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tions. He had had enough of the cares and troubles
of his high official position, and he was worried by
the Church and State question and by home politics.
Accordingly, he went back to his old district near
the Palais de Justice and the Luxembourg. He did
not take a flat in his old street near the Senate, but
in the Rue Dante, close to the College of France.
The street is by no means fashionable, and it seemed

363



364 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

to many a shabby neighbourhood for one who had
been President of the Republic and on a par with
monarchs. It is near some of the vilest slums in
Paris, but M. Loubet did not seem to mind. He
finds himself just as comfortable, no doubt, in his large
flat in a mean street as if he were in the Champs
Elysdes or the Faubourg Saint Germain. Then,
M. Loubet is a lawyer, and lawyers have a pre-
dilection for the district near the Palais de Justice.
It was on the i8th of February, 1906, that
M. Loubet left the Elys^e, after his seven years'
tenure of office. His removal to the Rue Dante
caused me to remember the flight of time. It seemed
to me that only a few years had elapsed since I had
seen M. Loubet, newly-elected, attending the funeral
of his predecessor, Felix Faure, who died so mys-
teriously on the 1 6th of February, 1899. I also
remembered the Exhibition of 1900, which I saw
opened by M. Loubet after he had been a little over
a year in office, and my mind likewise reverted to the
other Exhibition which I saw opened by President
Carnot. I also went back in memory to the time
when M. Gr6vy was at the Elysee, and when it
seemed as if he were as much a fixture there as any
monarch on his throne. In the course of less than
thirty years I had seen no fewer than seven Presidents
of the Republic — MacMahon, Grevy, Carnot, Casimir-
Perier, Faure, Loubet, Fallieres. M. Armand
Fallieres was elected President on the 17th of
January, 1906. Here was another lawyer promoted
to the chief magistracy of the State. The Third
Republic will undoubtedly be known in history as
the Republic of the Lawyers. It was founded by



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 365

lawyers, Leon Gambetta at their head, and it has
been mainly ruled by barristers and by journalists
who were also barristers. Arms have had to yield
to the toga in France ever since the downfall of
the Bonapartes, and so it v/ill go on until an
upheaval comes, when the military element may
preponderate once more. This is, however, a long
way off, for the very continuance of the Republic
shows that the French nation has come to regard it
as a safe system of government, good for peace and
good accordingly for commerce. The lawyers have
done that much at least for France. They have
staved off war and ensured a long era of peace,
however tangled and tortuous may be the internal
condition of the country through party politics and
the unnecessary struggle with the Church.'

M. Fallieres, the lawyer, is exactly of the same
stamp, socially as well as professionally, as his pre-
decessors. Like M. Loubet, he is a Southerner of
humble extraction. His father and grandfather were
simple countrymen, living in a small way at Mezin,
in the Lot-et-Garonne. The grandfather was a
blacksmith and the father a greffier or registrar
in a courthouse. Both M. Fallieres and his relative,
who became Bishop of Saint Brieuc, in Brittany,
were originally educated by the priests in a pdtit
seminaire. One went on for sacerdotal orders, the
other marched to the conquest of Paris, and becoming

^ I hold to the phrase " unnecessary struggle with the
Church." Far-seeing RepubHcans, true statesmen, would have
succeeded in Erastianising an aggressive or meddlesome Church
without displaying all the anti-clerical venom characteristic of
prominent French politicians during the past thirty years.



366 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

a politician as well as a lawyer, has succeeded beyond
his expectations.

It was entertaining to note how the opposition and
their Press, and also some of the Republicans, treated
the new President. They raked up everything about
him, and made a great point of the fact that he had
been practically a charity boy in his native place,
receiving the first rudiments of education from eccle-
siastics. Those who were supposed to have some
chance of election, notably M. Paul Doumer and
M. Rouvier, were attacked before the voting took
place at Versailles resulting in the selection of
M. Fallieres. It was discovered, for instance, that
M. Doumer was born in a hovel at Aurillac, that
his father was a railway navvy promoted ganger or
foreman, and earning two francs fifty a day. It was
also found out that M. Doumer when a little boy
was cross and peevish, and that he used to expec-
torate in the face of his nurse. He went on also to
the conquest of Paris, and did fairly well, exchanging
his profession as a schoolmaster for that of a politician
and journalist, subsequently holding a portfolio as
Minister of Finance in the Bourgeois Cabinet of
1895.

As to M. Maurice Rouvier, who was a vague
candidate for the Presidency, he was attacked hotly
by Henri Rochefort, who reminded him of his
adventures in the Palais Royal. M. Emile Combes
had announced in December, 1905, that he was not a
candidate for the Presidency, and that he would
vote for M. Fallieres. Hardly had M. Fallieres
taken up his post at the Elysde when the first
great event of the year happened — the entry of




photo]



MaITKE DliMANGE



[ Gerschel



Tnfiiccp. 367.



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 367

M. Clemenceau, the great Cabinet-smasher of old,
into the Sarrien combination, as Minister of the
Interior. The second great event was the formation
of a Cabinet by this very M. Clemenceau in October,
1906. He becomes President of the Council and
Minister of the Interior, and selects General Picquart
as his War Minister, M. Pichon, who was Minister
at Pekin during the Boxer outbreak, succeeding
M. Bourgeois at the Quai d'Orsay.

In the meantime the Dreyfus affair was finished,
after having caused an uproar and an agitation
unprecedented in the history of any country. " Le
trait caracteristique de I'affaire," said a writer in the
Temps y *' c'est d'avoir cree des divisions intestines
dans toutes les classes de la society dans tous les
groupements et dans toutes les families." The
second revision was effected, and Dreyfus was
proclaimed innocent by the Court of Cassation on
the 1 2th of July, 1906. The court ruled as follows :
** En derniere analyse de I'accusation portee contre
Dreyfus rien ne reste debout. . . . II ne reste rien
qui puisse k sa charge etre qualifie crime ou delit."
There was no applause in court when President
Ballot- Beaupre read out the finding. Everything
passed off in solemnity and silence. Those whom
I saw present on the occasion were Maitre Demange,
the advocate of M. Dreyfus on the first court-martial ;
Maitre Mornard, who represented M. Dreyfus at the
Supreme Court ; Madame Zola, M. Joseph Reinach,
the Hadamard family. Colonel Picquart, not yet pro-
moted to his present rank, and M. Mathieu Dreyfus.
M. Alfred Dreyfus was not there, but his son and
daughter were. Almost immediately after the scene



368 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

in the Court of Cassation the Government was called
upon to nominate M. Dreyfus to the Legion of
Honour and to give reparation to Colonel Picquart.
In the Chamber of Deputies a member proposed the
interment of Emile Zola in the Panthdon, and in
the Senate it was resolved to have the busts of
M. Scheurer-Kestner and M. Gabriel Trarieux, the
earliest champions of M. Dreyfus, in the gallery of
the House just outside the *' Salle des Seances."

The decree of the Court of Cassation and the
reparation proposed excited, as was only to be
expected, the anger of the anti-Dreyfusards. They
pointed out with all the vigour at their command
that the affaire was by no means finished, and
maintained that Dreyfus was still guilty. His
"rehabilitation" was "a Talmudic triumph," a coup
dHat juif. "■ We know," wrote M. Leon Daudet
in M. Drumont's paper, " from the testimony of
General Mercier and some others that there was
a war alarm at a certain epoch over Dreyfus. If
Dreyfus had been innocent as regards the Eastern
frontier, if he had no relations with Germany, why
did she show her teeth? It is certain that M. Casimir-
Perier was wrong in allowing the German Ambassador
to have a threatening conversation with him, and he
ought to have referred him to the Foreign Minister.
It is certain that M. Casimir Perier resigned as a
mark of deference and submission to William the
Second. The scene between the German Ambassador
and the President of the Republic and the latter's
resignation are inexplicable supposing Dreyfus to
be innocent. If his guilt be admitted, they are simple
and tragic. A complicated treason such as that,




Agence]



General Picquart.



[Photo — Nouvelle



To face p. 369.



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 369

covered designedly by forgeries and contradictory
evidence, cannot be unravelled by live, material
proofs, after so many years and after so many
opportune disappearances." And, to cap all, that
remarkable man Esterhazy, seen in London by a
French journalist, declared that the Dreyfus case
was not finished, and that Dreyfus showed the white
feather twice ; once in accepting pardon in 1899,
and the second time in allowing his counsel to ask
for cassation sans renvoi. " If he had any confidence
in his case," added Esterhazy, " he would have asked
to go before another court-martial."

In spite of all the barking, the affaire is settled,
and Captain Dreyfus was promoted Major. Colonel
Picquart was not only promoted but was made War
Minister. He at least has fewer enemies than the
man whose cause he championed, and there are
comparatively few who will cavil at his honours.
Any one who knows the man cannot but like him.

I first saw him as he gave evidence at Zola's trial
in the Palais de Justice, and he impressed me
favourably. He is a fine type of a soldier and a
man. General the Marquis de Galliffet, under whose
orders Picquart once served, had a high opinion of
the man always, but he cannot imagine him as a
War Minister. Said the facetious General, when he
heard that his old officer was in the Cabinet :
*' Picquart ministre, 9a valait la peine de voir cela.

II y a des choses qui consolent vraiment de ne
pouvoir se decider a mourir. Picquart ministre de
la guerre ! Curieux, extremement bizarre, vraiment."
General de Galliffet has described Picquart as calm,
modest, studious, cultured but obstinate. He is an

25



370 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

artist, a poet, a musician. He used to fall into
ecstasies over fine landscapes, and especially over
clouded distances. He saw something in these
distances which, being no artist, General de Galliffet
could not see. As to the idea that Picquart took
up the Dreyfus case through interest. General de
Galliffet laughs at it. Picquart went into it through
sheer obstinacy, stubbornness. Nor was he a friend
of the Jews. As an instance of this, the Marquis
de Galliffet relates that when the War Minister
asked him to take M. Joseph Reinach, who is in the
territorial army, on his staff at the manoeuvres,
Picquart was furious. " I can't stand the Jew,"
said Picquart. " Try to," said General Galliffet.
** Be more gracious towards the stout chap, /e gros,
for he is a friend of the Minister's." And Picquart
not only took the hint, but he was, with M. Reinach,
the stout chap, one of the chief organisers of the
agitation over the affaire. And in spite of the
facetiousness of his former commander, there is
every prospect that he will make an efficient Minister
if he can remain long enough at the post. He is not
only an able, but an ornamental general. Boulanger
was ornamental but not able ; and it is strange to
note that he, too, was first brought into public and
political life by no less a person than M. Clemenceau,
who now has General Picquart as his War Minister.
The new head of the French War Department follows
two civilians — M. Berteaux and M. Etienne. His
last military predecessor was the one and only
General Andre, who was with M. Waldeck- Rousseau
and afterwards with M. Emile Combes. He was
taken into the Waldeck- Rousseau Cabinet when
General the Marquis de Galliffet resigned. Any one



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 371

who has seen General Andre once will never forget
him. A tall, lanky man, with a thin, tapering face
and a long nose, he would do admirably on the stage
as the Knight of La Mancha or as Cyrano de
Bergerac. An able man withal, although not a
politician. His Memoirs, printed in the Matin,
formed the most diverting reading ever published
in that enterprising newspaper. Whether the General
wrote them himself or not, they bear his hall-mark ;
and while they were appearing in serial form, just like
a story, everybody was wondering how far the former
Minister would go with his revelations, which were
entitled "Cinq Ans de Ministere." The case was
unique. I know of no other instance of a French
Minister revealing the secrets of office in that way.
As a rule, those who have been Ministers are as
reticent and as reserved as those actually in office.
They may occasionally unbend to their friends in
private, but they do not write for the newspapers.
General Andre thought fit to break through the
reticence, and sent his Memoirs to press almost
as soon as he was out of the Cabinet. He certainly
entertained a good many readers of the Matin, but
he was soundly rated by some of his former col-
leagues. His resuscitation in print, after his retire-
ment from the Cabinet, caused a continuation of the
attacks made on him by opposition writers, who went
on calling him bad names, as they did when he was
involved in the affair of the '' fiches " or private
information sheets relative to officers who were
supposed to be Clericals. It was, in fact, a pity to
see a man of General Andre's age, and one, too, who
has had a distinguished record as a soldier, drawing
attacks on himself by his own doings. His recol-



372 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

lections, although they formed rather racy reading
in the beginning, lost interest later, and the con-
cluding chapters published were commonplace.
I believe that the uproar caused by the initial
chapters led to a toning down of the others. One
of the best bits in the reminiscences is that relating
to General Brugere, a most distinguished soldier who,
after having escaped shot and shell in the Franco-
German and other campaigns, was once wounded in
an awkward place while out shooting with President
Carnot, to whose household he was attached.
M. Carnot was a notoriously bad shot, unlike his
predecessors and successors, but he had to take
down a gun periodically for the Presidential shooting-
parties at Marly or Rambouillet. It was during one of
these official " chasses " that General Brugere was
awkwardly hit in the lower part of the back. General
Andre's note on General Brugere in the " Cinq Ans
de Ministere " refers to the succession of General
Saussier, long Military Governor of Paris, and a great
friend of the late Duke of Cambridge, whom he
resembled in some respects. When Brugere was
appointed Vice-President of the Higher Council of
War he was Military Governor of Paris, the two
offices having been held before him by General
Saussier. He was in command of 50,000 men,
and lived in the fine suite of rooms in the
Hotel des Invalides, once inhabited by King Jerome
Napoleon and his family. " When I told Brugere,"
writes Andr^, " that the Government was opposed
to the continuation of the sort of Grand Constableship
with which Saussier had been invested, he evinced
the deepest dissatisfaction, and his vexation found
vent in most violent words which, fortunately, I alone



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 373

heard, and our old comradeship made me as soon
forget He would not give in then, and I have
a notion that he was ready to leave the highest office
in the army in order to remain Governor of Paris and
occupant of the fine rooms in the Hotel des Invalides.
To cut short his probable appeals and his recrimi-
nations, I hastened to give him a successor. On
my proposal the Government nominated General
Florentin to the military governorship of Paris.
Florentin is the finest military type that I know.
His straightforwardness and his dignity are models
for all. A modest soldier, severely wounded in 1870,
of open intelligence, he ignores politics and does not
want to know anything about them, but he has a clear
conception of his duty, and he does it faithfully.
During the crisis he was the only one to whom it was
possible to talk about Dreyfus, about Henry, the
Comte de Mun, Jaures, and Picquart, without voices
being lifted high and some rude aphorism being
emitted to close the discussion arbitrarily and
brutally. During the funeral of Felix Faure,
General Florentin, although silent, played a leading
part." Here, you see, we have a most entertaining,
and, at the same time, a most instructive fragment
of General Andre s reminiscences. The entertaining
part is at the expense of General Brugere, a colleague
whom he professes to hold in high esteem, but whom
he gives away. Brugere, we are told later, made up
his mind to keep only the Vice-Presidency of the
Higher Council of War, but he was five months
engaged in removing from the luxurious and historic
rooms in the H6tel des Invalides, and during that
time his successor as Military Governor of Paris had
to remain in lodgings. You have another enter-



374 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

taining bit in the revelation that General Florentin
ignores politics and seems to glory in his ignorance.
This certainly is not the case with M. Andr4 who
was the most political of War Ministers — although
no politician — and had a run of five years at it. And
not only that, but he has come out as a journalistic
soldier since his contributions to the Matin appeared.
The instructive bit of the revelations is in reference
to General Florentin's rSle on the day of Fdlix
Faure's funeral, when Paul D^roulede wanted
General Roget to march on the Elys^e and to make
a coup dMat or a pronunciamiento. Now we know
that it was General Florentin who saved the Republic
on that occasion, and enabled the estimable M. Loubet
to enter upon and to complete his seven years' tenure
of office as President of the Republic.

General Andr^ is the sixth notable French military
man whose career I have had to watch. I have
never had to see him, however, on business, as I had
formerly to see MacMahon, Galliffet, Boulanger,
Billot, Zurlinden, and Thibaudin. General Picquart
I have only seen twice — once, as I have said, at the
trial of Zola for the letter ''/'accuse,'' and once in a
caf6 frequented by artists, literary men, and actors.
He is now a coming man, and we have to watch what
the future has in store for him — whether, as some
predicted when he entered the Cabinet, he will be
spoiled by politics, or whether he can be relied upon by
his country in the day of, let us hope, distant danger.

And now I must conclude these notes and recol-
lections of the long years spent by me in Paris.
I have left many interesting events untouched, and
have omitted many important names, but I have



FORTY YEARS OF PARIS 375

laboured to keep within the limits of my own
experiences, such as they were. I have had very
little to do with artists, and hence I have had little
to say about their great world. Most of the artists
whom I have known are the caricaturists, such as
Caran d'Ache, Steinlen, Willette.

I would also have wished to say more about the
stage and the players of Paris, but that is another
great department with which I was only occasionally
in touch.

Neither have I said much about Paris in its
social and every-day aspects. That has been rather
overdone of late years ; and everybody in England,
and it may be said in America as well, is now
familiar with modern Paris, thanks to the newspapers
and the reviews. As to French characteristics, I have
not attempted to give any, for the reason that greater
writers have been endeavouring to fix them from the
days of Tacitus and Csesar to our own.

I bade farewell to Paris towards the end of 1906.
I was sorry to depart without having been able or
astute enough to fathom its deep mysteries, which range
from the time of the " man in the iron mask " to the
days of Napoleon the Third, Gambetta, Boulanger
and Madame de Bonnemain, Baron Jacques de
Reinach, Dr. Cornelius Herz, Felix Faure,
Alfred Dreyfus, Emile Zola, Colonel Henry, Pere
du Lac the Jesuit, Casimir Perier, and Gabriel
Syveton. With each of these persons a mystery
is linked, and it will be long before the world can
know if Napoleon the Third belonged to the
Bonaparte family or not ; how Gambetta came by his
death ; if Madame de Bonnemain acted as a spy on
General Boulanger ; why M. Casimir Perier resigned



376 FORTY YEARS OF PARIS

six months after his election; if P^re du Lac had
Captain Dreyfus convicted ; and so on. I should
also have wished to know, ere leaving, why the
Pope and the Vatican are saddled with all the sins
of Israel ; and if it be really the case that M. Emile
Combes, M. Georges Clemenceau, and M. Aristide
Briand are the most generous, accommodating, and
disinterested friends that the Church of Rome has
ever had in France.

The Third Republic has been a regime of mystery
and mystification ; and those painstaking people the
historians of the future will have a tough task in
dealing with it.

In bidding farewell to Paris I lost many friends.
Some of the French among them said " Vous
reviendrez" but they are wrong. I shall ever
remember it as a marvellous city where life is well
worth living for four or five months every year, just
to improve one's mind in an unrivalled intellectual
and artistic atmosphere.

If there were any reason why I should regret
leaving so interesting a place, it would be found in
the severance of the old ties binding me to former
friends and colleagues of the English and American
Press established in Paris. These, among whom
I may mention G. A. Raper, T. F. Farman, Victor
Collins, J. W. Ozanne, Laurence Jerrold, Morton
Fullerton, J. N. Raphael, A. O'Neill, marked their
good-fellowship by organising a farewell banquet for
me, and by presenting me with a souvenir. This
is a purely personal matter ; but I trust that a slight
record of it will not be deemed out of place here,
especially as it forms one of my most agreeable
memories of Paris.



Index



About, Edmond, 22, 23

Acland, 215

Adam, Madame, 214, 284

Aden, 315

Aguetant, Marie, 98

Alboni, Madame, 191

Alfonso the Thirteenth, 272, 285

Alvarez, 183

Americans in Paris, 137, 138, 139,

141, 142, 143, 145, 146
Anarchists, 156, 177, 251
Antoine, 117, 346, 347
Andre, General, 363, 370, 371, 372,

373. 374
Andrieu, 165
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 259
Arago, 39

Arnaud, General Saint, 9, 87
Arnim, Count, 34
Arnold, Sir E., 43, 126
Arthur, 223
Arton, 166

" Athees, Dictionnaire des," 32
Auber, 24

Augier, E., 23, 285, 286, 347
Aumale, Due d', 88, 188, 189
Auteuil, 239
Autun, 32
" Avaries, les," 349
Avellan, Admiral,^ 173



Baden-Baden, 3

Baihaut, 166

Balfour, Mr., 225

Balfour, Lady Betty, 129

Ballet, Pots de Vin, 166

Baratier, 229, 230

Barclay, 171

Barker, E. H., 47

Barnard, 135

Barbizon School, 25

Barrera, Admiral, 133

Barres, Maurice, 179, 196, 328, 335,

336
Baudelaire, 359
Bauer, Monsignor, 203
Bauer, Baron, 173
Bauer, H., 213
Bazaine, 28
Beaulieu, 142
Bebel, 33, 36
Beckmann, 118, 161
Becque, H., 347, 353
Bellanger, Marguerite, 189
Benedetti, 248
Bennett, Mr. J. G., 44, 45, 46, 142,

143, 144, 145, 146
Beranger, 25
Berlin, 102

Bernhardt, Madame S., 96, 213
Bertie, Sir F., 123



377



378



FORTY YEARS OP PARIS



Biarritz, 6

Bignon's, 89

Bingham, 136

Bismarck, Prince, 11, 33, 34, 35,

36, 37, 52, 56, 109, 118
Blanqui, 73
Bloc, 148, 293
Blouet, 21
Blount, Sir E., 136
Blowitz, M. de, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58,

86, 116, 127, 129, 167, 264, 265
Boieldieu, 24

Boisdeffre, General de, 221
Bonanza king, 138
Bonapartes, 6, 27, 34, 121, 122
Bonnemain, Madame de, 88, 375
Bonomelli, 326
Borghese, Princess, 123
Bossuet, 3, 341
Bouillabaisse, 49
Boulanger, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85,86,

87, 88, 89, 90, 94, 95, 119, 122, 130
Boulger, Demetrius, 170
Bourbons, 121, 122
Bourget, Paul, 223 ,335, 341, 342
Booth-Clibborn, 228
Boswell, A French, 89
Bourse, 156

Bovet, Madame de, 284
Bowes, Hely, 48, 86
Brabant, Genevieve de, 25
Brandes, Mademoiselle, 127, 201


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