Walter G. Ivens.

Grammar and Vocabulary of the Lau Language online

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then? _Ati_ has also an indefinite use: _ati susulia_ who knows?

2. With _taa_, _tafa_, the definite article _si_ may be used: _si
taa_ what, that which, _taa_ may follow the noun, _ta si doo taa_
what sort of thing? _si doo taa ne_ what? The adverb _fai_ (where)
may be used as an interrogative pronoun: _nifai_ which, what?


The uses of _ta_, _te__, have been dealt with under "articles."
These two words are used as signifying, any, some, other.

The noun _sai_ place, thing, has an indefinite use: _sai ai_ that
which, what, _sai na_ that which, _ta sai ai_, one, another (of
things), _sai oe_ your place, your duty, _tani oto ni sai ai_ some
people. (The Rev. A. I. Hopkins states in a note that _sai_ in Lau
is used of food only).


There are no relative pronouns. Their place is supplied by various

1. By the suffixed pronoun: _inia nane gu bae kekerofana fasi uri_
this is he of whom I spoke. The addition of the demonstrative _ne,
nena_, serves to make the meaning clearer: _inia nena ai garni mi
maasia_ he is the person for whom we are waiting.

2. By making use of a coordinate clause: _igami ne too gera ada
fuada na_ we are the people whom they have chosen.


Singular: (1) _agu_. (2) _amu_. (3) _ana_.

Inclusive: (1) _aga_, _agolu_.
Exclusive: (1) _agami_, _agamelu_. (2) _agamu_, _agamolu_.
(3) _agera_, _ada_, _adalu_.

Inclusive: (1) _agoro_.
Exclusive: (1) _agamere_. (2) _agamoro_. (3) _adaro_.

The possessive is used:

1. Of things to eat and drink: _si fangala agu_ something for me to
eat, _o ngalia amu_ take it for your eating, _si doo ana gera priest
tafiligera_ food for the priests only.

When the sense relates to food in general and not to a particular
meal the ordinary personal pronouns are employed as possessives: _si
doo ni gwou inau_ a drink for me.

2. As meaning, for me, for my part, etc., belonging to, at, with:
_geni agu_ a wife for me, _nia lea ana_ he went his way, _gu ka gele
dau go agu_ if I but touch, _fuana ngalia fera nia agolu_ to get his
land for ourselves, _si mamana nia ana_ power in himself, his power,
_si doo oro agu_ I have many things, _e langi ana_ not in it, lost,
_nia soe agera_ he questioned them, _soea satana ana a doo bago_ ask
so-and-so his name, _nia ledia tasi doo agu_ he asked me about
something, _ooganga agera_ their debt.

3. As the object of a neuter verb (i. e., a verb which does not take
a transitive suffix): _gera da qele ana_ they marvelled at him, _gu
ingo amu_ I beseech thee, _dau agu_ touch me, _bota ana_ blessed is

4. With verbs when the object is separated from the verb: _nia bubu
tete adalu_ he regarded them fixedly, _ka lugatai saufini ana_ let
him go secretly, _da bae aisile ana_ they spoke scornfully of him:
_ala meme gamu_ to bite and rend you, is a variant.

5. To express, of, from, among: _ati mwane agamu_ what man of you?

6. The forms ending in _lu_ denote a restriction in the number of
the people concerned.

7. The adverb _afoa_ apart is also followed by the possessive: _afoa
ana_ apart from him.

8. It will be seen that the one possessive in Lau does the work of
the three that are used in Sa'a. A Port Adam man asking for a wife
at Sa'a and saying _geni ana_ (as has happened at times) would be
asked whether he wanted to eat her - the Sa'a use being _keni nana_,
_'ana_ being reserved of things to eat.


1. Words which are qualifying terms may also be used in the form of
verbs, but some may be used without verbal particles and follow the
qualified word. _Mwane baita_ a big man, _mwela tou_ a little child.

2. Some words have a form which is used only of adjectives, either
of termination or of prefix.

a. Adjectival terminations are: _a_, _la_.

The termination _a_ is suffixed to substantives and verbs: _rodo_
night, _rorodoa_ dark, darkness, cloud; _bulu_ to be black,
_bubulua_ black.

_La_ is suffixed to substantives and verbs: _mwai_ a bag, _mwaila_
rich, _kobu_ to be fat, _kobukobula_ fat, whole, big; _tagalo_ to be
wandering, _tagalola_ matted, thick, of forest.

b. Adjectival prefixes are _a_, _ma_, _tata_, _m_. These are all
prefixed to verbs.

The _a_ is prefixed to verbs to form participles: _luga_ to loose,
_aluga_ loose; _la_ to lift up, _alaa_ upwards, up.

_Ma_ denotes condition: _lingi_ to pour, _malingi_ spilled, _ngi_ to
divide, _mangisingisi_ broken, divided, _matala_ only, merely; _tefe
mwela matala_ an only child.

_Tata_ denotes spontaneity: _tatagwelu_ headlong.

_M_ as a prefix appears to be used in the word _moi_ broken, (Sa'a
_'o'i_ to break, _ma'o'i_ broken).

3. Comparison: Degrees of comparison are shown by the use of
prepositions or adverbs, or by a simple positive statement. The
prepositions used are _fasi_ from, _tasa_ beyond, in excess. The
suffixed pronoun is used with _fasi_, but the possessive is used
with _tasa_: _na boso nia baita fasia na asufe_ a pig is larger than
a rat; _gera baita tasa agera_ these are much larger than those.

The adverbs employed are _gele_ little, somewhat, _asia_ very, too
much: _nia baita asia_ it is very (too) large.

A positive statement carries comparison by implication: _doo ne nia
baita_ that is biggest, _sai ai ne ni diena, sai ai nena ni taa na_
this is good, that is bad; i.e., this is better than that.


Almost any word may be used as a verb by prefixing the verbal
particles, but some words are naturally verbs as being the names of
actions and not of things. There are also verbs which have special
forms as such by means of a prefix or termination. Verbal particles
precede the verb; they have a temporal force.

1. The verbal particles are _ka_, _ko_. The particles are written
apart from the verb, but the speakers like to join them to the
governing pronouns of the first and second persons singular, _gu_,

_Ka_ is used both of present and of future time: _nia ka bae uri_ he
speaks thus, _ka urina_ if that be so, _tasi doo taa gera ka odea_
what will they do? _lelea ka rodo_ go till nightfall; the illatives
_fi_, _fe_, may be added.

_Ko_ is used only with the personal pronoun, second singular _o_,
and may express either present or future time: the illative may be

The preposition _fuana_ to him, to it, in order that, is used as a
subjunctive or optative.

2. Time and Moods: A subjunctive is formed by _ana_ if, when,
followed by the particle _ka_, or by the use of _saea_.

Conditional affirmation is expressed by _saumala_.

The illatives are _fi_ and _fe_, and mean, then, in that case,
following upon, just now, for the first time: _ta ka fi uri_ then
said he, _gami mifi saitamana na tala uta_ and how shall we know the

_Fe_ as an illative denotes, in that case, following upon; _fe_ is
also used like _ha'i_ in Sa'a, to denote repetition or continuance
or restoration: _na abana e fe boeboela lau_ his hand was restored
whole again, _gera ka fe dao toona_ they will certainly reach him,
_daro fe lea lau_ go they went on again, _da tefe bae ana tesi
baela_ they all cried out together.

_Na_ is used following the verb to form a preterit: _nia mae na_ he
is dead. Finality is shown by the use of _sui_: _sui na_ it is all
finished, _nia kafi dao sui na_ when he shall have arrived, _sui
nana_ it is finished, _sui ta_ thereupon, after that.

For the imperative the simple verb is used: _o lea amu_ go away;
_fasi_ may be added for politeness: _lea fasi amu_ you go!

3. Negative Particles: The foregoing particles are not used in
negative sentences. The negative particles are _langi_, _e langi_,
_si_. These may be combined: _nia langi si saea_ he does not know
it, _e langi mu si rongoa ma e langi mu si saea_ you have neither
heard it nor seen it, _e langi nau gu si lea_ I am not going, _e
langi uri ta ai e adasia_ no one has seen it, _e langi asia_ not at
all. The verbal particle _ka_ may be used in negative sentences with
the addition of _si_, _kasi bobola_ it is not fitting. The
dehortative and the negative imperative is _fasia_: _fasia oko lea_
do not go! _fasia gera ka adasia_ let them not see it, _o fasia oko
luia_ do not forbid it.

Genitives: _ni_, _i_ are used to express purpose.

4. Suffixes to verbs: There are certain terminations which, when
added to neuter verbs or to verbs active only in a general way, make
them definitely transitive or determine their action upon some
object. These are of two forms:

a. A consonant with _i_: _fi_, _li_, _mi_, _ni_, _ngi_, _si_, or _i_
by itself; e.g. _tau_, _taufi_; _mae_, _maeli_: _ano_, _anomi_;
_mou_, _mouni_; _sau_, _saungi_; _ada_, _adasi_; _manatat_,
_manatai_; to the verb _taa_ to be bad, both _si_ and _li_ are added
and the causative _fa_ is prefixed: _fataasi_, _fataali_, to make
worse. Certain verbs which are active in Lau are neuter in Sa'a:
_angai_ to lift, _angaia_ lift it, Sa'a _angainia_; _faodo_ to
straighten, _faodoa_ straighten it, Sa'a _ha'aodohie_; _famae_ to
kill, _famaea_, Sa'a _ha'amaesie_; _famou_ to frighten, _famoua_,
Sa'a _ ha'ama'usie_.

b. The termination _ai_ is suffixed by itself to nouns to convert
them into verbs, _sato_, _satoai_. When this syllable _ai_ is
suffixed to verbs the genitive _ni_ may be added, and to the form
_aini_ the consonants f, m, ng, t, are prefixed: _oli_ to return,
_olifaini_ to carry back, _ala_ to answer, _alamaini_ to consent,
_sau_ to become, _saungaini_ to make, _tagala_ lost, _tagalangaini_
to drive out, _foaa_ to pray, _foaataini_ to pray for. The forms in
_ai_ are also used intransitively: _tege_ to fall, _tegelai_ lost,
_oli_ to turn, _olitai_ converted.

The genitive _ni_ (cf. M. L., p. 532) is often omitted and is not
invariably used as it is in Sa'a, since the form _ai_ without the
addition of _ni_ is transitive: _gonitai_ to receive, _gwoutai_ or
_gwoutaini_ to be left alone, _oalangai_ to apportion, _fatolamai_
to command.

_Ani_ appears to be used by itself as a transitive suffix: _ui_ to
throw, _uiani_ to throw away, _laga_ to drive, _lagaani_ to drive
away, _taba_ to strike, _tabaani_ to destroy; _ani_ is used also
with _too_ to hit, _tooani_ to understand.

With either class of suffixes there is no difference in meaning
between one suffix and another.

5. Prefixes to verbs: These are causative and reciprocal.

The causative is _fa_: it may be prefixed to almost any word, and it
may be used with words which have a transitive suffix. The use of
_fa_ frequently obviates the use of a transitive suffix and of
itself makes verbs transitive.

The reciprocal is _qai_: generally when _qai_ is prefixed to a verb
the action of the verb is enlarged and the subject is included. The
illative _fe_ also marks repetition or restoration or continuance;
it is followed by the adverb _lau_ again: _na abana e fe boeboela
lau_ his hand was restored whole.

6. Passive: The passive is expressed by the use of the personal
pronoun plural third _gera_ or _da_, with the verb and the adverb
_na_ already: _gera taufia na_ it has been washed; _gera_ and _da_
are used impersonally. The word _saetana_ it is said, _sae_ to say,
is used as a passive: _se doo saetana_ the thing said, _si baela ne
saetana uri_ the word which was said.

7. Auxiliary verbs: _Alu_ to put, is used as meaning, to be, to
become; _talae_, v. tr. to begin, means also to become; _sau_ to
make, with the possessive _ana, sau ana_ to become.

8. Reflexive verb: The word _mara_ with suffixed pronoun is used to
denote reflexive action: _nia saungia marana_. It also carries the
meaning self, of one's own accord: _i bobongi ka manata tetea ana
marana_ the morrow can take care of itself.

9. Reduplication: Verbs are reduplicated in two ways: (a) by
reduplication of the first syllable: _liu_, _liliu_; _bae_, _babae_;
(b) by repetition of the whole word: _gwou_, _gwougwou_. There is
no difference between the various forms beyond an intensification in
meaning. In the vocabulary the reduplicated form is presented under
the entry of the stem.


There are pure adverbs in Lau, but many words used as adverbs are
truly nouns and others are verbs; adjectives may also occur in this

1. Adverbs of place: _mai_ here, hither; go there, thither, _ne_ may
be added, gone, also _langi_ go, no. _Lo_ there, is compounded with
_go_ and _gi_, _logo_ north, west; _se_ here, a noun, _i se_,
_isena_, here, in this place, _gula_ place, a noun: _si gula na_
this place, here, _gula i maa_ outside. _bali_ side, a noun, _bali
ne_ here, on this side; _i bali jordan i bali logo_ on the far side
of Jordan; _ifai_ where, _gamu mai ifai_ whence are you? _tau_, a
verb, far off: _alaa_ up, south, east, _ilangi_, _ifafo_, up.

2. Adverbs of time: _kada na_ (_ne_), _manga na_, now; _si manga,
kademanga_, when, _i kademanga na_ (_ne_), at the time when; _i
angita, si manga uta_, when? _inao_ of old, in the past; _ua mai
inao_ from of old; _isingana ne_ henceforth: _alua fasi_, _taraina_,
presently; _urii_ just now; _lau, _lau go_, again; _oli_ back; _na_,
_ua na_, already; _ua_ yet, still, still left; _ua go i uarodo_
while still dark in the early morning; _ua mai ana lua_ from the
flood, _toongi ua inao_ old clothes, _e langi ua_ not yet, still
wanting; _firi_, _tefou_, always; _too ka tau_ forever; _suli
dangifiri_ daily; _taraina_ to-day; _i rogi_ yesterday; _maaedangi i
fafo_ day before yesterday; _bobongi_ to-morrow; _taraina lao rodo_
to-night; _talae_ first; _loulou_ quick; _aliali_ forthwith;
_maasia_, _kade manga_, while.

3. Adverbs of manner: _alafana_ as, like, as if; _uri_, _uria_,
_sae_, _saea_, that (of quotation); _uri_, _urina_, thus; _e uta_
how? _gele_ somewhat; _asia_ completely, too much; _saumala_
granted that; _falaete, mamaloni_, only; _ooni_ merely; _talai_ for
no reason; _tefou_ together; _afui_ altogether (precedes verb);
_boro_, _oto_, _otomone_, _tamone_, _bota ana_, perhaps; _mone_
gives life, _ba_ gives force, to the narrative; _ba_ also explains
and makes the diction less abrupt; _tasa_, _tasaana_, too much;
_faoroa_ often.


1. Simple prepositions.

Locative, _i_.
Motion to, _fua_, _isuli_, _suli_.
Motion from, _fasi_, _ita_.
Causation, _fafi_.
Position, _fonosi_.

Dative, _fua_.
Instrumental, _ana_, _ani_.
Relation, _ana_, _ani_, _fai_, _sai_, _usi_.
Gentive, _ni_, _i_.

The locative _i_ is seen in _ifai_ where; it is also largely used
with adverbs of place and time and it precedes every name of place.
With the exception of the locative, the instrumental, the genitive,
and also _ana_, _ita_, _usi_, all the foregoing prepositions are
used with a suffixed pronoun; _ita_ is used with the possessive.

_Isuli_ denotes motion after, motion over: _sulia rodo ma na asua_
day and night, _manata suli_ to know.

_Fafi_ means, about, concerning, because of, around, on: _gera ogu
fafia_ they crowded round him, _nia alua abana fafia_ he laid his
hand on him, _lau fafi_ to rescue, _fafi taa_ what about, why;
_fuana_ in order that, _mae fuana_ to die to his disadvantage, _soe
ledia fuana_ question him about it, _bae fuana_ forbid him, _fuana
taa_ wherefore?

Of the two instrumental prepositions _ana_ is the one in more
general use, its meaning is with: _doo gera saungia ana_ the thing
they killed him with. _Ana_ appears to denote the actual instrument,
_ani_ the method of action; _ani_ may be translated withal. When the
noun denoting the instrument is not preceded by an article or when
the noun is used in a general sense, _ani_ is used in the place of
_ana_: _suu fafia ani taa_ to clothe himself with what? _lea ani
ola_ to go by canoe.

The pronoun _a_ may be suffixed to _ani_; _tasi doo gera
qaifamanatai ania_ the thing they taught withal; _ka modea na toongi
ua inao ania_ to mend the old garment withal.

_Ana_ also denotes at, in, place where, among: _luma ana foaa_
(_luma ni foaa_) a house of prayer, _kakao ana ano_ an earthen
vessel, _nia liu ana ta maaedangi_ he went on a certain day, _tani
ai ana aigi_ some of the people, _nia saea ana satana_ he called him
by his name, _o ngalia ana ati_ from whom did you get it? _lea ana
fera_ to go into the country. _Ani_ is used as meaning in, _e langi
ani nau_ there is nothing in me, _gera ote gera ani nau_ they will
have nothing to do with me.

_Fai_ means with: _faioe_ with thee, _qaimani fai_ to help, _oko
gaimani fainau_ you help me. The genitive _ni_ may be added, _lea
fainia_ go with him; _fainia_ moreover, and.

_Sia_ means at, at home, and always has the suffixed pronoun. By
the ordinary Melanesian idiom place at comes to be used of motion
to: _siagamelu chez nous_, _siena ere_ beside the fire, _lea mai
siegu_ come here to me. _Usi_ means over, on behalf of, for: _gera
ngisu usia_ they spat on him, _na captain usia na too_ a captain
over the people, _na taba olisia usia na aigi_ a redemption for the

The genitives have been dealt with under nouns: _i_ is in most
general use, both are used to express purpose, and _ni_ also denotes
for, belonging to: _fasia muka manata ni bae uri_ think not to say
thus, _gera mou ni oli_ they feared to return, _ka ote nia ni
rosuli_ he is tired of obeying.

2. Compound prepositions.

Some of these are nouns used with the locative; the pronoun is
suffixed as the actual object or as the anticipatory object when a
noun follows: _i fafo_ above, _i fara_ beneath, _i lao_ within. The
locative need not be used with _lao_: _lao rodo_ in the night, _lao
tala_ in the path, _lao salo_ in the sky. Some are constructed from
verbal nouns to which the suffixed pronoun is always added:
_fonosia_ in front of him, _nia initoo fonosi gera_ he ruled over
them, _fonosi taa_ to meet what? for what purpose? Certain verbs are
used as prepositions: _maasi_ to await, _garangi_ to be near.


Copulative, _ma_.
Adversative, _ta_, _ma ta_
Connective, _ta_.
Disjunctive, _langi_, _langi fa_, _ma langi_, _ma ka langi_.
Conditional, _ana_, _ma ana_, _saea_.
Illative, _fi fe_.

A mark of quotation is _saea_, _uri_. Neither, nor, is expressed by
a negative followed by _ma_. Until is _dao ana_, _lea dao ana_.


The numerical system is decimal. All numbers over the tens are
expressed in tens.

1. Cardinals.

1. _eta_, _ta_, _te_.
2. _e rua_, _ro_.
3. _e olu_.
4. _e fai_.
5. _e lima_.
6. _e ono_.
7. _e qalu_.
8. _e fiu_.
9. _e siqa_.
10. _e tangafulu_, _aqala_.

In numbers other than _eta_ the initial _e_ is omitted in quick
counting. In composition one is _ta_, two is _ro_, _te_ generally
means only: _rua_ is reduplicated into _ruarua_, _tau ruarua_

The prefix _too_ forms distributives: _too ro doo_ two things at a
time. _Nima_ is used as well as _lima_ for five. Though _qalu_
eight, appears in the translations as used of an indefinite number
it is doubtful whether such use is correct. _Tangafulu_ is the tenth
of a series; _aqala_ is used for ten denoting a unit, _aqala fono_ a
full ten.

To express units above ten _mana_ is employed: _aqala mana fai_

One hundred is _tangalau_: _tangale doo_ one hundred things. The sum
above the hundred is expressed by _mana_: _tangalau fai aqala mana
fai_ one hundred and forty-four. One thousand is _too_.

2. Ordinals.

The cardinals with a substantival ending _na_ form ordinals.

First, _etana_. Fourth, _faina_. Seventh, _fiuna_.
Second, _ruana_. Fifth, _limana_. Eighth, _qaluna_.
Third, _oluna_. Sixth, _onona_. Ninth, _siqana_.

Ordinals precede the noun: _ruana na mwane_ the second man.

Ordinals are used to express the number of times: _eruana lau nia
lea go_ he went away the second time.

_Ruana_ also means fellow: _na ruana gera_ their fellows.

Tenth is expressed by _tangafulu ana_: _aqala maaedangi mana ruana_
the twelfth day, _tangalau ro aqala mana etana_ one hundred and

_Efita_ how many, is used with the substantival termination _na_:
_efitana_ what number?

3. Multiplicatives.

The article _fe_ is employed to form multiplicatives: _guka fai fe
olila_ I shall return four times, _sasigu ka fita fe ode doo taala
fuagu_ how often shall my brother harm me? _tafe_ once.

The causative _fa_ does not make multiplicatives except in the case
of _faoroa_ often.


_Iu_, _iuka_, assent. _Oto mone_ is that so? _Ne_ is used in
questions, _ati ne satamu_ what is your name? _na mwela a Joseph e
langi ne_ Is He not the son of Joseph? _Aia_ sums up, so there, well
then! _Oimae_ alas! The noun _ai_, person, is added to proper names
to call attention, _Joe ai_ hey, Joe!



_a_ 1, personal article: used with the names of males, both native
and foreign, _a Masuraa_, _a Luke_; is used also with _doo_, thing,
_a doo_ So-and-So, _a doo na_, the person; is seen also in _ati_
who? In usage it corresponds to the _i_ of Mota and Malagasy. Cf.
S. _a_.

_a_ 2, termination of the verbal noun: attached to verb, _angi_ to
cry, _angia_ a cry, _fanga_ to eat, _fangaa_ a feast; added to
compounds _girigiri lifoa_, gnashing of teeth.

_a_ 3, pers. pron. sing. 3. suffixed to verbs as object, and to
prepositions as anticipatory object and used both of persons and
things: him, her, it. S. _a_.

_a_ 4, stem to which the pronouns _gu_, _mu_, _na_, etc. are
suffixed in forming the possessive. S. _a_.

_a_ 5, prefix of condition making participles: _luga_ to loose,
_aluga_ loosened. S. _'a_.

_a_ 6, adj. term, suffixed to nouns and verbs _rodo_, night,
_rorodoa_, belonging to darkness, _bulu_, to be black, _bubulua_,
black. S. _a_.

_a_ 7, exclam. negative; don't

_aba_ (_gu_) n., hand, arm, part, leaf: _fuli abae ai_, men's
handiwork. S. _apa_.

_abaa_ n., staff. S. _apaa_.

_abalolo_ a banyan tree. S. _'apalolo_.

_abasua_ adj. afraid of, silent out of respect for a person.

_abatoo_ v, i. to be barren, of women.

_abolo_ n., a piece: _abole ai_, a beam. S. _polo_.

_abu_ (_gu_) n., blood: _abu rakaraka_, an issue of blood.

_abua_ adj., red.

_abu_ 2. v. i. to be forbidden, taboo: _abu rongo_, to be unwilling
to hear. S. _'apu_.

_abulo_ partic., turned round: _abulo fasi_, to face towards,

_abuloa_ v. n. a turning round. S. _apulo_.

_abusu_ v. i. to be filled, satiated.

_abusua_ v. n. satiety.

_ada_ 1. v. i. to see, to awake.

_ada filo_ to perceive; _ada fua_, to choose; _ada sae tamana_,
to recognize; _ada_ too, to succeed in finding.

_adala_, v. n. sight, seeing.

_adasi_, v. tr. to see. _faada_.

_ada_ 2. poss. pl. 3, among them, for them, for their part, theirs
(of things to eat), used also as obj. to neut. verb; _tani aiai
ada_, some of them. S._'ada_.

_Adagege_ artificial islet next to Ferasubua going north.

_adalu_ poss. pl. 3, as _ada_, but more restricted in application.

_adaro_ poss. dual. 3. Cf. _ada_ 2.

_ade_ v. tr. to do, to make; of disease, to be prostrated by _si
maea e adea_, he was sick; _ade au_, to play on a bamboo flute;
_ade doo_, to worship; _ade doola_, worship.

_adi_ v. tr. to taboo, to place one's mark upon, S. _adi_.

_ado_, _adomi_, v. tr. to serve, to wait upon, to furnish with
food, to worship.

_ae_ (_gu_) 1. n. foot, leg; _lado ae_, to follow; _aena_, because
of, _aena falisi_, lord of the garden; _ae i fera_, a householder;
_ae mwane_, chief man. S._'ae_.

_ae_ 2. exclam. ah!; used also in summing up.

_afa_ 1. v. i. to cut, to incise, to mark by cutting. S. _aha_.

_afa_ 2. an eagle. S. _hada_.

_afe_ 1. woman, wife; _si afe nau_, my wife.

_afe_ 2. v. tr. to direct, to guide, S. _'ahe_.

_afe_, _afeafe_ 3. n. foam, waves; _na afe_, surf. S. _ahe_.

_afedali_; _matai afedali_, to be in a fever. S. _madali_, wet with

_afetai_ partic., difficult; _bae afetai_, to take an oath.

_afoa_ partic. apart, separate. S. _ahoa_.

_afu_ v. tr. to wrap up, to hide. S. _ahu_.

_afui_ partic. precedes verb, altogether. S. _ahu'i_ 4.

_afuta-_ (_gu_) n. all; _afutana_, all of it; _afutagamere_, both
of us. S._ahuta_.

_aga_ poss. pl. 1. among us, for us, for our part, ours (of things
to eat), used also as obj. with neuter verbs. S. _aka_.

_agalimae_ a spirit, a ghost.

_agalo_ a ghost; _qaife agalo_, a witch doctor. S._'akalo_.

_agamelu_ poss. pl. 1. excl. for us, for our part, among us, us

_agamere_ poss. dual, excl. for us two, among us two, us two (obj.)

_agamolu_ poss. pl. 2. for you, among you, you (obj.).

_agamere_ poss. dual, excl. for us two, among us two, us two

_agamolu_ poss. pl. 2. for you, among you, you (obj.).

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