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Annually — To Have & To Hold the said Tract of Land
as above Expressed togeather with All Previledges And
Appurtenances to them & their respective Heirs and
Assignes for ever upon the following Conditions viz —

"That every Grantee his heirs or Assignes Shall Plant
And Cultivate Five Acres of Land within the Term of
five years for Every fifty Acres Contained in his or their
Share or Proportion of Land in Said Township And
Continue to Improve & Settle the Same by Aditionall
Cultivations on Penalty of the forfeiture of his Grant
or Share in the Said Township and of its reverting to
his Majesty his hiers & Successors to be by him or them
regranted to such of his Subjects as Shall effectually
Settle & Cultivate the Same.

"That All white & other Pine Trees within the said
Township fit for masting our Royal Navy be carefully
Preserved for that Use And None to be Cut or felld
without his Majtys Especial Lycence for So doing first
had & Obtained upon the Penalty of the forfeiture of the
right of Such Grantee his hiers or Assignes to us our
hiers or Successers as well as being Subject to the
Penalty of Any Act or Acts of Parliament that now are
or hereafter Shall be enacted.

"That before any Division of the Said Land be made
to and Among the Grantees a Tract of Land as near the
Center of the Said Township as the Land will admit of,
Shall be reserved & Marked Out for Town Lotts one of



180 HISTORY OF VERMONT

which Shall be Alotted to Each Grantee of the "Con-
tents" of One Acre —

"Yielding & Paying therefor to us our Hiers & Suc-
cessers for the Space of Ten Years to be Computed from
the Date hereof the rent of one Ear of Indian Corn only
on the Twenty fifth Day of December Annually if Law-
fully Demanded the first Payment to be made on the
Twenty fifth Day of December next Ensueing the Date
hereof — "Every Proprietor Settler or Inhabitant Shall
Yield & Pay unto us our hiers and Successers yearly &
every Year for ever from & after the Expiration of Ten
years from the Date hereof Namly on the Twenty fifth
Day of December which will be in the year of Our Lord
1760 — One Shilling Proclamation Money for every
Hundred Acres he So Owns Settles or Possesses and so
in Proportion for a greater or A Lesser Tract of the
Said Land which money Shall be paid by the Respective
Persons above Sd their heirs or Assignes in our Council
Chamber in Portsmouth or to Such officer or officers as
Shall be Appointed to receive the Same and this to be in
Lieu of all other rents or Services whatsoever."

Bennington was the only township west of the Con-
necticut River granted by Governor Wentworth in 1749.
The next year, 1750, he granted only one township,
Halifax. In 1751 he granted the townships of Marl-
boro and Wilmington, and in 1752 an equal number,
Rockingham and Westminster. Seven townships were
granted in 1753, Brattleboro, Dummerston, Newfane,
Putney, Stamford, Townshend and Woodford. In
1754 three townships, Chester, Grafton, then known as
Thomlinson, and Guilford, were granted.



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 181

No further grants were made until the close of the
French and Indian War, and only one township, Pownal,
was granted in 1760, the year that saw the passing of
French dominion in Canada. Beginning with 1761,
Governor Wentworth entered vigorously upon the policy
of granting lands west of the Connecticut River and that
year he chartered sixty-three new townships, the list
including Addison, Andover, Arlington, Barnard, Bran-
don (Neshobe), Bridgewater, Bridport, Brunswick,
Castleton, Cavendish, Clarendon, Cornwall, Danby,
Dorset, Fairlee, Ferdinand, Wenlock (annexed to
Brighton and Ferdinand), Glastenbury, Granby, Guild-
hall, Hartford, Hartland (Hertford), Leicester, Lud-
low, Maidstone, Manchester, Middlebury, Mount Tabor
(Harwick), New Haven, Norwich (Nor which). Pan-
ton, Pawlet, Peru (Brumley), Pittsford, Plymouth
(Saltash), Pomfret, Poultney, Reading, Rupert, Rut-
land, Salisbury, Sandgate, Shaftsbury, Sharon, Sher-
burne (Killington), Shoreham, Shrewsbury, Somerset,
Springfield, Stockbridge, Strafiford, Stratton, Sunder-
land, Thetford, Tinmouth, Tunbridge, Wallingford,
Weathersfield, Wells, Weybridge, Windsor, Winhall,
and Woodstock.

The grants made in 1762 were fewer, numbering only
nine, and the townships granted were Averill, Bloom-
field (Minehead), Bristol (Pocock), Charlotte (Char-
lotta), Ferrisburg, Hinesburg, Lemington (Limington),
Lewis and Monkton. Thirty-seven towns were granted
in 1763, including Barnet, Berlin, Bolton, Brattle-
borough, Burlington, Colchester, Duxbury, Essex, Fair-
fax, Fairfield (Smithfield), Georgia, Highgate, Hunt-



182 HISTORY OF VERMONT

ington (New Huntington), Jericho, Lunenburg, Mans-
field, Middlesex, Milton, Moretown, Newbury, Orwell,
Peacham, Ryegate, Shelburne, Sheldon (Hungerford),
St. Albans, St. George, Stowe, Sudbury (Dunbar),
Swanton, Topsham, Underbill, Waterbury, Westford,
Whiting, Williston and Worcester.

Five towns, Corinth, Dover, Hubbardton, Readsboro,
and Wardsboro, were granted in 1764. This gives a
total of one hundred and thirty-one townships granted
by Governor Wentworth in what is now Vermont be-
tween the years 1749 and 1764, inclusive. No grants
were made for five years during the French and Indian
War and during three of the years mentioned only one
grant was made each year. Although grants were made
during eleven of the sixteen years included in this period,
one hundred of these one hundred and thirty-one
charters were issued in the years 1761 and 1763.

Governor Wentworth became a very large landed pro-
prietor as a result of the granting of these towns. Three
of the one hundred and thirty-one townships chartered
were private grants to army officers in which the Gov-
ernor did not retain a right. In four townships the
Governor's rights amounted to eight hundred acres each
and in two towns to four hundred acres each. The total
amount of Governor Wentworth's grants to himself was
sixty-five thousand acres.

In addition to his personal holdings he dealt liberally
with his family and friends. Theodore Atkinson, his
father-in-law, a member of the Council, and for many
years secretary of the province, received fifty-seven lots,
in as many towns, the policy being to grant in this man-



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 183

ner only one lot in a town. Theodore Atkinson, Jr., re-
ceived sixteen lots. Ranking next to Secretary Atkin-
son in favors received, was Richard Wibird, a member
of the Council, who was given forty-eight lots. Mark
Himking Wentworth, a brother of the Governor, a mem-
ber of the Council, who had the agency for procuring
masts and spars for the British navy, and was largely
concerned in trade and commerce, was granted thirty-
seven lots. Other members of the New Hampshire
Council liberally remembered with land grants were
John Downing, Sampson Sheaffe, Daniel Warner, Wil-
liam Temple, Nathaniel Barrell, Joseph Newmarch,
James Nevin, Samuel Solley, Joseph Blanchard, and
Henry Sherburne, at one time Speaker, whose family
was connected with the Wentworths by marriage.
Other members of the Wentworth family, not already
mentioned, who received from one to twenty lots each,
included Samuel Wentworth of Boston, Major John
Wentworth, John Wentworth, Jr., Hunking Wentworth,
Hugh Hull Wentworth, Samuel Wentworth, Jr., Capt.
John Wentworth of Kittery, Samuel Wentworth of
Portsmouth, George Wentworth, Joshua Wentworth,
Daniel Wentworth, Foster Wentworth, Thomas Went-
worth and Ebenezer Wentworth.

A study of the lists of grantees in the one hundred
and thirty-one townships chartered by Governor Went-
worth reveals the names of many well known persons
and these include Thomas Pownall, royal Governor of
Massachusetts, 1756-1760, and later a member of the
British Parliament.



184 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Francis Bernard, royal Governor of New York, 1758-
1760, and royal Governor of Massachusetts, 1760-1764.

Meshech Weare, Speaker of the New Hampshire
Legislature, Justice and Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of New Hampshire, and President of New Hamp-
shire from 1776 through the Revolutionary War.

John Langdon, delegate to the Continental Congress,
a soldier of the Revolution, Governor of New Hamp-
shire and United States Senator.

John Stark, afterward a famous officer in the Ameri-
can Revolution.

Woodbury Langdon, delegate to the Continental Con-
gress and a Judge.

Dr. Josiah Bartlett, a New Hampshire signer of the
Declaration of Independence and a soldier with Stark
at Bennington.

Sir John Temple, titular Lieutenant Governor of New
Hampshire, and a son-in-law of Governor Bowdoin of
Massachusetts.

Timothy Ruggles, a Brigadier under General Amherst
and counted one of the ablest lawyers in Massachusetts.

Jonathan Edwards, the famous theologian, and Rev.
Eleazer Wheelock, founder of Dartmouth College.

Rev. Edward Holyoke, president of Harvard College,
Rev. Henry Caner, rector of King's Chapel, Boston,
Rev. Nathaniel Appleton, a member of the corporation
of Harvard College for sixty-two years.

Phineas Lyman, the real victor of the battle of Lake
George.

Josiah Willard, commandant at Fort Dummer.



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 185

Robert Rogers, the well known scout and leader of
Rogers' Rangers.

Col. Ebenezer Hinsdale, Col. John Gofife, Capt. Ben-
jamin Sheldon, Capt. Nehemiah Lovewell and Benjamin
Melvin, well known Indian fighters.

The name of Samuel Adams, also appears, but it is
probable that it applies not to the well known Massa-
chusetts patriot but to a New Hampshire physician of
that name. Harrison Gray, a grantee, was Receiver
General of Massachusetts and father-in-law of James
Otis, the famous orator.

Among the grantees who afterward became active in
the New Hampshire Grants, or Vermont, were Samuel
Robinson, Moses Robinson, Jonathan Robinson, Jonas
Fay, Hilkiah Grout, Jonathan Hunt, Thomas Chitten-
den, Noah Chittenden, Jacob Bayley, Timothy Brown-
son, Samuel Safford, and Roger Enos.

The names of several women appear among the
grantees, one of them being Jemima Howe, widow of
Caleb Howe, mortally wounded in the Indian attack on
Fort Bridgman, who, with her seven children, were taken
to Canada.

It appears that Governor Wentworth not only granted
land in what is now Vermont to citizens of New Hamp-
shire and Massachusetts, but, strange as it may seem in
the light of subsequent events, to not a few residents of
New York. Among the grants made to New Yorkers
by Governor Wentworth were a considerable number to
various persons named Burling. The name appears in
a considerable number of Chittenden and Addison
county towns. Among the grantees of Colchester were



186 HISTORY OF VERMONT

ten persons named Burling. This was a well known
name in New York City, and a Burling slip is mentioned
in pre-Revolutionary annals. John and Thomas Bur-
ling were merchants on Cruger's wharf, New York, and
Samuel Burling was a merchant in the same city. Lan-
caster Burling was one of a committee of sixty in New
York to take action in matters growing out of the con-
troversy with Great Britain.

The Bogart family appears frequently in Governor
Wentworth's charters. There were fourteen grantees
of that name in the Essex charter. The name appears
in New York and New Jersey records, Nicholas H.
Bogart being a New York merchant and John Bogart.
Jr., an Alderman of Montgomerie ward. New York City.

Such well known names as Philip Scuyler (Schuyler)
and Cornelius Low appear in these lists. Continuing
an examination of the names of persons to whom town-
ships were granted in the region now known as Vermont,
it appears that Edward Agar was an apothecary of New
York City, Francis Panton of the same city was a barber,
Petrus Byvanck was one of the principal merchants of
New York, Benjamin Hildreth was a merchant of the
same city, as was Dirck Brinckerhofif, who sold hard-
ware and metals at the sign of "the Golden Lock."
Theodorus Van Wyck was a New York Alderman in
1758. The name Van Wyck appears in several of the
Vermont town charters, five of that name being grantees
of Berlin. Among these Wentworth grantees, whose
names appear in lists of New York freemen, are
Nicholas Bogart, Peter Knickerbocker, Daniel Latham,
Joseph Latham, Thomas Alsop and Cornelius DeGroot.



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 187

Other New York names that appear in these charters
are Dyckman, Gouverneur, Lawrence, Lutwyche, Scher-
merhorn, Suydam, Swartwout, Ten Eyck, Underhill,
Vandusen and Van Zandt. The names of several Bur-
lings, Bogarts, and other New York grantees may be
found attached to petitions to the King, protesting
against the land policy of Lieutenant Governor Golden of
that province, and Edward Burling and John Burling
were members of a committee empowered to act in this
matter in November, 1766.

A careful study of the lists of the grantees shows that
in several townships, chiefly in the western part of what
is now the State of Vermont, apparently all the names
are those of New Yorkers, with the exception of a few
of Governor Wentworth's favorites. It is not easy to
demonstrate this beyond the shadow of a doubt, but
there is evidence to show that a large number of these
grantees were residents of New York, while the dis-
tinctive Knickerbocker names, and the family resem-
blance of still others to those of citizens of New York,
make it reasonably certain that whole townships, practi-
cally, in some instances, and at least parts of townships,
in other instances, were granted to New York men.

A study of the Wentworth charters shows that on
a single day, June 7, 1763, the Governor of New Hamp-
shire granted the townships of Colchester, Burlington,
Essex, Williston, Jericho, Bolton, New Huntington,
Duxbury and Waterbury. The territory granted in-
cluded both sides of the Winooski River from its mouth
beyond the point where this stream breaks through the
barrier of the Green Mountains, Richmond being formed



188 HISTORY OF VERMONT

later from parts of other towns. A similarity of names
among the grantees, and the fact that the grants were
made on the same day, leads to the conclusion that this
fertile valley was granted to a group of men in which
New York influences largely predominated. It is
evident^ moreover, that these New Yorkers recognized
the right of a New Hampshire Governor to grant lands
west of the Connecticut River.

In the "Documentary History of New York" may be
found lists of Quakers, published pursuant to an act
regulating the militia of the colony of New York.
These lists included New York City and Dutchess,
Queens and Suffolk counties, and were compiled in 1755
and 1756. In these lists of Quakers may be found a
considerable number of names which appear as grantees
in the Wentworth charters. The names of eighteen of
these Quakers appear in the Monkton charter, sixteen in
the Charlotte charter, twelve in the Ferrisburg charter,
nine in the Colchester charter, eight in the Shelburne
charter, and smaller numbers in other towns. There is
a similarity between other Quaker names, and names
found in these charters.

In the Quaker lists may be found such names as Bur-
ling, Ferris, Lawrence, Franklin, Field, Latham, Doty
and Underbill, which are familiar names in charters of
towns in the New Hampshire Grants. Some of these
Quakers were merchants and shopkeepers in New York
City, while others were farmers and laborers on Long
Island, or in The Oblong and other portions of New
York near the Connecticut border. The same Quaker
names appear as grantees in several towns, and it is in-



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 189

teresting to note that in the early part of Vermont's his-
tory some of these same townships contained substantial
colonies of Quakers.

Governor Wentworth was a thrifty individual, and
the issuing of town charters was attended with profit
to the grantor as well as the grantee. Apparently Gov-
ernor Wentworth's fees were not uniform. In some in-
stances they were one hundred dollars a township, and
in others they amounted to a larger sum, but as a rule
they were materially less than the fees imposed by New
York Governors. Elliott, in his "History of New Eng-
land," says that "Wentworth made grants to his friends
and to those who had money to pay the necessary costs
and fees." According to the Vermont Historical So-
ciety collections. Lieutenant Governor Golden received
for every thousand acres he patented the sum of $31.25.
Other provincial officials received the following sums as
fees: Secretary of the Province, $10; Clerk of the
Council, $10; Receiver General, $14.37; Attorney Gen-
eral, $7.50; Surveyor General, $12.50. This made the
total amount of fees for each thousand acres patented
by New York, $90.25.

This was a period of land speculation, a fact of which
Governor Wentworth, no doubt, was well aware. It is
possible that anticipating opposition from the New York
authorities, he may have taken measures to hasten the
granting of charters, and the securing of charter fees,
by disseminating information concerning this region
now known as Vermont, even in New York itself. This
suggestion, however, is regarded only as a guess, and
no facts have been found to substantiate it.



190 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Following the surrender of the French in Canada, in
1760, there was an active movement toward the lands in
what is now the State of Vermont, hitherto rendered
unsafe as homes for pioneers on account of the peril of
Indian raids, from the north.

The provincial officials of New York were not dis-
posed to permit all the lands between the Connecticut
River and Lake Champlain to be granted by New Hamp-
shire without opposition. The story of that opposition,
however, belongs in subsequent chapters. Elliott, in his
"History of New England," says the authorities of New
York perceived the movement of settlers into the New
Hampshire Grants, and decided to profit by it. Dun-
lap's ''History of New York" says : "There was now a
King's Lieutenant Governor who had succeeded to the
management of afifairs who had as keen a relish for
accumulation as Wentworth. * ^ * Mr. Colden,
when Surveyor General, had found out the value of the
lands between the Hudson or the lake (Champlain) and
the boundary line."

Although New York did not begin the granting of
land between the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain
until Governor Wentworth of New Hampshire had con-
cluded his policy of granting lands in that region, these
grants amounted to more than two millions of acres in
the aggregate, and the last of them were made after the
Revolutionary War actually had commenced.

The New York policy was begun by Lieutenant Gov-
ernor Colden. Cadwallader Colden was a man of
scientific and literary attainments, who had held the office
of Surveyor General of New York and member of the




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^'^fO^tatA^^^^^^f^^ ^^^„^/^ ^^^



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 191

provincial Council. In 1761 he was appointed Lieu-
tenant Governor of the province, which office he held
until 1775, during which period he served four times as
acting Governor.

No New York grants were made in this region until
after the order of the King in Council, issued in 1764,
sustaining the New York contention that that province
extended eastward as far as the Connecticut River so
that it included all of the present State of Vermont.
Lieutenant Governor Colden's first grant in this debat-
able region was made on May 21, 1765, when a tract of
twenty-six thousand acres was chartered as Princetown.
This tract originally was granted to twenty-six persons,
in shares of one thousand acres each, but within a few
weeks all but one of the grantees had conveyed their
holdings to three well known land speculators, James
Duane, a prominent New York lawyer. Attorney Gen-
eral John Taber Xempe and Walter Rutherford, son of
a Scottish nobleman. Princetown was about twelve
miles long, and three and one-half miles wide, was
situated in the Battenkill valley, and included portions
of the towns of Arlington, Sunderland and Manchester,
granted in 1761 by Governor Wentworth.

On October 30, 1765, a tract of ten thousand acres,
lying partly in the town of Arlington, Glastenbury,
Shaftsbury and Sunderland, was granted to James
Lapier. During the year 1765 Lieutenant Governor
Colden granted one hundred and fifty-one military
patents, covering one hundred and thirty-one thousand,
eight hundred acres.



192 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Sir Henry Moore was Governor of New York from
November 13, 1765, until his death, which occurred Sep-
tember 12, 1769. During the years 1766 and 1767 he
confirmed the New Hampshire charters of Flamstead
(Chester), Brattleboro, Hertford (Hartland), Putney,
Townshend and ThomHnson (Grafton), granted a tract
of five thousand acres in Athens, and issued eighteen
miHtary patents containing thirteen thousand, three
hundred and fifty acres, making an aggregate of char-
ters confirmed and patents issued amounting to one hun-
dred and forty-four thousand, six hundred and twenty
acres.

Lieutenant Governor Golden again became acting
Governor upon the death of Sir Henry Moore, and in the
month of November, 1766, he granted four townships,
Warrenton, including parts of Athens and Acton (an-
nexed to Townshend), fourteen thousand acres; Royal-
ton, thirty thousand acres ; Camden, thirty-five thousand
acres, in Jamaica, Wardsboro and Dover, to Robert R.
Livingston, Chief Justice of the province; and Kempton,
sixteen thousand acres in what is now Orange county.

From the beginning of the year 1770 until October 19
of that year, when the Earl of Dunmore became royal
Governor, Lieutenant Governor Golden granted the fol-
lowing townships : Middlesex, thirty-five thousand acres,
in Orange county ; Kent, twenty-six thousand acres, now
Londonderry; in Cumberland, now Whitingham, ten
thousand acres ; Bessborough, thirty-six thousand acres,
in St. Johnsbury and vicinity; Charlotte, twenty-five
thousand acres, in Chelsea and vicinity; Readsborough,
twenty-nine thousand acres, now Readsboro and Sears-



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS 193

burg; Mooretown, twenty-five thousand acres, now
Bradford; Gageborough, twenty-four thousand acres,
now Vershire and vicinity; Kelso, twenty-one thousand
acres, in Tinmouth and vicinity; Newbrook, twenty-
three thousand acres, in Waterbury and vicinity ; Kings-
borough, thirty-five thousand acres, now Montpeher and
vicinity; Hulton, twelve thousand acres, now Shrews-
bury; Leyden, twenty-four thousand acres, now North-
field and vicinity ; Dunmore, thirty-nine thousand acres,
in Waterford and vicinity; Virgin Hall, twenty-six
thousand acres, in Andover and Weston; Hillsborough,
thirty-six thousand acres, in Danville and vicinity ; Kers-
borough, twenty thousand acres, in Orange county. In-
dividual grants were made of three thousand acres in
Orwell, ten thousand acres in or near Wardsboro, and
five thousand acres in Benson, in addition to twenty-
six military patents, comprising forty-three thousand,
seven hundred acres, making a total of six hundred and
three thousand, two hundred acres granted by Golden
during a little more than one year.

The towns granted by Governor Dunmore included
Socialborough, forty-eight thousand acres, in Rutland
and Pittsford; Monckton, twenty-three thousand acres,
in Whiting; Fincastle, eighteen thousand acres, in
Stockbridge; Halesborough, twenty-three thousand
acres, in Brandon; Deerfield, thirty-five thousand acres,
a portion of Burlington, Essex and Williston; Morris-
field, twenty-one thousand, nine hundred and forty
acres, in Cornwall and Middlebury ; Newry, thirty-seven
thousand acres in Sherburne and vicinity; Mecklen-
burgh, thirty thousand acres, in Ferrisburg and vicinity;



194 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Richmond, twenty- four thousand acres, in Wells and
vicinity; Kilby, thirty thousand acres, in Middlesex and
vicinity ; Leicester, thirty-five thousand acres, in Somer-
set and Woodford; Pratsburgh, thirty thousand acres, in
Highgate and S wanton. Governor Dunmore made in-
dividual grants of twelve thousand acres, in Poultney;
one thousand, eight hundred acres in Shaftsbury; three
thousand, two hundred and ten acres (in two parcels),
in Addison and Middlebury ; four thousand acres, chiefly
in Arlington; ten thousand acres in Addison; seven
thousand acres, in Panton and New Haven; ten thou-
sand acres, in Panton ; two thousand acres, in Highgate ;
fifty-one thousand acres, in Leicester, Salisbury and
Middlebury, said to be in reality a grant to Governor



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