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Montpelier, Olin Merrill of Enosburg Falls and F. H.
Farrington of Brandon. A commission named to inves-
tigate the corporation laws consisted of Clarke C. Fitts
of Brattleboro, J. T. Gleason of Lyndon and Charles D.
Watson of St. Albans. A bronze medallion tablet, in



CHARLES H. DARLING

Born in Woodstock, May 9, 1859, and graduated from
Tufts College in 1884. He was admitted to the bar and
opened a law office in Benninpton. He was appointed
Municipal Judpc and was a member of the Legislature.
President Roosevelt appointed him Assistant Secretary of
the \avy and during the four years that he held the position
he was Acting Secretary more than half the time. He sent
Commander Robert F.. Peary on one of his trips in search
of the North Pole and was in charge of the Navy Department
at the outbreak of the Panama Revolution. He resigned to
become Collector of Customs in the district of \'ermont, an
office which he held for two terms. He is now (1921) one
of the prominent lawyers of \'ermont and resides in Bur-
lington.



BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 421



honor of Gen. George J. Stannard, and a bronze medal-
lion portrait of Gen. William Wells, the work of Miss
Mary Stickney of Rutland, had been placed on the walls
of the State House.

In his inaugural address, Governor Mead alluded to
the possibility of greater agricultural production and to
the need of more agricultural education. The sheep in-
dustry, he said, was injured by the large number of
worthless dogs running at large. He did not favor
bonding the State for trunk line highways. He advo-
cated the establishment of teacher training courses in the
principal high schools and academies and favored a cen-
tral Normal School.

The Legislature of 1910 reapportioned State Senators
to the counties as follows: Addison, two; Bennington,
two; Caledonia, two; Chittenden, four; Essex, one;
Franklin, two; Grand Isle, one; Lamoille, one; Orange,
one; Orleans, two; Rutland, four; Washington, three;
Windham, two; Windsor, three. A Legislative Refer-
ence Bureau was established as a department of the
State Library, which should furnish information, partic-
ularly to members of the Legislature. The sum of five
thousand dollars was appropriated to establish and main-
tain in the office of the Secretary of State a bureau of
information, which should aid in the promotion of the
natural resources of the State.

Additional power was given to the Commissioner of
Taxes. Teacher training courses were provided for a
selected list of high schools and academies, and a State
School of Agriculture was established at Randolph
Center, the Normal School being discontinued. Towns



422 HISTORY OF VERMONT

were given permission to pension teachers who had
taught for thirty years. There was additional child
labor legislation. Towns and cities were given authority
to provide for medical inspection in the schools. An act
was passed providing for the registration of nurses. A
resolution was adopted, expressing opposition to a pro-
posed reduction of the oleomargarine tax. Resolutions
were adopted expressing sorrow at the death of Larkin
G. Mead, a well known sculptor, at Florence, Italy,
October 15, 1910; providing for a tablet to the memory
of the private soldier, bearing a medallion portrait of
Governor Mead, which should be placed in the State
House; expressing thanks for a portrait of Capt. Horace
B. Sawyer, U. S. A. ; expressing thanks for the gift by
Joseph Battell of a tract of land, including Camel's
Hump mountain, "to be used as a public park forever,"
and for a similar forest gift by M. J. Hapgood of Peru.

A direct primary bill passed the House by a vote of
107 to 65. Senator Page was reelected, receiving every
vote in the Senate, and every vote but two in the House,
one being cast for Charles A. Prouty of Newport, and
one for David J. Foster of Burlington. The Democratic
members nominated no candidate but voted for Senator
Page.

The census returns for 1910 showed a population of
355,956 for Vermont, a gain during the preceding census
period of 12,315, or 3.6 per cent. Of this number, 182,568
were males and 173,388 were females. The Negro pop-
ulation numbered 1,621. The native white population
of native parentage represented 64.4 per cent of the total
number; the native white of foreign mixed parentage.



BEGINNING OF A NKW CENTURY 42;i

21.1 per cent; the foreign born white, 14 per cent; and
the Negro, 0.5 per cent. More than half the foreign
born population, 52.3 per cent, were of Canadian-French
origin.

The population by counties was as follows:

Addison 20,010

Bennington 21 ,378

Caledonia 26,031

Chittenden 42,447

Essex 7,384

Franklin 29,866

Grand Isle 3,761

Lamoille 12,585

Orange 18,703

Orleans 23,337

Rutland 48,139

Washington 41,702

Windham 26,932

Windsor 33,681

Eight counties, Caledonia, Chittenden, Lamoille,
Orleans, Rutland, Washington, Windham and Windsor,
showed gains. Six counties, Addison, Bennington.
Essex, Franklin, Grand Isle and Orange, showed losses.
The largest gains \vere made in Washington, Rutland
and Chittenden counties.

The population of the largest towns and cities in the
State are given herewith: Burlington, 20,468; Rut-
land, 13,546; Barre, 10,734; Bennington, 8,698; St.
Johnsbury, 8,098; Montpelier, 7,856; Brattleboro, 7,541 ;
bolchester, 6,450; St. Albans City, 6,381; Rockingham.



424 HISTORY OF VERMONT

6,207; Springfield, 4,784; Barre town, 4,194; Hart-
ford, 4,179; Newport, 3,684; Poultney, 3,644; Derby,
3,639; Swanton, 3,628; West Rutland, 3,427; Bar-
ton, 3,346; Waterbury, 3,273; Northfield, 3,226; Lyn-
don, 3,204; Hardwick, 3,201 ; Randolph, 3,191 ; Richford,
2,907; Proctor, 2,871; Middlebury, 2,848; Essex, 2,714;
Morristown, 2,652; Woodstock, 2,545.

The agricultural statistics showed that there were
32,709 farms in Vermont, the average area being 142.6
acres. The total value of farm property was $145,394,-
728, being subdivided as follows: Land, $58,385,327;
buildings, $54,202,948; domestic animals, poultry and
bees, $22,642,766; implements and machinery, $10,168,-
687. The average value of all property per farm was
$4,445 and the average value of land per acre was $12.52.
The total acreage was 4,653,000 and the improved
acreage, 1,633,000. The value of all crops was
$27,446,836.

There were in Vermont 436,140 cattle of all kinds,
265,483 dairy cows and 27,612 other cows. Vermont
led New England in number of dairy cows. There were
99,587 horses, 118,752 sheep, 98,483 swine and 1,282,524
fowls. The value of dairy products was $12,128,465.
The production of the various dairy articles was as fol-
lows: Milk, 114,317,169 gallons; butter, 35,393,187
lbs. (on farms, 15,165,692 lbs.; in factories, 20,227,495
lbs.); cheese, 3,008,540 lbs. Vermont ranked first in
New England in the production of milk, butter and
cheese. Among all the States of the Union Vermont
ranked ninth in production of cheese, seventeenth in
milk and in butter, and twenty-sixth in number of dairy



BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 425

cows. This State produced 625,722 pounds of wool;
7,037,082 dozens of eggs; 409,953 gallons of maple
syrup; 7,726,877 pounds of maple sugar; and 160,283
pounds of honey. Vermont ranked first in the United
States in the production of maple sugar, third in the
amount of maple syrup made, and first in New England
in its production of honey.

The acreage of staple crops harvested in 1909 was as
follows: Corn, 42,887; oats, 71,510; wheat, 678; bar-
ley, 10,586; buckwheat, 7,659; rye, 1,115; potatoes,
26,859; beans, 2,390; hay and forage, 1,030,618. The
amount of staple crops produced is given herewith:
Corn, 1,715,133 bu.; wheat, 14,087 bu.; oats, 2,141,357
bu. ; barley, 285,008 bu. ; rye, 59,183 bu. ; buckwheat,
174,394 bu.; beans, 26,359 bu.; potatoes, 4,145,630 bu. ;
hay, 1,502,730 tons; tobacco, 164,680 lbs.

The value of small fruits was $92,030. There were
1,183,529 apple trees, bearing 1,459,689 bu., valued at
$752,337. Forest products on farms were valued
at $3,638,537.

Addison county led in value of all farm property.
•Franklin county reported the largest number of dairy
cows, and Windsor county led in value of all crops.
Addison county ranked first in the production of oats,
wheat and barley; Bennington in buckwheat and rye;
Windsor in corn; Franklin in hay; and Rutland in
potatoes.

The industrial statistics showed that there were 1,958
manufacturing industries in the State in 1909, and
33,788 wage earners. The capital invested was
$73,470,000. The total horse power used was 159,445.



426 HISTORY OF VERMONT

The three principal manufacturing cities reported as
follows :

Barre — Establishments, 139; wage earners, 2,340
value of products, $3,852,000.

Burlington — Establishments, 82; wage earners, 2,371
value of products, $6,800,000.

Rutland — Establishments, 63; wage earners, 1,636
value of products, $2,680,000.

Vermont reported 182 mines and quarries, ranking
tenth among the States of the Union. This State re-
ported twenty-two marble quarries, sixty-seven granite
quarries, seventy-one slate quarries, and ten talc mines
and soapstone quarries. There were 3,573 persons en-
gaged in the marble industry; 2,204 in granite; 2,775 in
slate; 164 in talc and soapstone; 41 in clay; and 104 in
all other quarrying and mining operations.

There were in 1909, 51,404 producing spindles in Ver-
mont woolen and worsted mills, compared with 37,460 in
1889.

Statistics for the principal manufacturing industries
of the State for 1909 are given herewith:

No. Estab- Aver. No. Value of

lishmenfs wage earners Products

Marble and stone work 342 10,411 $12,395,000

Lumber and timber products. . 593 4,790 8,598,000

Butter, cheese and condensed

milk 186 519 8,112.000

Woolen, worsted and felt

goods and wool hats 17 2,294 4,497.000

Flour mill and gristmill prod-
ucts 133 156 4.133.000

Paper and wood pulp 25 1,030 3,902,000



BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 427

Foundry and machine shop

products 56

Hosiery and knit goods 8

Furniture and refrigerators. . 19
Patent medicines, compounds

and druggists' preparations 15
Clothing, men's, including

shirts 11

Cars, shop construction, re-
pairs, steam railroads 7

Printing and publishing 115

Bread and baking products. . . 75
Cooperage and wooden goods

not elsewhere specified .... 25

Agricultural implements 11

Clothing, women's 6

Copper, tin and sheet iron

products 19

Confectionery 10

Canning and preserving 8

Gas, lighting and heating. . . 9

Lime 11

Carriages and wagons and

materials 38

Tobacco manufactures 25

Brick and tile 7

Leather goods 3

All other industries* 184

In 1911, twenty-eight towns and cities voted to license
the sale of liquor.

Early in July, 1911, Hartford produced a pageant
representing Colonial events, and a tablet was unveiled
on the spot where Revolutionary soldiers were drilled

♦Includes scales, cotton goods, window shades, shoddy, ammunition,
toys and games.



1,860

946

1,119


3,755,000
1,746.000
1,618,000


161


1,290.000


1,281


1,274,000


992
666

242


1,135,000

1,039,000

997,000


635
360
333


693.000
582,000
503,000


149

145
118

70
185


425,000
356,000
330,000
278,000
250,000


94
58
70
14
5.090


158,000

118,000

65,000

26,000

10,038,000



428



HISTORY OF VERMONT




Gen. Jacob Bayley's Holdings in "Great Ox Bow" at Newbury
(From Chase's History of Dartmouth College and Hanover, N. H.)



INSCRIPTIONS ON • THE GENERAL JACOB BAYLEY MONUMENT

LOCATED ON THE COMMON AT NEWBURY

VILLAGE, VERMONT.



{Front — East Side)

GENERAL

JACOB BAYLEY

1726-18 IS



A Pioneer
Of Strong Unselfish Purposk

A Patriot

Of Uncompromising Fidelity

A Soldier

Unstained by Personal Ambition

A Citizen

Ever Devoted to the Public Gooo



{South Side)

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

Lieutenant i7S5. Captain 1757
Colonel 1760

Siege of Fort William Henry

Battles of

Ticonderoga and Crown Point

Capture of Montreal

REVOLUTIONARY WAR

Brigadier General 1776

Commissary General of Northern

Department of Colonial Army 1777

Battle of Saratoga

"I AM Determined to Fight for
The United States as Long as I Live
And Have One Copper in My Hands."



PATRIOT



SOLDIER



{West Side)

A Leading Citizen of Hampstead

New Hampshire, 1746- 1764

Founder of this Town 1762

Secured its First Charter from

New Hampshire 1763, its Second

FROM New York 1772

Founder of First Church. 1764

And one of its Two First Deacons

Delegate to New York

Provincial Congress 1777

Representative to Vermont

General Assembly 1777 and 1784

Member of Council of Safety 1777

OF Court of Confiscation 1777

of Constitutional Conventions

1777 AND 1793

Judge of Court of Common Pleas

1772-1777

Delegate to Continental Congress

1777

Judge of Probate Court 1778

Chief Judge of Supreme Court

OF Gloucester County 1778
Chief Judge of Orange County

Court 1783, 1786-1791

Member of Governor's Council

Ten Terms 1778, 1786-1794



{North Side)



"I Have Nothing Left but My
Farm, All Else I Have Advanced
For the Public and I Think it Well
Spent if I Have Done Any Good."

To Perpetuate

The Memory of His Distinguished

And Self-Sacrificing Services

For His Town

His State and His Country

This Monument is Erected

In the Year 1912

By Some of His Descendants.



CITIZEN



PIONEER



MY AH aODAJ



;!0T Tuyi'il '
aviJ I a/ >^n
".aoKAH .



■I !''J1'JI - '1 '',' i'l } ,



■■'.-/.o) ;


■.- .1 .


Asjq


XOI'


aaovioO j










1C


1 aoauT.


, •'(■


'T K-lIIl'l


AO


aasK;t!'


•■t ■; ''


■ raT




OENERAl-. BAYLiEir XT O M t JIXCE INT T



BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 429

during the War for Independence, erected by the
Daughters of the American Revolution.

Thetford celebrated the one hundred and fiftieth anni-
versary of the granting of its charter on August 12-14,
1911, by producing a notable pageant, which included a
movement for the betterment of town conditions. His-
torical scenes and picturesque dances were produced on
the bank of the Connecticut River, the pageant being
given under the direction of William Chauncy Langdon
of the Russell Sage Foundation.

The third pageant of the year was given at Benning-
ton and a feature was a representation of the battle to
which the town gave its name.

The one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the found-
ing of Newbury was celebrated, August 11-16, 1912.
During this time a monument to Gen. Jacob Bayley was
dedicated on Newbury Common and other markers were
unveiled on the sites of the old State House, the old court
house, the old log meeting house, at the beginning of
the Bayley-Hazen Road, and on the Oxbow Meadow,
in memory of Col. Thomas Johnson, marking the loca-
tion of the first settlement. Horace W. Bailey w^as
active in arranging these exercises.

Pageants were given in 1912 at Brattleboro and W^al-
lingford, and in 1913 at Hartland.

The license vote of 1912 resulted in a "yes" majority
in twenty-one towns and cities.

An important meeting in the interest of State develop-
ment w^as held at Rutland, July 17, 1912, when officers
of the Greater Vermont Association were elected, Secre-



430 HISTORY OF VERMONT

tary of State Guy W. Bailey of Essex Junction being
chosen its president.

Congressman David J. Foster died in Washington,
March 21, 1912, after an illness of three weeks. He
suffered an attack of grip, which developed into pneu-
monia. Mr. Foster had become one of the most influ-
ential members of Congress, being an expert par-
liamentarian, an adviser of President Taft, and in his
position as chairman of the Committee on Foreign
Affairs was able to be of great service to the Nation.
He was an active supporter of President Taft's peace
policy and delivered many public addresses on that sub-
ject. His funeral was largely attended at Burlington.

Three candidates appeared for the Republican nomina-
tion for Congress in the First district to succeed Mr.
Foster, Frank L. Greene and Warren R. Austin of St.
Albans and Walter K. Farnsworth of Rutland. At a
convention held at Burlington on June 26, 1912, Colonel
Greene was nominated, the vote on the first ballot being
as follows: Greene, 177; Austin, 66; Farnsworth, 56.
At a special election held on July 30, Frank L. Greene
was elected. The Democrats certified no candidate. A
few votes were cast for John Spargo, the Socialist candi-
date, and there were a few scattering votes.

Frank L. Greene was born in St. Albans, February 10,
1870. The family removed to Cleveland, Ohio, and
lived there for several years. Mr. Greene's father died
while the lad was young and thereafter he made his own
way in the world. He studied in the public schools, but
his educational advantages were few, as he was obliged
to go to work at an early age. Nevertheless, by study



BEGINNLXG OF A NEW CENTURY 431

at home and by extensive reading he became a well
educated man. At the age of thirteen he secured a posi-
tion as errand boy in the auditing department of the
Central Vermont Railroad, and worked his way up to
the position of Chief Clerk in the general freight depart-
ment. He began newspaper work at odd hours, and be-
came a correspondent of the Boston Globe. He entered
the office of the St. Albans Messenger in 1891, and was
advanced to the positions of assistant editor and editor.
For nearly thirteen years he held the last named position
and became, not only one of the most active editors of
his time, but one of the most influential in the history of
the State. Many of the measures which he advocated
were enacted into laws or were embodied in the State
Constitution. He entered the V^ermont National Guard
in 1888 and rose from the position of private to Cap-
tain. He led his company into service during the
Spanish-American War, and for some time served as
Adjutant General of the Third Brigade. At the close of
the war he was stricken with typhoid fever and nar-
rowly escaped death. He w^as appointed Colonel and
chief of stafif by Governor Smith. He was chairman of
a commission appointed to investigate the Normal
Schools, and in 1908 was a member of the commission
appointed to propose amendments to the State Constitu-
tion. He served as a delegate-at-large to the Republican
National Convention of 1908. He was assigned to the
Committee on Military Affairs when he entered Con-
gress, upon which he has served to the present time
( 1921 ) . This committee, always an important one. held
a particularly responsible position during the World



432 HISTORY OF VERMONT

War. Mr. Greene has been appointed one of the
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.

The campaign of 1912 was unique in the history of
American poHtics, and demonstrated the great ability
and remarkable popularity of Theodore Roosevelt. It
also proved that an established party may suffer dis-
astrous defeat without annihilation. The contest for
delegates to the Republican National Convention of 1912
was waged with much bitterness in Vermont. The
Roosevelt wing of the party won control of the Second
District Convention and elected as delegates to the
National Convention, E. W. Gibson of Brattleboro and
F. D. Thompson of Barton, by majorities of twenty-
eight and twenty-nine, respectively. The First district
was controlled by the Taft forces, the delegates elected
being John L. South wick of Burlington and William R.
Warner of Vergennes. The State Convention, held on
April 10 at Montpelier, was a tumultuous body, but was
controlled by the adherents of President Taft. Two
delegates-at-large were elected without opposition. Sen-
ator Carroll S. Page of Hyde Park and John L. Lewis of
North Troy. Col. J. Gray Estey of Brattleboro was
elected over Rev. H. L. Ballou of Chester by a vote of
370 to 306. Gov. John A. Mead was elected over Dr.
J. E. Thompson of Rutland by a vote of 358 to 305.
The platform commended the Taft administration. The
delegates were not instructed, but it was understood that
they would support Taft. Senator Charles E. Town-
send of Michigan addressed the convention. In the
Republican National Convention six Vermont delegates
supported Taft and two voted for Roosevelt.



BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 433

A third party, or Progressive Convention, was held
at Burlington on July 23, over which Dr. J. H. Blodgett
of Bellows Falls presided. The following delegates were
elected to attend a National Progressive Convention:
Frank T. Howard of West Woodstock, B. N. Sumner of
Montpelier, Ernest Kelley of Salisbury, F. B. Pope
of Bennington, C. C. Campbell of Lyndon ville, L. W.
Burbank of Cabot, Walter K. Farnsworth of Rutland
and C. H. Thompson of Brattleboro. Presidential
Electors and a State ticket were nominated. Rev. Eraser
Metzger of Randolph being the candidate for Governor
and M. L. Aseltine of St. Albans, candidate for Lieu-
tenant Governor. The delegates supported Colonel
Roosevelt as the party's candidate for President.

The Democratic State Convention elected as delegates-
at-large, Charles D. Watson of St. Albans, Dr. W. B.
Mayo of Northfield, Fred C. Martin of Pownal and
B. E. Bullard of Hardwick. The list was completed
as follows: First district, D. E. O'Sullivan of
Winooski, H. E. Shaw of Stowe; Second district, F. C.
Luce of Waterbury, P. E. Williams of Hartford. Har-
land B. Howe of St. Johnsbury was nominated for Gov-
ernor. The Vermont delegates voted for Gov. Simeon
E. Baldwin of Connecticut on the first ballot and then
went to Gov. Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey. On a
later ballot Vermont's eight votes were cast for Gov.
Eugene N. Foss of Massachusetts, a native of Vermont,
but later they rejoined the Wilson column.

Allen M. Fletcher of Cavendish was made the Repub-
lican nominee for Governor, receiving 440 votes,
while for Joseph A. DeBoer of Montpelier, 150 votes



434 HISTORY OF VERMONT

were cast. For the nomination for Lieutenant Governor
the vote was as follows : Frank E. Howe of Benning-
ton, 301 ; Millard F. Barnes of Addison, 248; scattering,
3. The platform favored some system of direct
primaries.

There was nothing perfunctory about the campaign
of 1912. It was a battle royal. Although few of the
Republican leaders deserted the party, such a statement
could not be said concerning the rank and file. The
same passionate devotion and almost hysterical fervor
that characterized other Progressive meetings was wit-
nessed in Vermont. The new party was thoroughly
organized, as were the Roosevelt forces in the pre-con-
vention campaign.

Shortly before the fall election Colonel Roosevelt
spent three days in the State in an efifort to wrest Ver-
mont from her ancient Republican moorings. Entering
Vermont on August 29, he spoke first at North Benning-
ton, and then at Bennington to an audience of eight
thousand. Other speeches on the first day were made
at Arlington, Wallingford, Rutland, Middlebury and
Burlington. At the last named city an evening meet-
ing was held in the Strong Theatre, where two thousand
people packed the auditorium to hear the candidate. An
equal number filled Armory Hall, where an overflow
meeting was held. Colonel Roosevelt spent the night at
Burlington. On August 30 he spoke at St. Albans, at
the Lamoille County Fair at Morrisville, at Hardwick,
Barton and St. Johnsbury, holding an evening meeting
and spending the night at the last named place. On the
third day, August 31, he addressed meetings at Dan-



GEORGE H. PROUTY

Born in Newport, Vt., March 4, 1862. At an early ape he
entered the lumber business in which his father was interested,
later becoming a partner in the firm. This was one of the
large lumber companies of New England. He served in
l50th branches of the Legislature, being President Pro Tern
of the Senate. He was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1906
and Governor in 1908. During his administration he had
much to do with the success of the Lake Champlain Ter-
centenary Celebration. He was killed in an automobile
accident .August 18, 1918.




^



^^^t^'-zi^-^^^^ .^^<Y, ,A:^





BEGINNING OF A NEW CENTURY 4:3;')

ville, Barre, where he spoke to five thousand people, Ran-
dolph, where he spoke to two thousand, Windsor, Bel-
lows Falls, where two thousand people heard him, and
Brattleboro. John Maynard Harlan of Chicago and
Congressman P. P. Campbell of Kansas, Republican
orators, followed close on Roosevelt's trail, sometimes
addressing the people gathered to hear the former Presi-
dent. Governor Yates of Illinois also spoke for the
Republican ticket.

There was no election of a Governor by the people,



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