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Ira Allen

To whom Vermont owes as much as to any one man for the estab-
lishment of the State and its preservation during the early years of its
existence, came to the New Hampshire Grants as a surveyor. He soon
became one of the most influential of the leaders of the Green Mountain
Boys, took part in the Canadian campaign. He was active in the forma-
tion of the new State, devised the plan for the confiscation of the estates of
Tories, and was a leading spirit in assembling the forces which won the
battle of Bennington. With consummate skill he deceived the British in
regard to a possible alliance, thus protecting this region from invasion.
He was one of the leaders who labored long to secure Vermont's admis-
sion to the Union, and succeeded at last in this undertaking. Ira Allen,
with the vision of a statesman, saw the possibilities of Vermont industry,
agriculture and commerce, and he was one of the first manufacturers in
this State.


The Green Mountain State


Walter Hill Crockett

author of

Vermont вАФ Its Resources and Opportunities

History of Lake Champlain

George Franklin Edmunds

Volume One

The Century History Company, Inc.

New York






R 1931 L

Copyright 1921
BY The Century History Company

ALL rights reserved

Publication Office

8 West 47th Street, New York

U. S. A.

To THE Memory of
George Grenvillh Benedict


Horace Ward Bailey

Who encouraged and aided the author

in his study of Vermont history,

these volumes are dedicated.



The Various Geological Periods as Shown in Vermont.

The Effects of Erosion.

Fossils in Vermont Rocks.

Changes Wrought During the Glacial Periods.

The Geological History of Lake Champlain.

The Formation of Granite, Marble and Slate.



Conditions in the Year 1G09.

Samuel Champlain's Explorations.

He Joins a War Party of Canadian Indians on an Expedition

Against the Iroquois.
Discovers the Lake that Bears His Name.
Battle with the Iroquois.
Far-Reaching Effect of the Conflict.



The Algonquin and Iroquois Confederacies.

The Abnakis.

Vermont's Present Area Contested Ground.

Mohican Massacre in Pownal.

The Squakheag Tribe of the Connecticut Valley.

Occupation of The Coos Region.

King Philip Assembles a Conference of Indian Tribes at Vernon.

Specimens of Picture Writing.

Prehistoric Indians in Swanton.

The Missiassik Tribe.

Relics in Vermont Towns.

Indian Trails.

Indian Names.



Indian Migration from Southern New England.
Importance of the Abnaki Settlement on the Missisquol.
Gray Lock's Leadership.
His Raids in the Connecticut Valley.


Scouting Parties Sent out Against Indians.

Frencli Expeditions in tlie Champlain Valley.

New York Incursions into Canada.

The Burning of Deerfield.

Attacks on Scouting Parties of Captains Melvin and Hobbs.

Number Four Attacked.

A Connecticut River Fort Burned.

Robert Rogers Destroys tlie St. Fi-ancis Village.



The Building of Fort St. Anne on Isle La Motte.

Marquis de Tracy's Expedition.

The Fort Abandoned.

French Attempts to Plant Colonies.

Grants of Land on Lake Champlain.

Extent of the Seigniories.

Conditions of the French Grants.

Settlement at Alburg.

Fort St. Frederic and Outlying Settlements.

Disputes between French and English Regarding Ownership.



The Northfleld, Mass., Settlements.

The Equivalent Lands.

The Building of Fort Dummer.

This Fortification as a Trading Post.

New Boundary Line Gives Fort to New Hampshire.

Contest Over Its Maintenance.

The First "White Child Known to Have Been Born in Vermont.

Forts Bridgman and Sartwell Built.



The Settlement of Number One, or Westminster.

First Inhabitants of Vernon.

First Clearings and Early Settlers at Putney.

John Kathan, the First Settler at Dummerston.

Settlements at Rockingham, Halifax and Newfane.

Building of Military Road from Crown Point to Number Four.




Benning Wentworth and the Bennington Grant.

The Form of Charter Used.

Grants Made from 1750 to 1764.

Some Facts Concerning the Grantees.

Grants to Residents of New York, Some of Whom Were Quakers.

Official Pees and Perquisites.

Grants by New York Governors.

Confirmation of New Hampshire Charters.



Attractions Offered by the Lands of the New Hampshire Grants.

Settlement of Bennington, Guilford, Halifax, Newbury, Pawlet,
Pownal, Arlington, Hartford, Hartland, Marlboro, Norwich,
Shaftsbury, Chester, Guildhall, Manchester, Panton, Sharon,
Thetford, Windsor, Addison, Bradford, Uanby, Woodstock,
Pairlee, Middlebury, Newfane, Shelburne, Shoreham, Sunder-
land, Vergennes, Rupert, Castleton, Pittsford, Waltham,
Andover, Bridport, Clarendon, Dorset, Grafton, Lunenburg,
Strafford, Wells, Cavendish, Ferrisburg, Landgrove, New
Haven, Rutland, Pomfret, Poultney, Royalton, Sandgate,
Whitingham, Brandon, Colchester, Maidstone, Reading, Bur-
lington, Londonderry, Peru, Wallingford, Whiting, Windham,
Tinmouth, Baniard, Cornwall, Hinesburg, Jericho, Leicester,
Middletown, Monkton, Salisbury, Williston, Hubbardton,
; Peacham, Richmond, Weybridge, Orwell, St. Albans, Sudbury,
Barnet, Ryegate.

The Scotch Settlements, In Vermont.

Character of the Vermont Settlers.

The Connecticut Influence.

Methods and Customs of the Pioneers.



Official Correspondence Between Governors Wentworth and Clinton.
Evidence Regarding the Boundary between New York and New

Matter of Jurisdiction Referred to the Crown.
Activity of Lieutenant Governor Colden.
Arguments of Provincial Authorities.
Effect of the New England Spirit of Independence upon the

Order of the King in Council Establishing the Connecticut River as

the Eastern Boundary of New York.
Disputed Territory "Annexed" to New York.


Lands Already Occupied Regranted.

Petition to the King Presented by New Hampshire Grantees.

Agents Sent to England.

Death of Samuel Robinson in London.

British Government Censures New York Governors.



New Counties Established.

First Open Opposition to New York.

Affair of the Breakenridge Farm.

Sheriff Ten Eyck's Unsuccessful Attempt to Evict Settlers.

Appearance of Ethan Allen.

Trial of Ejectment Suits at Albany.

Bennington People Adopt a Policy of Resistance.

New York Officials and Settlers Suffer.

Rewards Offered for Apprehension of Green Mountain Leaders.

Capture and Rescue of Remember Baker.

Plans to Attack Governor Tryon.

Cause of the Settlers Presented.

Meeting of Town Committees.

The "Beech Seal" Applied.

"Mobs" and "Rioters."

Certain Leaders Declared Outlaws.

Their Response.

New Royal Colony Proposed.



Conditions Preceding the American Revolution.

Conflicts with New York Provincial Officials.

The Rising Spirit of Opposition to British Policies Shown in
Public Meetings.

County Conventions Called and Sympathy with American Resist-
ance Expressed.

Attempt to Prevent Holding of Court at Westminster.

Armed Conflict and Bloodshed, and Two Men Mortally Wounded.

A Popular Uprising Follows the Affray.

Practical Ending of New York Rule in This Region.

Bold Resolutions Adopted by the People of Cumberland and
Gloucester Counties.

Volunteers Offer Services Following Battle of Lexington.



Part Taken by Residents of Connecticut and Massachusetts.
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys Interested.


Samuel Beach's Famous Journey Warning the Settlers to Rally

for Attack.
Rendezvous at Castleton.
Appearance of Benedict Arnold.

Expedition Assembled at Hand's Cove, in Shoreham.
Story of the Capture of the Fortress.
The Prizes of War.
Effect of the Capture.

Crown Point, Skenesborough and Fort George Taken.
Expedition of Allen and Arnold to St. Johns.



Friction Between Allen and Arnold.

Correspondence with Provincial Authorities and Continental Con-

Massachusetts Appoints an Investigating Committee.

Arnold Refuses to Recognize the Authority of Colonel Hinman, and

Many Protests Against Proposal of Congress to Abandon Ticon-

Captured Cannon Transported to Boston by Colonel Knox.



Ethan Allen and Seth Warner visit Continental Congress and New

York Legislature.
Raising of Regiment of Green Mountain Boys Recommended.
Warner Chosen Leader.
Cumberland County Militia Organized.
Ethan Allen Urges Immediate Attack Upon Canada.
Conditions on Lake Champlain.
Schuyler Organizes an Expedition.
Remember Baker Killed.
Canadian Invasion Begun.
Ethan Allen Meets Canadians.
Unsuccessful Attempt to Take Montreal.
Allen's Capture and Imprisonment.
Siege and Capture of St. Johns.
Warner Repulses Carleton at Longueuil.
Montreal Evacuated.
Warner's Regiment Discharged.
Charges Against Colonel Enos.
Warner Responds to Appeal for Aid.
Benjamin Franklin Visits Canada.
Ira Allen Aids Montgomery.
The Retreat from Canada.
Illness and Death Among Troops.

Inhabitants of New Hampshire Grants Petition for Protection.
Washington Objects to Proposal to Abandon Crown Point.
The Bayley-Hazen Road Begun.


Ira Allen Frontispiece

Map of Taquahunga Falls Facing page 40

Isle LaMotte Scenes " " 80

Map of French Seigniories " " 120

Fort Dummer " " 140

Plan of Fort Dummer " " 160

Chorographical Map of North America " " 190

Map of French and English Grants " " 220

Governor Benning Wentworth " " 260

Bridge at Bellows Falls " " 280

Monument to Green Mountain Boys " " 300

Catamount Tavern, Bennington " " 350

Old Court House, Westminster " " 400

Glimpses of Ticonderoga and Crown Point " " 440

"Old Daye Press" " " 460

Facsimile of Ethan Allen Letter " " 480

Old Meeting House at Bennington " " 500

Old Tavern at Arlington " " 520

Lake Dunmore " " 550


Measured in terms of square miles, or in tables of
population, Vermont is a small State, containing an
area of less than ten thousand square miles; but if
notable deeds accomplished may be taken as a standard,
then the Green Mountain Commonwealth ranks among
the really great States of the American Union. The
story of Vermont is a marvelous one, filled with perils
and sacrifices, heroic deeds and stirring adventures.
Great men laid the foundations of the State, great men
have builded thereon, and their achievements have
given Vermont a name that is honored wherever it is
known. Because history is truth, it is often stranger
than fiction, and sometimes it is more romantic.

Like other mountain States, Vermont has been
inhabited by a people in whose hearts a passionate love
of liberty has been cherished. First among American
States to forbid human slavery, Vermont always has
stood for freedom under the law. Never a crown
colony, never yielding allegiance to any province. State
or kingdom, the little band of bold and resourceful
pioneers, dwelling in the shadow of the Green Moun-
tains, set up a repubHc and successfully maintained an
independent government for thirteen years, until Ver-
mont was admitted as the first State to be added to the

Certain States, like certain persons, possess an indi-
viduality that dififerentiates them from the common
type. Without asserting that Vermont is, or has been,
peopled by a race of supermen, it is a fact that it diflfers


in important particulars from other States, Believing
that the history of Vermont is of sufficient importance
to warrant relating in greater detail than has yet been
told, the author has undertaken to tell this story and
to call attention to circumstances in which it differs
from other Commonwealths, in the pages that follow,
hoping that its narration may arouse a deeper interest
in the past, present and the future of the Green Moun-
tain State. He realizes the magnitude of the task he
has undertaken, and feels the burden of the responsi-
bility he has assumed, in attempting to tell adequately
and accurately the story of Vermont. He lays no
claim to infallibility, but he has sought, diligently and
patiently, to consult all accessible sources of infor-
mation, and to sift out of the vast amount of available
material the important historical facts that deserve to
be remembered.

The number of historical and biographical works,
documents, letters, journals, and reports consulted, has
been so great that a recapitulation of the titles would
be wearisome.

To all who have assisted the author in the preparation
of these volumes, and the number is large, he takes this
occasion to render heartfelt thanks. Special acknowl-
edgment is due to the courteous officials of the Vermont
State and the University of Vermont Libraries, for
without the help of those institutions this History could
not have been written; to the Advisory Board, Hon.
Mason S. Stone of Montpelier, Hon. Frank L. Fish of
Vergennes, Hon. C. P. Smith of Burlington, Dr. H. C.
Tinkham of Burlington, and to the Hon. Horace W.


Bailey of Newbury and Hon. G. H. Prouty of Newport,
whose death before the completion of the History was
keenly felt by the author; also to those who have con-
tributed special articles for this work, thereby adding
much to its value. The kindly interest and hearty
cooperation shown by Vermonters within and without
the State have lightened the author's burdens and are
gratefully acknowledged.
Burlington, Vt., June, 1921.

Chapter I

THE first chapter of Vermont history was written
unnumbered centuries ago, in the rocks that form
the foundations of the Green Mountains. ^J'he
period of time that was consumed in the writing of that
chapter seems so long, when we attempt to apply the
measuring rod of our ordinary system of reckoning,
that the human mind with difficulty comprehends it;
and all the years included in the annals of mankind
upon this earth, when compared with this vaster span
needed for the making of the mountains, seems no
more than "a watch in the night."

The Green Mountain State ranks among the oldest
regions within the limits of what is now known as the
United States of America. While it is possible that
deep down under these lofty hills there may be rocks
belonging to the Archean, the very oldest geological
period, none of these ancient rocks have been found, and
the evidence obtained indicates that the foundations of
the Green Mountains were laid during the next period,
the Algonkian.

No man has read more carefully this first chapter of
our history than has Prof. George H. Perkins, the Ver-
mont State Geologist, and in a carefully written article
dealing with the geological history of the State, he has
said: "It is easy for anyone at all familiar with the
geological history of America to imagine something of
that which must have happened during all these ages,
when much the greater part of North America south of
Canada line was formed.

"We know that at the beginning of this long period
the Adirondacks were already raised, and that not very


long after the Green Mountains were in existence, and
also that both these ranges were vastly greater than
now. The mass was larger and the peaks higher. It
is not too much to say that since these ancient mountains
were uplifted finally, they have lost half, perhaps more
than that, of their original bulk. Nothing is made more
plain to the student of geology than the economy of
Nature in using the same materials over and over again.
The sandstones and conglomerates of one period are the
solid strata of a preceding time. The rocks of the Green
Mountains are in part, just how large a part we do not
as yet know, made from materials derived from the
older Adirondacks. And old as they are, the Adiron-
dacks owe a part at least of the material which makes
up their mass to still older rocks. The sand which was
the broken debris of the Adirondack rocks, broken and
transported by the waves of the ancient Cambrian seas,
formed the red sand rock beds and quartzites of western
Vermont, and these more or less metamorphosed by the
conditions to which they were exposed, formed quartz-
ites, conglomerates, schists, etc., which are now a part of
the Green Mountain mass. These in turn, worn by
water, disintegrated by various atmospheric agencies,
were slowly through the ages reduced to sands and
clays, or by glacial action at the last, broken into boul-
ders, and lost more than we can estimate of what once
formed part of their solid mass, and thus have supplied
very largely the materials which cover the surface of
the State."

Following the Algonkian period came the Cambrian,
during which some of the boldest headlands on the east-


ern shore of Lake Champlain were formed. These
include Mallett's Head, Rock Point and Red Rocks, in
the vicinity of Burlington. Such elevations as Cobble
Hill in Milton, Mutton Hill and Mount Philo in Char-
lotte and most of Snake Mountain in Addison are
examples of Cambrian rock. While fossils in this rock
are scarce in Vermont, in some sections many trilobites
have been found. These are comparatively rare fossils
of a very early time. Most of the Rutland county slate
deposits belong to the Cambrian period.

Next above the Cambrian comes the Ordovician
period, which is subdivided into Beekmantown, Chazy,
Black River, Trenton and Utica. During the general
Cambrian period the Northfield and some of the Rut-
land county slates were deposited.

The Beekmantown is seen at its best in Vermont at
Fort Cassin, at the mouth of Otter Creek, where mol-
lusks, especially cephalopods, are found in the rocks in
great numbers. This is a famous geological region and
many new fossils have been discovered here. Most of
the Chazy formation is limestone, but it includes some
sandstone, and it is seen to good advantage in the towns
of Grand Isle and Isle La Motte. At times it reaches
a thickness of nearly nine hundred feet. Some layers
contain few fossils, while others are almost wholly
made up of trilobites, cephalopods, brachiopods, corals,
sponges, etc. These fossil sponges, as seen in polished
dies of monumental stones from Isle La Motte quarries,
are very beautiful.

Black River limestone is not extensive in Vermont,
but is found in Isle La Motte, South Hero, and at inter-


vals as far south as Benson. The fine grain and jet
black color of some of this stone, when polished, have
brought it into use as black marble.

The Utica is a soft, shaly rock, which easily wears
away under erosion. There is much of it in the north-
western part of the State. The whole of Alburg penin-
sula, the island of North Hero, and much of Grand
Isle are covered by the shales of this period, and much
of the soil of these towns is formed of decomposed shale.
Few fossils have been discovered in this rock. With the
Utica, the formation of stratified rocks ceased almost
entirely in the region now known as Vermont.

At the close of the Ordovician period the shore line
of Lake Champlain ran from Shelburne Point through
Rock Dunder, and Juniper Island to Appletree Point,
and thence to Colchester Point. All to the east of this
line was dry land.

During the Tertiary period there were swamps in
the western part of the State in which grew trees found
only in a climate warmer than that which now prevails
in Vermont. It is believed that the climate then was
as mild as that of the Carolinas today. The most inter-
esting evidence of this mild climate is found in the lig-
nite beds of Brandon. Occasionally lignite resembles
coal, and it has been burned as fuel when there was a
shortage of coal, but usually it has the appearance of a
dark hued, decayed wood. Embedded in this lignite are
found very rare specimens of fossil fruits. A collection
of Australian fruits in a Harvard University Museum
contains species closely resembling the Brandon fossils.
While it is reasonable to suppose that animal life, and


other forms of vegetable life existed here during this
period, evidences of them have not been found.

The interval between the close of the Ordovician and
the opening of the Pleistocene period was of very great
duration, covering, probably, millions of years. It has
been called a period of quiet and gentle changes, and it
was followed in the Pleistocene by a period of "great
commotion and rapid transformation," to quote from
Prof. G. H. Perkins, during which the character of the
surface and the scenery of the State underwent a great
change. The sand and gravel banks, the clay deposits
and much of the rock formation of Vermont belong to
this period.

It was during the Pleistocene period that the prevail-
ing mild climate was transformed into an Arctic tem-
perature. North of the St. Lawrence River there
accumulated gradually vast masses of snow, thousands
of square miles in area and thousands of feet thick,
greater, probably, than any such accumulation ever
formed before or since that time. From this region of
perpetual snows there originated three enormous glaci-
ers. The first, a comparatively narrow one, called the
Cordilleran, covered the Pacific coast region. The
second and longest, covered much of central Canada
from Hudson Bay to the Cordilleran glacier, and
extended south through the Mississippi valley and into
the present State of Kansas. The third glacier, and
the one that properly belongs in this narration, origi-
nated in northern Labrador and extended over New
England and the region of the Great Lakes.

Slowly this vast river of ice, probably more than a


mile in thickness, moved southward. Graduahy the
climate grew colder, and animal and plant life was
destroyed or driven southward. Relentlessly it moved
forward, crushing and grinding, pulverizing some rocks
to powder and polishing others smooth. The softer
rocks were deposited as clays, while some of the harder
rocks, when disintegrated, took the form of sand or
gravel, or were worn into smooth, round cobble-stones.
Large fragments of rock were broken from their native
ledges, carried hundreds of miles and deposited in the
form of boulders. Mountain tops and headlands were
worn down and the whole face of the landscape was
changed. The very highest peaks of the Green and
White Mountains were covered by this Labradorian
glacier. Professor Perkins, writing of this period,
alludes to "the utmost desolation that must have pre-
vailed," and says: 'T suppose that the present condi-
tion of Greenland, covered as it is by the ice cap, repre-
sents on a small scale, the conditions existing over north-
ern North America during the height of the ice age."

The melting of this glacier naturally created great
bodies of water, cutting new channels for rivers and
forming large lakes, or adding to the size of those
already existing. Many a rivulet that today seems a
misfit as it flows at the bottom of a deep and wide valley,
follows the bed of an ancient glacial stream. Water-
worn rocks, and potholes high up on the faces of clififs,
show the action of ancient seas or rivers countless cen-
turies ago.

The sand plains along the lower reaches of such
rivers as the Lamoille and the Winooski once were the


deltas of these streams, when Lake Champlain extended
inland nearly or quite to the foot of the Green Moun-
tains. The channel of the Ottaquechee River was filled
with the sand and debris of the ice age so that the river
was compelled to find a new course, and this diversion
of the stream resulted in the erosion of what is known
as Quechee Gulf, from one-half to three- fourths of a
mile long, three hundred feet wide and nearly two hun-
dred feet deep. Prof. C. H. Richardson of Dartmouth
College says that the length of time necessary for such
erosion was not less than ten thousand years.

Williamstown "^Gulf, Brookfield Gulf, and the depres-

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