

26. In what region does the Mississippi River rise ? the
Rio Grande ? the Colorado River ? the Tennessee River ?




3 R. E. Marblt

Fig. 2. Glacier National Park, in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been

set aside by our government as a vacation land for the people. It is a region

of rugged mountains with glacier-covered peaks and heavily wooded slopes.

In the valleys between the mountains are beautiful glacial lakes

27. In what region does the Arkansas River rise ? 28. What
peak in Maine is in about the same latitude as Mont Blanc,
France ? See eastern margin of map.

29. What mountains in New York are about one degree
farther north than Mount Vesuvius, Italy ? 30. Are the New
England states and New York in the latitude of northern
Europe or southern Europe ?

Note to Teacher. Most of the fundamental facts of land forms,
water bodies, and the work of streams, winds, and glacial ice have been
learned by the pupil in his study of Book I, and this knowledge should
be applied in answering the questions on this page. For example, since
he has already studied " Divides," he can, with the help of the key in
the corner of the map, locate and trace the Continental Divide and
interpret the meaning of the term.

The thirty questions given above are merely suggestive of the use
which should be made of this, the first map in the book. The teacher
should formulate many more questions on this regional map and should
devote several class periods to a thorough discussion of all its features.
Continual reference to this map is made throughout the entire study of
the United States.



NEW ENGLAND






Fig. 3. This is Lake Sunapee in New Hampshire, one of the thousands
of beautiful lakes which are scattered among the hills and mountains of
New England. Notice its irregular shape, its islands and wooded shores,
and the cleared land surrounding the farmhouse at the right. In the distance



beyond the lake you can see the rolling upland country of the old, worn-
down Appalachians. What do the people of this region do for a living ?
Can you explain why farming is difficult in this part of New England ?
Why are there so many lakes in New England ? Of what use are they ?



NORTHERN DIVISION OF THE APPALACHIAN
HIGHLANDS

New Exglaxd

In this portion of the United States, farming, lum-
bering, and fishing were formerly the chief occupations,
but now New England is a great manufacturing district.
There must be some good reason for such a change.

Natural resources. Use map on page 13. There are ex-
cellent harbors on the New England coast, and offshore,
in the cold, shallow waters, fish have always been abun-
dant. Forests once covered most of this region, and
there are still extensive forests in the northern parts
of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Recently the
United States government has established a national
forest in the White Moun-
tains, and much of the land
in that part of New Hamp-
shire is being purchased by
the government and will be
reforested. Almost every
farm in New England has
a wood-lot which supplies
fuel for the home.

The broad, flat areas of
the Connecticut River Low-
land are the most extensive
farm lands in this region
(Fig. 4), but the lowlands
bordering Lake Champlain
in Vermont also have fertile
soils. In each of the New









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Fig. 4. Much tobacco is grown in the southern part of the Connecticut

River Lowland. The stalks are cut and hung on racks like this to wiit

in the sun. Then they are taken to the barns and dried. The Connecticut

valley tobacco is r ;ed chiefly for making wrappers for cigars



England states there are many areas of good soils, although
much of the land is too hilly or too stony for farming.

The rock formations (such as granite, marble, lime-
stone, sandstone, and slate) of which the hills and
mountains are made, and often the bowlders scattered
about on the surface, are used as building materials.
Much of the United States depends upon New England
for granite and marble.

The seashore, the islands, the many beautiful lakes
(Fig. 3), and the mountains serve as summer resorts.
They attract thousands of visitors each year, and in a
country where so many people live and work in large
cities, such vacation grounds are a real natural resource
of ever-increasing value. Many of the lakes serve as
reservoirs for city water supplies, others furnish ice, and

in many there are good



Online LibraryWallace Walter AtwoodNew geography → online text (page 1 of 50)