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Born in Richmond, Vt., February i, 1828. He studied
law, opened an office at Burlington and became one of the
leading lawyers of the State. He served in both branches
of the Legislature, being elected Speaker in 1857, 1858 and
1859. He was one of the counsel for the United States in
the controversy with Canada growing out of the St. Albans
Raid. In 1866 he was appointed United States Senator
to succeed Solomon Foot, deceased. Seldom has any man
achieved a prominent position in the Senate as rapidh^ as
Senator Edmunds, where he soon won a position as a powerful
debater and a great constitutional lawyer. For many \ears
he was chairman of the Judiciary Committee and was long
considered the Republican leader of the Senate. He was
President Pro Tern of the Senate during the latter part of
the Arthur administration. He was the moving spirit that
devised the Electoral Commission to settle the Hayes-Tilden
Presidential contest and a member of that body. With
Senator Logan he drafted the bill providing for the resump-
tion of specie payments and wrote the important sections of
the so-called Sherman anti-trust law. His name was pre-
sented to the Republican National Conventions of 1880
and 1884 as a candidate for the Presidential nomination.
He resigned from the Senate in 1891 and died February
27, 1919, aged ninety-one years.


The Green Mountain State


Walter Hill Crockett

author of

Vermont— Its Resources and Opportunities

History of Lake Champlain

George Franklin Edmunds

Volume Four

The Century History Company, Inc.
New York


Copyright 1921
BY The Century History Company


Publication Office

8 West 47th Street, New York

U. S. A.

To THE Memory of
George Grenville Benedict


Horace Ward Bailey

Who encouraged and aided the author

in his study of Vermont history,

these volumes are dedicated.



Conditions Following the Civil War.

Death of Senators Collamer and Foot.

Their Services to the Nation.

George F. Edmunds and Justin S. Morrill Enter the Senate.

Rapid Rise of Mr. Edmunds to Prominence Almost Unprecedented.

Mr. Morrill's High Standard as a Financier.

Fenian Raids on the Canadian Border.

Death of Governor Washburn.

The Council of Censors Abolished and Biennial Elections Estab-
lished by a Constitutional Convention.

The Census of 1870.

The National Campaign of 1872.

President Grant Visits Vermont.

Eminent Services of Luke P. Poland in Congress.

Representation at the Centennial Exhibition.

Eligibility of a Vermont Presidential Elector Questioned in 1876.

Important Part Played by Senator Edmunds in the Settlement of
the Hayes-Tilden Presidential Controversy.

President Hayes Attends Vermont Centennial at Bennington.

The Census of 1880.

Chester A. Arthur, a Native Vermonter, Becomes President of the
United States.

The Militia Called Out to Suppress Riots at Ely Copper Mines.

George F. Edmunds a Candidate for President in the Republican
National Conventions of 1880 and 1884.

Edward J. Phelps Appointed Minister to Great Britain and Con-
sidered for Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court

President Cleveland Visits Vermont.

The Campaign of 1888 and Vermont's Part in Harrison's Nomi-

Levi P. Morton, a Native of Vermont, Chosen Vice President of
the United States.

Redfield Proctor Appointed Secretary of War.

The Census of 1890.



Centennial of Vermont's Admission to the Union and Dedication of

Bennington Battle Monument.
President Harrison's Tour Through Vermont.
Resignation of Senator Edmunds and Appointment of Redfield

Proctor as His Successor.
Public Ser\ices of Henry C. Ide.


Vermont at the Chicago Exposition,

The Political Campaign of 1898.

Vermont Elects McKinley Delegates.

Vermont Republicans Visit Governor McKinley at His Home.

Senator Morrill Elected for Sixth Consecutive Term.

President McKinley Visits Vermont.

Senator Proctor's Speech on Cuban Conditions.

Legislature Called in Extra Session to Prepare for War with Spain.

Vermont Raises a Regiment.

Commodore Dewey Selected to Command Asiatic Squadron.

His Notable Victory at Manila.

Captain Clark Takes the Oregon Around Cape Horn.

Vermont Soldiers Leave for the South.

Three Months in Camp at Chickamauga.

End of the War.



Death of Senator Morrill.

Tributes to a Great Statesman.

Chief Judge Ross Appointed Senator, Makes Important Contribu-
tion to Discussion of Status of New Possessions.

Captain Clark and Admiral Dewey Welcomed to Their Native

Centennial of Middlebury College and University of Vermont.

Census of 1900.

Old Home Week Celebrations.

Vice President Roosevelt at Isle La Motte When News Is Received
of Assassination of President McKinley.

Charles H. Darling Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

As Acting Secretary He Sends Peary to the North Pole and War-
ships to the Isthmus on Occasion of Revolution in Panama.

Tour of President Roosevelt through Vermont.

P. W. Clement an Independent Candidate for Governor in 1902.

License Local Option Law Adopted by a Referendum Vote.

Centennial of Location of State Capital at Montpelier.

The Proctor-Clement Campaign of 1906.

Administration of Gov. Fletcher D. Proctor.

Celebration of the Tercentenary of the Discovery of Lake Cham-

President Taft and Many Distinguished Guests Visit Vermont.

The Census of 1910.

Death of Congressman Foster.

Rise of the Progressive Party and the Campaign of 1912.

President Taft's Tour through the State.

The State Constitution Amended.




Macdonough Memorial Celebration at Vergennes.

Senator Dillingham Reelected Over Charles A. Prouty, Coalition

Prohibition Defeated in a Referendum Vote and Primary Law
Approved by the Same Method.

Vermont's Part in the Mexican Border Episode.

Republicans of the State Support Charles E. Hughes for President.

Death of Admiral Dewey.

Vermont Prepares to Enter the World War and Appropriates One
Million Dollars.

National Guard Called into Federal Service.

Patriotic Demonstrations as Soldiers Leave Their Homes.

Committee of Safety and Other Organizations Formed.

Record of the One Hundred and First Ammunition Train.

Tributes to Vermont Soldiers.

Admiral Mayo, Senior Naval Officer.

End of the War and the Home Coming.

Casualty Record.

Awards for Distinguished Service.

Vermont in the Navy.

Sum of One Million Dollars Voted as State Pay to Drafted Men.

Centennial of Norwich University.

Gov. Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, a Native of Vermont, Nomi-
nated for Vice President.

Constitutional Amendments Proposed.

The Census of 1920.

Vermont and Woman Suffrage.


George P. Edmunds Frontispiece

Luke P. Poland Facing page 15

Frederick Holbrook " "

Gen. William Wells

Old Bridge at Bennington " "

Redfield Proctor

Frederick Billings " "

Chester A. Arthur

John W. Stewart

Samuel E. Pingree

Ebenezer J. Ormsbee

William P. Dillingham

Levi P. Morton " "

Carroll S. Page " "

Levi K. Fuller "

Urban A. Woodbury " "

Vermont Republicans at the Home of William McKinley

Josiah Grout

Admiral George Dewey " "

Admiral Dewey's Birthplace at Montpelier

Rear-Admiral Charles E. Clark

Gen. S. P. Jocelyn, U. S. A

Gen. Crosby P. Miller, U. S. A

Edward C. Smith

William W. Stickney

John G. McCullough

Henry C. Ide " "

Fletcher D. Proctor " "

Charles H. Darling " "

Gen. Jacob Bayley Monument " "

George H. Prouty

John A. Mead " "

Frank Plumley " "

Allen M. Fletcher " "

Admiral Henry T. Mayo " "

Percival W. Clement

James Hartness

Calvin Coolidge

George Harvey

Chapter XXXV

WHEN peace came in the spring of 1865, the Ver-
mont soldiers having been honorably dis-
charged, returned to the farms, the offices, the
stores and the shops, and the normal life of the common-
wealth was resumed. Some of the men who had worn
the national uniform sought their fortunes in the cities
or in the newer States of the West, finding the routine
of daily life at home too dull after the excitement of
camp and field; but Vermonters always have been a
migratory people. The responsible tasks that had been
borne by Vermont officers had fitted many of them for
important tasks at home in business and the professions,
and they soon assumed positions of leadership in indus-
trial and political afifairs.

The people of this State were prepared to cooperate
heartily with President Johnson. As early as April 22,
1865, one hundred Vermonters called at the White
House to pay their respects. A speech was made by
S. B. Colby of Montpelier, who had been appointed
Register of the Treasury early in the year, to which the
President responded briefly. Senator Collamer was
summoned to Washington by the new President for con-
sultation concerning public afifairs. The gratitude felt
by the returning soldiers toward those who had minis-
tered to them, and to their comrades who did not return,
was shown by the gift of a service of silver plate to
Mrs. Portus Baxter, wife of a Vermont Congressman,
as a testimonial of appreciation for her services in be-
half of sick and wounded men. Admiral Farragut,
Secretary Fessenden and other distinguished persons
were present when the gift was made. The officers and


soldiers of the First Vermont Brigade presented Mrs.
Baxter with a diamond brooch.

During the summer of 1865 General Grant had occa-
sion to pass through northeastern Vermont and was
greeted with enthusiasm at Island Pond.

On January 18, 1865, Burlington voted to accept a
city charter, and thus became Vermont's second city,
seventy-seven years after Vergennes w^as incorporated
and seventy-one years after its city machinery began to
be operated.

The Union, or Republican, State Convention, in 1865
unanimously nominated Lieut. Gov. Paul Dillingham
of Waterbury for Governor, and Speaker A. B. Gard-
ner of Bennington was given the second place on the
ticket. The resolutions adopted gloried in the victory
won for the constitutional authority of the Nation, ten-
dered the thanks of a grateful people to the soldiers who
had won the victory, deplored the death of President
Lincoln and expressed confidence in "the patriotism, in-
tegrity and firm fidelity of Andrew Johnson." The
Democratic State Convention nominated C. N. Daven-
port of Wilmington for Governor and D. C. Linsley of
Burlington for Lieutenant Governor. The platform
declared that, "believing with the immortal Douglas that
the government of this country was organized for and
should be controlled by the white race therein, and that
the good of all will best be promoted by confining the
right of sufifrage to the white citizens thereof, we are
unalterably opposed to conferring the right of sufifrage
upon the ignorant Negroes of the country."


Dillingham was elected by a majority of 18,726, the
official vote being as follows: Dillingham, 27,586;
Davenport, 8,857; scattering, 13. John W. Stewart of
Middlebury was elected Speaker.

In his inaugural message Governor Dillingham de-
clared that the agricultural and industrial affairs of the
State never had been in a more healthy condition. The
funded liabilities of the State, September 5, 1865, were
$1,650,000. Referring to educational matters he called
attention to the fact that the teaching in the public
schools gradually was passing from men to women. He
recommended the establishment of an institution for the
care and training of juvenile offenders.

After referring to the State's contribution to the
Union cause he said: ''This is a bright and glorious
record for Vermont. And such soldiers, too! bravest
among the brave ; none better ever adorned the history of
any State or Nation. We owe to these noble men, living
or dead, an imperishable debt of gratitude, love and

The Legislature of 1865 passed an act establishing
the Vermont Reform School, and authorized any town
or city to establish and maintain a public library. Re-
ferring to the coming of peace it was resolved, "That
as a people and as a Nation we have abundant cause to
render thanks to the Supreme Ruler of events for the
successful termination of the late rebellion, by which
the majesty and sovereignty of popular governments
have been vindicated and established, and the cause of
freedom and right has been made to triumph over
wickedness and oppression, in spite of armed traitors in


the field and the insiduous arts and counsels of their
friends at home."

Resolutions were adopted deploring the death of Presi-
dent Lincoln and declaring that "We will ever cherish
the name of Abraham Lincoln as that of a wise and good
man and commend the teachings of his life and admin-
istration as an example worthy to be followed by his
successors. That the attitude of Vermont at the first
^^•as cordial toward the new President is indicated by
the following declaration : "Resolved, That in Andrew
Johnson, the present Chief Magistrate of the United
States, we recognize a noble example of loyalty and devo-
tion to his country, in his opposition to traitors during
the Rebellion, and in the sacrifices which he made in
sustaining the Constitution and laws; and we hereby
pledge ourselves to maintain and support him in all his
efiforts to restore and reestablish the Government upon
the corner-stone of freedom and equality, in accordance
with the letter and spirit of the Declaration of Independ-
ence." Generals Stannard and L. A. Grant and the
officers and men under their respective commands were
commended for their skill and bravery.

Senator Collamer made a notable speech in the Senate,
February 4, 1865, on a resolution reported by the
hidiciary Committee, declaring that the seceding States
were not entitled to vote for President and Vice Presi-
dent, and that no electoral votes from such States should
be counted. This resolution involved the general policy
of reconstruction and Senator Reverdy Johnson of
Maryland, a brilliant lawyer, opposed it. Judge Colla-
mer's argument was snmiiiarizcfl in ibis stntemcnl :


"According to my view, when a state of war has been
declared to exist — declared according to law — we cannot
recognize a state of peace and reconciliation in any other
way but declaring it by law, or authorizing the Presi-
dent to declare it by law."

On November 9, 1865, Senator Collamer died at his
home in Woodstock, after an illness of several days.
He lacked two months of reaching his seventy-fifth
birthday. He was often called the Nestor of the Ameri-
can Senate and was considered one of the ablest men in
public life. He was said to be the acknowledged leader
of the Senate after the death of Stephen A. Douglas.
It is related that Jefiferson Davis declared that he would
have been willing before the outbreak of the Civil War
to submit the differences between the North and South
to Senator Collamer for decision, so great was his con-
fidence in the honesty and sagacity of the Vermont
statesman. When Chief Justice Taney died the name of
Senator Collamer was suggested as a suitable man for
presiding officer of the United States Supreme Court,
but his advanced age made his appointment impracti-
cable. The Providence Journal, of which Senator
Henry B. Anthony was editor, said of Senator Colla-
mer: "We think that if his colleagues had been called
upon to designate the wisest of the body, the general
sufifrage would have fallen upon him."

When Congress convened in December, suitable reso-
lutions were adopted concerning Senator Collamer's
death. Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts said
of him: "Since Henry Clay left this chamber by the
gate of death no Senator has passed that way crowned


with the same honorable years as Mr, Collamer ; nor has
any Senator passed that way whose departure created
such a blank in the public councils unless we except Mr.
Douglas. He was our most venerable associate, but his
place here had not shrunk with time." Born in the year
in which Vermont was admitted to the Union, he had
lived to see the end of the Civil War and the beginning
of the Reconstruction period. As lawyer, jurist, Con-
gressman, Cabinet member and Senator, he had achieved
success. Because he was accounted worthy of a place
among Vermont's immortals, his marble effigy was
placed with that of Ethan Allen in Statuary Hall in the
Capital at Washington.

In his "Twenty Years of Congress," James G. Blaine
speaks of Senator Fessenden of Maine and Judge Colla-
mer, who were intimate associates, as "the really able
lawyers of the Senate," and he quotes the Vermont Sen-
ator frequently in his historical work. In his admirable
description of the leaders of the Senate, he said:
"Jacob Collamer of Vermont was a Senator of eminent
worth and ability. * * * He had entered the Senate
at a ripe age, and with every qualification for dis-
tinguished service. To describe him in a single word,
he was a wise man. Conservative in his nature, he was
sure to advise against rashness. Sturdy in his princi-
ples, he always counselled firmness. In the periods of
excitement through which the party was about to pass,
his judgment was sure to prove of highest value — in-
fluenced as it always was by patriotism and guided by
conscience. Without power as an orator, he was listened
to in the Senate with j)ro found allention. as one who


never offered counsel that was not needed. He carried
into the Senate the gravity, the dignity, the weight of
character, which enabled him to control more ardent
natures, and he brought to a later generation the wisdom
and experience acquired in a long life devoted to service
of his State and of his Country."

Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia said of Mr.
Collamer's first speech in Congress, made upon a point
of constitutional law, when he had been in the House
only about two months: "This speech of Judge Colla-
mer, not over thirty minutes in length, was so pointed,
clear, logical, and conclusive, that it put him at once in
the front rank of debaters, lawyers and jurists of the

It is related that on one stormy Sunday morning dur-
ing the Civil War, after the army had suffered serious
reverses, a man called at Senator Collamer's home while
the latter was at church, and left a card on which was
written: "If not at church please call on me at once,
and if at church please call as soon as convenient.

"A. Lincoln.''
As soon as he returned he proceeded to the White
House where he remained twelve hours, in consultation
with the President.

The Vermont Legislature closed its session at eight
o'clock on the morning of November 10. Within an
hour after adjournment news was received of Senator
Collamer's death, which had occurred during the pre-
ceeding night. As the Senator actually died before the
Legislature adjourned, and the Governor's power to
appoint a successor was limited to that period when the
General Assembly was not in session, the proper method


of filling the vacancy was in doubt. Governor Dilling-
ham therefore submitted the disputed point of law to the
Supreme Court Judges, who rendered an opinion which
declared that a vacancy existed which the Governor
might legally fill.

Armed with this authority, Governor Dillingham
appointed Luke P. Poland of St. Johnsbury, Chief Judge
of the Supreme Court, to succeed Senator CoUamer.
Luke Potter Poland was born at Westford, November
1, 1815. He attended the common schools and Jericho
Academy, removed to Waterville, studied law in the office
of Samuel A. Willard of Morrisville and became a prac-
ticing lawyer in December, 1835, being the first attorney
admitted to the bar of Lamoille County Court. He prac-
ticed his profession in Morrisville with success, taking
high rank as a lawyer. He served as Register of Pro-
bate in Lamoille county, 1839-40, member of the Con-
stitutional Convention of 1843, and State's Attorney,
1844-46. In 1848 he was elected to the Supreme Court
bench and was made Chief Justice in 1860. He pre-
sided over the court until he was appointed Senator.
He served in the Senate from November 21, 1865, to
March 3, 1867, and in the House of Representatives from
March 4, 1867 to March 3, 1875. He was elected a
member of Congress in 1882, serving one term, lie was
a member of the Vermont House of Representatives
from St. Johnsbury in 1878 and from Waterville in 1886.
He was a trustee of the University of Vermont and for
twenty years was president of the First National Bank
of St. Johnsbury. He began his public career as a
Democrat with anti-slavery leanings, but left that party


in 1858 to become a Republican. He was one of Ver-
mont's ablest lawyers, a man of great dignity and well
equipped for public life. He was accustomed to wear a
buff waistcoat and a blue coat with brass buttons, after
the manner of an earlier period. He was a resident of
St. Johnsbury for many years, returning late in life to
the home of his youth in Water ville, where he died July
2, 1887.

When Judge Poland entered the Senate he was
assigned to the Judiciary Committee. Congressman
Woodbridge was a member of the Judiciary Committee
of the House, and Mr. Morrill became chairman of the
powerful Ways and Means Committee, Thaddeus
Stevens having retired to become chairman of the Recon-
struction Committee. There were seventeen native Ver-
monters in the Thirty-ninth Congress, seven of whom
were born in Addison county and six of this number came
from adjoining towns.

Less than five months after the death of Jacob Colla-
mer, his colleague, Senator Solomon Foot, was stricken
with a fatal illness and died at Washington, March 28,
1866. In making the arrangements for the memorial
exercises held in honor of President Lincoln, and in re-
ceiving Hon. George Bancroft, the orator of the occa-
sion, he had been compelled to expose himself to in-
clement weather. As a result he contracted the illness
which proved fatal. For several years Senator Foot, as
chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings, had
supervised the completion of the dome of the Capitol
and the extension of the wings of the building. As he
lay dying he asked to be raised to a sitting posture that


he might look once more upon the noble outline of the
Capitol. President Johnson directed that the Govern-
ment departments should be closed as a mark of respect,
and floral tributes were sent from the White House.
Senator Sumner announced the death of Senator Foot
to the Senate. The funeral was held in the Senate
Chamber, and was attended by the President and his
Cabinet, Senators and Congressmen, General Grant and
other military and naval officers. The funeral arrange-
ments were supervised by Arthur P. Gorman, Postmaster
of the Senate and afterward a prominent Senator. The
body was taken to Rutland, Vt., accompanied by a Con-
gressional Committee, where funeral services were held,
which were attended by Governor Dillingham and many
distinguished Vermonters.

Senator Foot was a man of majestic presence. His
voice was deep and sonorous and he was both an impres-
sive public speaker, and an ideal presiding officer. He
was said to be the most popular member of the Senate.
In his eulogy, Senator Sumner said of Mr. Foot: "He
carried into the chair the most marked individuality that
has been seen there during this generation. He was
unlike any other presiding officer. None but himself
could be his parallel. His presence was felt instantly.
It filled this chamber from floor to gallery. It attached
itself to everything that was done. Vigor and dispatch
prevailed. Questions were so stated as to challenge
attention. Impartial justice was manifest at once.
Business in every form was handled with equal ease.
Order was enforced with no timorous authority."
Alluding to the diligence and afl"ection with which Sen-


ator Foot watched the completion of the Capitol, even
during the strife of war, Mr. Sumner said: "His care
secured those appropriations by which the work was
carried to its close, and the Statue of Liberty was in-

Online LibraryWalter Hill CrockettVermont, the Green mountain state (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 43)