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state of our knowledge, may be expressed in the following genealogical tree, in which the
left-hand branch in each case represents the more generalized type of each pair:

CaracanthidaB ?

1 1 1




1 II

i > S
J ^ 1



S 8




(lorica, a cuirass.)

1758 Bulletin 4.7, United States National Museum.

a. Myodome* more or less developed.

&. Post-temporal bifurcate and connected with the cranium by its processes in

normal manner.
c. Body and head compressed or moderately depressed.!

d. Actinosts moderate and inserted on posterior edges of hypercoracoid

and hypocoracoid ; ribs, typically, borne on enlarged parapophyses.

e. Gills 3| or 4, the slit behind the last gill small or wanting ; spinous

dorsal well developed ; anal with 3 strong spines, the fin rather

short; body covered with scales; a single lateral line; top of

head more or less armed; vertebra? rather few, 24 to 31.


ee. Gills 4, with a large slit behind the fourth ; body covered with
small scales ; cranium unarmed ; dorsal and anal fins elongate ;
vertebras numerous, more than 30.
/. Nostrils normal, the posterior Avell developed.


ff. Nostrils single, the posterior represented by a small pore
well behind the other and not functional.


dd. Actinosts large and partly intervening between the hypercoracoid
and the hypocoracoid ; ribs sessile on the vertebrae ; vertebras
numerous, 30 to 50 ; no anal spines ; body not uniformly scaled.


&&. Post-temporal expanded and connected with the cranium by an extensive


g. Anus submedian ; ventrals subabdominal ; gill openings very small ; exo-
skeleton developed as spiniform prickles ; head excessively large.


gg. Anus thoracic; ventrals subbrachial; gill opening moderate; exoskele-

ton developed as plates arranged in about 8 longitudinal rows ; spi-

nous dorsal short or wanting. AGONID^E, CLXXXI.


aa. Myodome completely wanting ; ventrals completely united, forming a round suck-

ing disk, which is rarely obsolete; spinous dorsal little developed.
h. Body cavity elongate ; caudal region short. CYCLOPTERIDJE, CLXXXII.

hh. Body cavity short; caudal region elongate; skin smooth.


Family CLXXVI. S


Body oblong, more or less compressed, the head large, and with one or
more pairs of ridges above, which usually terminate in spines. Opercle

*Myodome or muscular tube, "a chamber for the rectus muscles of the eye. This is
isolated from the brain cavity by the development of a platform from the basioccipital
continuous with horizontal ridges or shelves diverging from the inner walls of the pro-
otic bones and meeting along the middle, thus constituting a roof for the muscular cham-
ber and a floor for the cranial cavity." (Gill.)

tBody and head much depressed in the family of Platycephalidce and its relatives,
groups not represented in the Western Hemisphere. Two species of Platycephalus have
been erroneously ascribed to the region under consideration. These are mentioned on
page 2028.

JThe original draft of the account of this family is contributed by Mr. Frank Cramer;
to this numerous additions have been made by the present authors. Some of the descrip-
tions are adapted from those in Jordan & Gilbert's Synopsis Fishes N. A. All these
nave been verified on new material.

Jordan and Evermann. Fishes of North America. 1759

usually with 2 spinous processes ; preopercle with 4 or 5. Mouth terminal,
usually large, with villiform teeth on jaws and vomer, and usually on the
palatines. Premaxillaries piotractile; maxillary broad, without supple-
mental bone, not slipping under preorbital. Gill openings wide, extending
forward below; the gill membranes separate and free from the isthmus;
usually no slit behind the fourth gill. Scales ctenoid, or sometimes
cycloid, usually well developed, sometimes nearly obsolete. Lateral line
single, continuous, concurrent with the back ; a narrow bony stay extend-
ing backward from the suborbital toward the preopercle. Ventral iins
thoracic, of the normal percoid form, I, 5, the rays branched; dorsal fin
continuous, sometimes so deeply notched as to divide it into 2 parts, with
8 to 16 rather strong spines and about as many soft rays ; anal rather short,
with 3 spines and 5 to 10 soft rays; soft rays in all the fins branched,
except some or all of rays of the pectorals ; pyloric caica in moderate or
small number (less than 12). Pseudobraiichite large. Air bladder usually
present. Actinosts moderate, inserted on the posterior edges of hy percora-
coid and hypocoracoid ; ribs borne on enlarged pleurapophyses. Post-
temporal bifurcate, normally connected ; myodome more or less developed.
Genera about 30; species about 250, inhabiting all seas, but especially
abundant in the temperate parts of the Pacific Ocean, where they form a
large proportion of the fish fauna. They are nonmigratory fishes living
about rock... Most of thorn are of large size, and all are used as food.
Many of them are viviparous, the young being produced in great numbers
when about inch in length. (Triglidw, group Scorpaeninaj Gunther, Cat.,
n, 95, 1860.)


a. Dorsal spines more than 12 ; vertebrae more than 10 + 14.

b. Dorsal spines 15 or 16; vertebrae about 12 + 19; palatine teeth present; top of

head scaly, scales ctenoid.
c. Anal III, 7 or 8; pectorals long, narrow; vertebrae 12 + 19 = 31.


cc. Anal III, 5 ; pectorals with lower rays broadened or prolonged into lingui-
form lobe ; vertebrae 11 + 18 =: 29. SEBASTOLOBUS, 689.

bb. Dorsal spines 13 or 14; vertebrae 12 + 15 = 27.

d. Palatine teeth present. SEBASTODES, 690.

dd. Palatine teeth none. SEBASTOPSIS, 691.

ad. Dorsal spines 12; vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24.

e. Palatine teeth present; anal rays usually III, 5.

/. Bones of head scarcely cavernous; occiput with 2 pairs of spines; scales

ctenoid or provided with dermal flaps.
g. Pectoral with some of its median rays more or less branched.

h. Scales on top and sides of head ctenoid; cranium much as in

Sebastodes, the armature moderate. HELICOLENUS, 692.

hh. Scales on top and sides of head cycloid or wanting; cranium

with many spines. SCORP^ENA, 693.

gg. Pectoral rays all simple; head more or less scaly, the scales ctenoid.


/. Bones of head with large muciferous cavities ; occiput with only 1 pair of
spines; scales cycloid; pectoral rays 20 or more; head scaleless above;
no groove at occiput ; some of the pectoral rays branched.


1760 Bulletin //, United States National Museum.

688. SEBASTES, Cuvier.


Sebastes, CUVIER, R6gne Animal, Ed. 2, Vol.ii, 166, 1829 (norvegica=marinus) .
Ewebastes, SAUVAGE, Nouv. Archives Mus. Paris (2) I, 1878, 1421 (norvegicu*).

Body oblong, compressed. Head large, scaly above and on sides ; cra-
nial ridges well developed. Mouth terminal, very broad, oblique, the
broad short maxillary extending to below the eye; lower jaw projecting,
with a bony knob at the symphysis, fitting into a rostral notch ; villiform
teeth on jaws, vomer and palatines. Eye very large, close to upper pro-
file; preopercle with 5 diverging spines, opercle with 2; suprascapular
spines strong; gill rakers long, slender. Scales small, ctenoid, irregularly
arranged; no dermal flaps. Dorsal fin continuous, very long, the spinous
part much longer than the soft part, of 15 strong spines ; anal spines 3,
strong; caudal emarginate; pectorals long, narrow. Branchiostegals 7.
Vertebrae 12 + 19 31. Coloration mostly red. Ovoviviparous. One
species known, in the North Atlantic, (tfefiadros, magnificent.)

2174. SEBASTES MABINUS (Linnaeus).


Head 3; depth 2f. D. XV, 13; A. 111,7; lateral line 40 (tubes); scales
about 85. Body ovate ; back elevated, the ventral outline straightish ; top
of head evenly scaled; interorbital space with 2 low ridges, between
which it is concave; nasal spines present; cranial ridges moderate, rather
low and sharp, the spines sharp; preocular, supraocular, postocular,
tympanic, and parietal ridges present, the latter with the tips abruptly
divergent and with parietal and nuchal spines ; suprascapular spines very
sharp and prominent ; opercular spines long and sharp ; subopercular spine
prominent; preopercular spines slender and sharp, the second longest;
suborbital stay close under orbit, not reaching preopercle; preorbital nar-
row, with 2 spines. Eye exceedingly large, 3 in head, more than twice as
wide as interorbital space. Mouth very large, oblique; maxillary very
broad, reaching middle of eye, its length 2 in head; premaxillaries on
level of middle of pupil; tip of lower jaw much projecting, with a con-
spicuous, pointed symphyseal knob; mandible and maxillary scaly;
pseudobranchise very large; gill rakers long, stiff and strong. Dorsal
spines sharp, the longest about as long as eye, the fin deeply emarginate, the
soft rays not very high, higher than the spines ; caudal narrow, moderately
forked; anal spines moderate, graduated, the second a little shorter than
eye; pectoral rather long, reaching vent, its base narrow, some of the
upper rays divided; ventral reaching to vent. Scales small, irregular, not
strongly ctenoid. Orange red, nearly uniform, sometimes a dusky oper-
cular blotch, and about 5 vague dusky bars on the back; peritoneum
brownish. Length 18 inches. North Atlantic, abundant on both coasts,
especially northward; recorded from the north and west coasts of Europe
to the British Channel, rare south of the Faroe Islands; Arctic Ocean,
Spitzbergen; Iceland, Greenland; a shore fish as far south as Maine, south-
ward in deeper waters, as far as off coast of middle New Jersey. Accord-

Jordan and Evermann. Fishes of North America. 1761

ing to Goode & Bean it breeds abundantly off the south coast of New
England in late summer between 100-180 fathoms and there is no reason
to believe that the young rise to the surface; the fry were caught by
the bushel at these depths, (marimis; marine.) An important food-fish
beautifully colored. (Eu.)

Perca marina, LINNJEUS, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, I, 290, 1758, Norway; Artedi's reference to

Serranus scriba erroneously included in the synonymy.
Perca norvegica, ASCANIUS, Icones Rev. Nat. 1772, i, 7, tab. 16, Norway.
Holocentrus sanguinens, FABER, Fische Islands, 126, 1829, Iceland.
Sebastes septentrionalis, GAIMARD, Voy. Islands and Greenland, Poiss, pi. 9.
Sebastes fasciatus* STOKER, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., V, 31, 1854, Provincetown, Mass.;

young specimen, said to have but 13 dorsal spines.
Perca norwegica, MULLER, Zoo'l. Danica,46, 1779.
Sebastes norwegicus, CUVIER <fc VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 327, pi. 87, 1829;

KICHARDSON, Fauna Boreali-Amer., 52, 1836; STORER, Hist. Fishes Mass., 38, pi. 8, fig.

1, 1867 ; GUNTHER, Cat., ii, 95, 1860 ; GUNTHER, Challenger Report, xxu, Deep Sea Fishes,

17, 1880; COLLETT, Norges Fishes, 19; DAY, Fishes of Great Britain, I, 42, pi. 18;

GOODE & BEAN, Bull. Essex Inst., xi, 14.
Sebastes marunis, AViiiTE, Cat. Brit. Fish., 8; COLLETT, Norske Nordhavs Expedition,

Fiske, 15, pi. 1, figs. 3 and 4, 1880; JORDAN & GILBERT, Synopsis, 651, 1883; LILLJEBORG,

Sveriges och Norges Fiskar, 92, 1891 ; GOODE & BEAN, Oceanic Ichthyology, 260, fig.

248, 1896.
Sebatttes vin/parw*,tKROYER, Naturhist. Tidsskr., 1, 275, 1844-45, Norway, in shallow-water ;

GILL, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pliila. 1863, 333 ; GONTHER, Cat., n, 96.
Sebastes marinus viviparus, JORDAN & GILBERT, Synopsis, 651, 1883.
Sebastes regulus, EKSTROM, Skand. Fish., Ed. 1, 197, plate only, no description.


Sebastolobus, GILL, Report Smithsonian Institution 1880,375 (1881), (macrochir).

Pectorals with a wide base, produced backward near the upper margin
and not medially, lower rays thickened, extending much beyond rays next
above in a linguiform lobe ; ventrals directly under axils of pectorals,
with the outer rays produced, thick, branched; anal III, 5; vertebra
11 -f- 18 = 29 ; otherwise as in Sebastes. Pacific Ocean in deep water.
(tfefiatiroS, Sebastes ; Ao/?o, lobe.)

a. Dorsal rays XVI, 9; branchiostegals naked; eye 3? in head. ALASCANUS, 2175.

aa. Dorsal rays XV, 9 ; branchiostegals scaly ; eye 2f in head. ALTIVELIS, 2176.


Head slightly more than 2f ; depth 4. D. XVI or XVII, 9 ; A. Ill, 5 ; pec-
toral 22. Lateral line 31 (pores). Body compressed, head large, about as
wide as high. Eye large, 3 in head, a little longer than snout. Interor-
bital space narrow, concave, nearly 3 in orbit, with a pair of obscure lon-

* Body elongated, not convex in front of dorsal fin ; 4 distinct dark-brown transverse
bands on the sides, the broadest at the posterior portion of the body. Dorsal XIII, 14;
anal III, 7. (Storer.) This is doubtless a young example of Sebastes marinus, and not a

t Sebastes viviparus is thought to be a shore form or variety of Sebastes marinus. We
have not been able to distinguish it. The characters alleged are the following:

General color brownish red, somewhat mottled, with a blackish blotch 011 the opercle,
and some other brownish spots on the body. Pectoral fins a little longer than in Sebastes
tnarinus; interocular space rather narrower. Head 3J ; depth 3. D. XV, 14 ; A. Ill, 8.
Northern seas of Europe; smaller than the preceding, and living near shore; thought to
be a shallow water variety; perhaps confined to the fjords and deep bays or the Nortn.

1762 Bulletin 4.7, United States National Museum.

gitudinal ridges. Cranial ridges thin and sharp, rather high; nasal,
preocular, postocular, tympanic and nuchal spines prominent, sharp, the
supraocular and parietal smaller, all arranged in a nearly straight line; a
small sharp spine behind orbit, followed by a larger ridge and spine; a
rather sharp spine on shoulder; preorbital with 2 broad blunt lobes or
spines, with a large pore between them; suborbital ridge nearly continu-
ous from front of preorbital to preopercle, close up under eye, thin and
high, with 1 spine under anterior margin of orbit, another under its
middle, and 2 behind orbit; uppermost preopercular spine long, \vith a
smaller one in front of its base, the following 4 much smaller, the last one
minute; opercular ridges and spines weak. Mouth large, nearly horizon-
tal, maxillary reaching nearly to posterior margin of orbit, about 2 to 2| in
head; jaws equal, the lower included laterally and terminating with a
slight symphyseal knob; anterior ends of premaxillaries enlarged, den-
tigerous, with a prominent bony projection, and widely separated by an
interval into which fits the tip of lower jaw. Teeth in very narrow bands
on vomer and palatines, in broader bands on jaws. Gill rakers short, den-
ticulate, about 11 movable and about 5 rudiments on anterior limb of first
arch. Pseudobranchise rather large. Dorsal spines rather low, the fourth
and fifth longest, about 3f in head, the thirteenth and fourteenth very
short, more than 3 in the fifth ; second anal spine longest and strongest,
2| in head, a little longer than soft rays, but not reaching their tips when
laid back; origin of ventrals under base of pectorals; pectoral rays
long, reaching to vent, and much beyond tip of ventrals ; rays nearly all
branched, the upper much longer, .about 7 lower rays broad and exserted ;
base of pectoral not procurrent, broad, 3f in head. Scales on body large,
strongly ctenoid, those on head partly cycloid; mandible, branchiostegal
membranes, and tip of snout naked ; maxillary with a patch of scales ;
preopercle with a few; preorbital, cheeks and interorbital space scaly;
basal half of pectoral membranes and whole of rays, basal part of spi-
nous dorsal, basal half of soft dorsal membranes and whole length of rays
and the ventrals, caudal and anal almost entirely scaled ; breast scaly;
basal part of ventrals naked. Color red ; a dark patch between first and
third dorsal spines, another between sixth and eleventh ; distal parts of
caudal and ventrals and lower rays of pectorals dark; gill cavities some-
what dusky; peritoneum white. Bering Sea and Pacific coast of Alaska,
Washington, Oregon, and California, in 109 to 786 fathoms. Here de-
scribed from specimens obtained by the Albatross, (alascunus, Alaskan.)

Sebastolobus alascanus, BEAN, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 1890, 44, off Trinity Islands, Alaska,
in 159 fathoms (Coll. Albatross) ; GILBERT, Kept. U. S. Fish Comm. 1893 (1896), 409.*

* Dr. Gilbert has the following note on Sebastolobus alascanus: '

"Resembling closely S. macrochir, but differing constantly in the increased number of
dorsal spines, 16 (17 in one specimen) instead of 15, and in the longer second anal spine.
Head 2| m length ; depth 4 (in specimen 360 mm. long) . Pores of lat

sides; a conspicuous tubercle at tip of each premaxillary with a deep emargination bo-
tween the two into which fits the tip of the mandible.' A small knob at mandibular
symphysis. Eye large, * to 3 in head, 2| times the interorbital width. Cranial ridges and
spines about as m the other species of the genus, but the occipital ridges not strongly
diverging, as in 8. macrochir. Preorbital posteriorly with a spinous point; as in S. altivdis.
Dorsal spines low, the contour of the fin evenly rounded, the spines increasing regularly

Jordan and Evermann Fishes of North America. 1763


Body slender, depth 3f iu length; head 2|; lateral line 33 to 35 pores.
D. XV, 9; A. Ill, 5; pectoral 22. Mouth large, 2 in head, maxillary reach-
ing posterior margin of pupil; mandible laterally and in front shut-
ting within the wide premaxillary band of teeth, its tip fitting into an
omargination between premaxillaries, and bearing a short symphyseal
knob. Bands of teeth 011 mandible, vomer, and palatines narrow. Eye
very large, 3 in head, 3 times interorbital width. Interorbital narrow,
scaled, concave, with 2 low, rounded ridges. Cranial ridges strong, ter-
minating in sharp spines, agreeing with those in S. alascanus and S. macro-
chir.* Preorbital wide, partially overlapping middle third of maxillary,
posteriorly with a forwardly directed triangular spine, in front of which
is a long slit-like mucous pore. A blunt tubercle directed forward from
front of each premaxillary, less prominent than in S. alascanus. Dorsal
spines long and comparatively strong, the third always the highest,
the outline of fin behind it straight or concave, never convexly rounded,
as in S. macrochir and S. alascanus. In the type specimen the longest
spine is contained If times in length of head. The spine before
the last is scarcely longer than the one preceding, the last spine again
lengthened. Second anal spine usually curved, much longer and stronger
than third and longer than soft rays, its length If to 2 in head. In the
type it is abnormally curved. Ventrals reaching to vent ; pectorals to front
of anal; pectoral fin very broad, the lower 7 rays thickened and extended
beyond membranes, the lobe thus formed subject to much variation, being
unusually short in the type. Scales rough ctenoid. Mandible scaled at
base only, the head otherwise completely invested, including the branchi-
ostegal rays and membranes. Fin membranes covered with fine ctenoid
scales. Color red ; a dark blotch on membranes between first and third

from the first to the fourth, then as regularly diminishing to the fourteenth ; the fifteenth
and sixteenth again lengthened. The longest spiuo is contained from 2 to 2f times in
the length of the head. Second anal spine longer and stronger than third, equaling or
exceeding length of soft rays, its length 2 to 2 in that of head. Yentrals usually scarcely
reaching vent, the pectorals not reaching front of anal. Lower pectoral lobe unusually
broad, contains 7 to 9 thickened rays. Head less completely scaled than in S. altivelis, the
brauchiostegals, mandible, maxillary, and lower portion of preopercle wholly naked.
Color red; a black blotch occupies the membranes of the first three dorsal spines, a sec-
ond extends from the sixth to the eleventh spines; margin of pectoral and ventral fins
black; no black blotch behind second anal spine; peritoneum and lining of gill cavity
white. This species differs from 8. altivelis in the lower, longer, evenly rounded spinous
dorsal, the white lining of the gill cavity, and the partly naked head. It was taken
abundantly on the Alaskan expedition, being represented from the following stations:
3227, 3324, 3330, 3331, 3332, 3337, 3338, 3339, 3340, 3343, 3346, 3347, and 3348. These are located
in Bering Sea, north of Unalaska Island ; in the North Pacific southeast of Unimak
Island, and off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, in depths of from 109
to 786 fathoms. "

* The following is a description of the type of the genus Sebastololusfrom Japan:
Sebantolobus macrochir (Giinther) : Head 2J; depth 3. D. XV, 6 ; A. Ill, 5; P. 22 (V).
Lat. line, about 45. Scales rather regular. Eye very large, much longer than snout, 3 in
head. Mouth wide, maxillary reaching beyond middle of eye. Teeth on mandibles,
vomer, and palatines in very narrow bauds, those on premaxillarieo in somewhat broader
bauds. Interorbital space tiattish, narrow, scaleless, about 2 in orbit. Occipital region
flat, with some rudimentary scales. Preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic, pari-
etal, and nuchal spines preseut. Interorbital stay with strong spines. Preopercle with
5 pointed spines. Each ramus of mandible with 3 large pores. Dorsal spines rather fee-
ble, third to sixth longest, 2J in head. Anal spines stronger, but shorter than longest
dorsal spines. Caudal truncate. Pectoral extremely broad, 5 or 6 lower rays elongated
beyond those above them, their extremities somewhat thickened, and used like the simi-
lar outer ventral rays, as an organ of locomotion. Pectorals reaching vent, ventrals
beyond vent. Red, a large black spot on posterior half of spinous dorsal, another between
anal spines. Length 11 inches. Inland sea of Japan', off Inosima, 345 fathoms. (Gunther.)

1764 Bulletin //, United States National Museum.

dorsal spines, and a large one beginning back of fonrtli spine and extend-
ing along entire upper edge of fin; edge of pectoral, ventral, anal, and
sometimes caudal, black. In some specimens a black blotch on membrane
back of second anal spine, as in S. macrochir. Opercular lining blackish,
this visible externally as a dusky blotch. Aleutian Islands. The type is
a specimen 325 mm. (12 inches) long, taken south of the Alaskan Penin-
sula of Alaska at a depth of 625 fathoms. No other specimens were
secured during the Alaskan expedition of 1890, but the species was later
found to be almost equally abundant with S. alascanus in deep water off
the coast of California. From S. alascanus it is distinguishable at sight
by the contour of the spinous dorsal fin, the smaller number of dorsal
spines, and the dusky lining of the opercle. From S. macrochir, with
which it agrees in its fin formula, it is distinguished by the greater height
of both dorsal and anal spines, and in the different contour of the spinous

The following description is taken (by Mr. Cramer) from a specimen
from off San Diego :

Head 2J- to 2f ; depth 3|. D. XV, 9 ; A. Ill, 5. Transverse row of scales
about 33. Body compressed ; head rather large, very slightly compressed
in region of orbit. Eye very large, orbit 2 in head, nearly twice as large
as snout. Interorbital space very narrow, 3| in orbit, moderately con-
cave 3 with 2 closely approximated frontal ridges. Cranial ridges thin and
sharp, not very high; preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic, parie-
tal, and nuchal spines present, arranged in a straight line, all sharp ; a
sharp spine behind orbit, 2 on shoulder. Mouth large, nearly horizontal ;
maxillary reaching posterior margin of pupil, 2f in head, somewhat dilated
behind. Jaws equal ; lower jaw included laterally, and with a very slight
symphyseal knob ; premaxillaries not meeting in front, each with a small
bony prominence; tip of lower jaw fitting into the emargination. Broad
bands of teeth on jaws and narrow bands on vomer and palatines. Pre-
orbital rather broad, with 2 large slit-like pores, its lower margin sinuate,
without spines; suborbital stay close under rim of orbit, with 3 sharp
spines, the sharp, high keel beginning at anterior edge of preorbital and

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