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and regular elections.

Orders were received on September 18, 1916, for the
regiment to prepare for the return trip to Vermont to
be mustered out of service. The soldiers entrained on
September 20, and seven days later arrived at Fort
Ethan Allen. They were assigned to vacant barracks
at the post and the various companies were mustered
out, October 9 to 11.

Colonel Morgan of the Inspector General's depart-
ment after inspecting the Vermont regiment, declared:
"It is the best National Guard regiment at Eagle Pass
in equipment and general efficiency." He also compli-
mented Colonel Reeves, the regimental commander.

Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo, U. S. N., a native of
Vermont, demanded an apology from the Mexican com-
mander and the firing of a national salute of twenty-one
guns to the United States flag, to make amends for the
arrest of a Paymaster and the crew of a dispatch boat
from the U. S. S. Dolphin at the wharf in Tampico,



468 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Mexico, while gasoline was being loaded into a whale-
boat.

The name of Justice Charles E. Hughes of the United
States Supreme Court, long a favorite with Vermont
Republicans, was most frequently mentioned in the
spring of 1916 as the strongest candidate the Republi-
can party could nominate and the man best qualified to
unite the two wings of the party. Others favored the
nomination of Col. Theodore Roosevelt. The result of
a preferential primary held in Vermont was as follows :
Charles E. Hughes, 5,480; Theodore Roosevelt, 1,931;
Samuel W. McCall of Massachusetts, 181 ; Elihu Root
of New York, 180; Henry Ford of Michigan, 34; John
W. Weeks of Massachusetts, 28.

The Republican State Convention elected the follow-
ing delegates: Theodore N. Vail of Lyndon, E. R.
Morse of Proctor, Ex-Gov. George H. Prouty of New-
port, Collins M. Graves of Bennington, Frederick H.
Babbitt of Bellows Falls, Guy W. Bailey of Essex Junc-
tion, John T. Gushing of St. Albans and George E.
Moody of Waterbury. Mr. Moody was elected over
Hug'h J. M. Jones of Montpelier. Senator Lawrence
Y. Sherman of Illinois addressed the convention.

Clarke C. Fitts of Brattleboro presented the following-
resolution, which was adopted: "Resolved, That the
Republican State Convention of Vermont endorse and
approve the spoken word of the Republican voters of the
State in favor of Charles E. Hughes for the Presidential
nomination.

"We believe that his unblemished record, his wide
experience, his forceful character, and his great intellect,



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 469

make his the master hand to navigate the Ship of State
across the uncharted shoals which are ahead.

"We urg-e that the delegates elected hy this convention,
hy their personal efforts and their votes, support him
with the full strength of the State." When the name
of Hughes was mentioned great enthusiasm was
manifested.

The Vermont delegates at Chicago elected Mr. Vail
as chairman and organized by choosing Frank C. Wil-
liams, chairman of the Republican State Committee, as
head of a special campaign committee to labor for the
nomination of Hughes, each member agreeing to canvass
three State delegations. Vermont supported Hughes
from the beginning of the contest until his nomination
on the third ballot. The Vermont and Oregon delega-
tions led in a triumphal march around the convention
hall. One of the first messages received by Mr. Hughes
was from the venerable Ex-Senator George F. Edmunds,
and said: "1 congratulate the country with all my
heart, and earnestly beg you to accept, in which case I
feel morally certain you will win by a great majority."

Some members of the Progressive party met in mass
convention at Burlington on May 24, 1916, and elected
the following delegates to a National Convention at
Chicago: Rev. Eraser Metzger of Randolph, Joseph C.
Jones of Rutland, E. W. Gibson of Brattleboro, Prof.
Raymond McFarland of Middlebury, J. H. Nichols of
Bennington, W. S. Eaton of Woodstock, O. A. Rix-
ford" of Highgate and Albert G. Rice of Rockingham.
The delegates supported Theodore Roosevelt for Presi-



470 HISTORY OF VERMONT

dent, but he declined to serve and later they supported
Hughes.

The Democratic State Convention, held at Burlington,
May 25, chose as delegates-at-large, James E. Kennedy
of Williston, Park H. Pollard of Proctorsville, Frank H.
Duffy of Rutland, Herbert A. Pond of East Berkshire,
Elisha Bigelow of Lyndonville, O. E. Luce of Stowe.
Harry C. Shurtleff of Montpelier and J. C. Durick of
Fair Haven. The delegates supported Wilson and Mar-
shall for President and Vice President, respectively.

In the Republican primary election of 1916, Senator
Carroll S. Page was renominated over Ex-Gov. Allen
M. Fletcher of Cavendish and Gov. Charles W. Gates
of Franklin, the vote being, Page, 27,213; Fletcher,
8,912; Gates, 7,752; scattering, 7. State Auditor
Horace F. Graham of Craftsbury was nominated for
Governor without opposition, receiving 19,644 votes.
The contest for the nomination for Lieutenant Governor
was close, Roger W. Hulburd of Hyde Park receiving
16,680 votes and John E. Weeks of Middlebury, 15,759.

On the Democratic ticket, O. C. Miller of Newport for
Senator received 3,816 votes and Dr. W. B. Mayo of
Northfield, for Governor, received 6,562 votes.

Although Hughes was a great favorite with Vermont
Republicans, the vote for Wilson was the largest cast
for a Democratic candidate in modern times. This was
due in part, probably, to the fact that some of the Pro-
gressives voted for Wilson and that some Republicans
believed that no change should be made in the Presi-
dency during the World War, and, therefore, voted the
Democratic ticket.



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 471

The vote by counties was as follows :

Rep. Don. Pro. Soc.

Addison 2,765 875 53 12

Bennington 2,602 1,598 33 83

Caledonia 3,025 1,887 68 25

Chittenden 3,787 2,775 58 43

Essex 734 545 8 7

Franklin 2,796 2,109 44 11

Grand Isle 407 434 1 3

Lamoille 1,474 645 51 28

Orang-e 2,188 1,379 46 51

Orleans 2,758 1,052 42 7

Rutland 5,932 2,785 134 84

Washington .... 4,216 2,739 98 335

Windham 3,375 1,700 39 42

Windsor 4,236 2,216 40 70



Total .... 40,295 22,739 715 801

The Republican majority was 16,140. Twenty-one
towns and cities gave Democratic pluralities, a number
unusually large for Vermont. The Presidential Elect-
ors chosen were James E. Pollard of Chester, Alexander
Dunnett of St. Johnsbury, Earle S. Kinsley of Rutland
and John L. Southwick of Burlington.

The vote for Governor is given herewith: Horace
F. Graham (Rep.), 43,265; William B. Mayo (Dem.),
15,789; Lester W. Hanson (Pro.), 876; W. R. Rowland
(Soc), 920; scattering, 4.

Horace French Graham was born in New York, Feb-
ruary 7, 1861. He was educated in the public schools,



472 HISTORY OF VERMONT

at Craf tsbury Academy and graduated from Columbia
University in 1888, with honors, having studied in the
schools of law and political science. He was admitted
to the bar and opened a law office in Craftsbury. He
was elected State's Attorney for Orleans county in 1898
and 1900, represented Craftsbury in the Legislature in
1892 and 1900, vv^as Presidential Elector in 1900, was
elected State Auditor of Accounts in 1902, and served
until 1916. He was a member of the Educational Com-
mission appointed by Governor Fletcher.

Stanley C. Wilson of Chelsea was elected Speaker.

In his retiring message Governor Gates declared that
the Executive office had been kept open continuously for
the transaction of State business. He had appointed
Horace F. Graham of Craftsbury, C. P. Smith of Bur-
lington, W. W. Stickney of Ludlow and H. W. Varnum
of Cambridge, a committee to supervise the erection of a
new State building. He suggested the creation of a
sinking fund to enable the State to carry at least a por-
tion of its own insurance. A School for Feeble Minded
had been established at Brandon. In his opinion the
new educational law had worked sufficiently well to war-
rant a full and fair trial. He recommended that electric
plants and water power developments should be taxed by
the State after the manner of public service corporations.

In his inaugural message Governor Graham recom-
mended the creation of a Board of Control to consist of
the Governor, the Commissioner of Agriculture, the
Director of State Institutions, the Purchasing Agent
and the State Engineer. He believed that the duties of
the Board of Weights and Measures might be assumed



THE i'KRlUl) UK THE WORLD WAR 473

by the State Treasurer's office. He recommended that
twelve district courts be organized to take over the work
of the city and municipal courts, thus covering the whole
State, giving an enlarged criminal jurisdiction, and final
civil jurisdiction up to the sum of five hundred dollars.
He favored increased appropriations for schools and
highways.

The Legislature of 1917 voted the sum of fifty thou-
sand dollars for the completion of the new State build-
ing, and thirty thousand dollars for reconstructing a
portion of the State House for committee rooms and
offices. The duties of the State Board of Agriculture,
the State Nursery Inspector, the State Ornthologist, the
State Forester and the State Live Stock Commissioner
and the trustees of the State Agricultural Schools were
placed under the jurisdiction of the State Commissioner
of Agriculture.

A Board of Control was created which consisted of
the Governor, the State Treasurer, the Auditor of
Accounts, the Director of State Institutions, and one
member appointed by the Governor. The Secretary of
Civil and Military Affairs was made secretary and
recording officer of the board. The authority given this
board was very large. It included power to examine the
books, accounts and business of every board, institu-
tion, commission, officer or department in the service of
the State. The Governor, upon recommendation of the
board, might revoke the commission of any official
appointed by him. The board was authorized to deter-
mine the clerical assistance needed by the various depart-
ments and fix salaries. The Board of Control, the chair-



474 HISTORY OF VERMONT

man of the Finance Committee of the Senate and the
Ways and Means and Appropriations Committees of the
House, were made members of a Budget Committee.
The Board of Control was given authority to examine
any institution receiving money from the State, and if
it found that the money was not properly expended it
might suspend further payment until satisfied that it
would be wisely spent.

The various officers and commissioners were directed
to establish their offices at the State capital. The office
of Director of State Institutions was created to take
over the duties performed by various boards. The office
of State Engineer was created. The State Board of
Health was reorganized, one of the three members to be
the secretary and executive officer of the board. Coun-
ties were given power to establish tuberculosis hospitals.
A city and a town of Newport were created, making the
number of towns and cities in Vermont two hundred and
forty-seven. Tax paying women were given the right
to vote in town meetings.

The Governor was given power to appoint a commis-
sion to consider the subject of a public barge terminal at
the port of Burlington. A resolution was adopted pro-
testing against the action of the Federal Government in
encroaching more and more upon the sources of revenue
heretofore reserved for purposes of State taxation.
This was felt to be particularly true in the matter of in-
come and inheritance taxes, both of which, according to
the resolution, were "in danger of being dried up as
sources of State revenue." It was recommended that a
Congress of the States should be held to consider the



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 475

subject of Federal encroachment upon State sources of
revenue. Resolutions were adopted relative to the death
of Admiral Dewey, which declared that "Vermont, while
lamenting the death of the great Admiral and diplomat,
takes solemn pride in the glory of his achievements and
his splendid services to the Nation, and commends to her
sons at home and abroad a recognition of the qualities
which will make his fame enduring." The Governor
was authorized to appoint a committee of one Senator
and one Representative, together with a member of the
National Guard, to attend the funeral. Resolutions of
regret were adopted concerning the death of Dr. Henry
D. Holton of Brattleboro. Near the close of the session
Speaker Wilson resigned, having been elected a Judge
of the Superior Court, and Charles S. Dana of New
Haven was elected as his successor.

Admiral Dewey was stricken with illness as he was
leaving his home for the Navy Department, January 11,
1917, and died January 16, in his eightieth year. He
had been in failing health for about five years. By order
of the President flags were flown at half mast on all
Government buildings, forts and naval vessels through-
out the country and the world, until after the funeral
ceremonies. Congress adopted resolutions of regret.
Funeral services were held in the rotunda of the Capi-
tol, attended by the President, his Cabinet, members of
the Supreme Court and the diplomatic corps. The body
was laid to rest in the National Cemetery at Arlington.
Vermont w^as represented at the funeral by Governor
Graham, Adjt. Gen. Lee S. Tillotson, Senator Redfield
Proctor, Jr., Representative L. B. Brooks of Montpelier



476 HISTORY OF VERMONT

and Col. Ira L. Reeves, President of Norwich University.
Secretary of the Navy Daniels said of the Admiral:
*'The career of George Dewey ran in full current to the
end. Vermont was his mother State and there was
always in his character something of the granite of
his native hills."

President Wilson authorized the following statement,
when he received the news of Admiral Dewey's death:
"In expressing his grief at the death of Admiral Dewey
the President said the whole Nation will mourn the loss
of its most distinguished naval officer, a man who has
been as faithful, as intelligent and as successful in the
performance of his responsible duties in time of peace as
he was gallant and successful in time of war. It is
just such men that gives the service distinction and the
Nation a just pride in those who serve it." At the time
of his death Admiral Dewey was the ranking naval
officer of the world.

Eighteen towns and cities, in the spring of 1917, voted
to license the sale of liquor.

The new State building, authorized by the Legisla-
ture of 1915, was erected on land owned by Vermont
and situated between the State House grounds and the
Pavilion Hotel. The material was light Barre granite.
The interior was of reinforced concrete and was finished
in Vermont red birch. Vermont marble was used for
the stairs and the wainscoting. On the first floor
(1921) are the quarters of the Vermont Historical
Society, the State Geologist, and on either side of a long
corridor the offices of the Commissioner of Banks,
Charities and Corrections, Industries and Insurance.



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 477



The State Library and ihc rooms oi the Supreme Court
occupy the second floor. On the third floor are the
oflkes of the Commissioner of Education, the Tax Com-
missioner and the State Library Commission.

The cost of building and equipment was $202,873.87,
and $26,957.71 was expended in necessary repairs on the
State House and in the erection of a central heating
plant.

When war finally was declared against Germany the
sentiment of Vermont was strongly in favor of such
action. Indeed a majority of Vermonters probably
favored going into the war after the sinking of the
Liisitania, and were inclined to criticise President Wil-
son for his failure to act more promptly after this
slaughter of American citizens. The foreign-born
population of this State, never very large, contained few
natives of the Central Powers.

As the session of the Vermont Legislature was draw-
ing to a close in the spring of 1917, it was evident that
events were shaping themselves so that a declaration of
war could not be long delayed, and six days before hos-
tilities actually were declared the General Assembly ap-
propriated the sum of one million dollars for war pur-
poses. The money voted was to be used for clothing,
equipping and maintaining the soldiers o,f the Vermont
National Guard "and such other land and naval forces
as the State may raise." The State Treasurer was
authorized to borrow a sum not exceeding three million
dollars.

When Governor Graham attended the funeral of
Admiral Dewev, his conversation with Secretary of War



478 HISTORY OF VERMONT

Baker and others satisfied him that America's partici-
pation in the war could not be long deferred. On his
return he consulted with Adjutant General Tillotson, and
it was decided to revise the militia law, bringing it up
to date. This was done early in the session. As there
was no positive information available concerning the
selective service bill that was to be passed, provision was
made for an enumeration of all citizens subject to the
militia.

A law was enacted to prohibit certain acts while the
United States was at war or threatened with war. The
acts prohibited included attempts to damage any bridge,
road or railroad, telegraph or telephone line, obtaining
maps, plans or pictures of forts, arsenals or bridges and
poisoning or polluting water supplies. If three or more
persons acting in concert should be convicted of an
attempt to wound, maim or kill any person or persons,
or burn, blow up or destroy property, the death penalty
should be imposed. A person suspected of treason
might be arrested without a warrant.

It was originally planned to meet the appropriation of
вЦ†one million dollars by a State tax of ten cents on the
dollar of the grand list for a period of four years. Later
a bond issue was substituted.

The war legislation enacted during this session of the
General Assembly relieved Vermont of much of the.
embarrassment suffered by many States.

The Nezv York Sun said of Vermont's war appropria-
tion: "Vermont was always a patriotic State, perhaps
the most patriotic in the whole Union; but in this
glorious achievement she has surpassed itself. A mil-



THE l^ERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 479

lion dollars! And her chief industry is dairying. We
salute the Green Mountain State with admiration and
respect. If the Vermonters are not proud, they ought
to be."

The following resolutions, dealing with war prob-
lems, were adopted by the Legislature of 1917:

''Whereas, In the opinion of the General Assembly
of the State of Vermont, the President of the United
States has exhausted every honorable means to preserve
the honor and integrity of this Nation, and has deemed
it necessary, on account of the persistent and long con-
tinued violation by the German government of the funda-
mental rules of international law, and of the principles
of common humanity, to sever diplomatic relations with
the government of Germany, therefore,

"Be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Repre-
sentatives: That the State of Vermont, by the vote of
its General Assembly now in session, hereby assures the
Federal Government of its firm and unwavering support
at this critical time in the world's history, and that it is
the sense of the General Assembly that this State pro-
ceed at once to the adequate preparation for any emer-
gency that may arise, so that it may respond to any call
that may be made upon it by the Federal Government;

''And, Resolved further, That the Secretary of State
be and hereby is instructed to send to the President of
the United States a duly attested copy of this resolution.

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa-
tives :

"That the State of Vermont, through her Legislature,
dulv assembled in regular session, does hereby renew her



480 HISTORY OF VERMONT

allegiance and fealty to the government of the United
States and pledges her support to the President in what-
ever lawful steps he may take in defence of the national
honor :

''That we commend the patriotism and loyalty of her
representatives in the United States Senate, Hon. Wil-
liam P. Dillingham and Hon. Carroll S. Page, and
applaud their unselfish and high minded devotion to the
national welfare in a grave international crisis;

"That we approve of their desire to authorize the Pres-
ident to arm American vessels in self-defence against
the submarine menace and we disapprove of the action
of those who made it impossible for that desire to find
expression in a vote;

"That we further approve of their signature to a mani-
festo expressing that desire and conviction, and hereby
support and indorse their action;

"That we also approve the loyal and consistent support
of the President's position on this subject expressed in
the national House of Representatives by the votes of
Congressmen Frank L. Greene and Porter H. Dale;

"That we further commend to our Senators their con-
sideration of such revision of procedure as will make it
henceforth impossible for a small group of Senators to
defeat the will of the people, tie the President's hands and
place us, before the nations of the world, in a false and
humiliating light;

"That a copy of this resolution be sent to each of our
Representatives in Congress and an additional copy to
Senator Dillingham, to be by him transmitted to the
President."



ALLEN M. FLETCHER

Born in Indianapolis, Ind., of Vermont parentage. After
engaging in banking in that city for many years he returned
to the ancestral home in Cavendish. He served for ten
years in the Vermont Legislature and was a member of a
commission appointed to propose amendments to the State
Constitution. He was elected Governor of Vermont in 191 2.



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 481

The belief was expressed that universal military train-
ing was necessary to secure an adequate system of pre-
paredness. The Vermont delegation in Congress was
urgently requested to favor the enactment of a law pro-
viding for universal military training.

In accordance with a telegram received by Governor
Graham from Secretary of War Newton D. Baker,
dated March 25, 1917, asking for the services of a com-
pany of the National Guard for "a more perfect protec-
tion against possible interference with postal, commer-
cial and military channels and instrumentalities of the
United States in the State of Vermont," Company B of
St. Albans was mobilized. This action was taken be-
cause regular troops were not available and the St.
Albans company was mustered into the United States
service, March 30, 1917, by Capt. S. A. Howard, com-
mandant at the University of Vermont. The entire
National Guard was called into the Federal service on
April 2, 1917, for the purpose of guarding important
railroad bridges, tunnels, canal locks, other public utili-
ties in Vermont, and certain manufacturing plants.
War was declared on Good Friday, April 6, 1917, and
war meetings were held throughout the State.

The men of the various companies were ordered to
assemble at their respective armories at seven o'clock on
the morning of April 3. Orders issued by Maj. Gen.
Leonard Wood, April 18, assigned the companies of the
First Vermont Infantry as follows: Companies B, C
and D, and supply and machine gun companies, with
regimental headquarters at Fort Ethan Allen, covering
the territory including Swanton, Montpelier, Burlington



482 HISTORY OF VERMONT

and Rutland. Company A was assigned to Rouses
Point, N. Y., to protect the territory in the vicinity of
Rouses Point, Swanton and South Hero. The Second
BattaUon, consisting of Companies E, G and H, was
assigned to Wells River to cover northeastern Vermont
and northern New Hampshire. Company F was sent to
Bridgewater, N. H., to protect central New Hampshire
north of a line drawn through Ashland, N. H. Company
I was assigned to the territory along the Connecticut
River from the Massachusetts boundary to Westminster,
with headquarters at Brattleboro. Company K, with
headquarters at Bellows Falls, covered the Vermont por-
tion of the Connecticut valley from Westminster to
Windsor. Company L, with headquarters at Montpelier,
guarded the Winooski valley from Montpelier to Rich-
mond.

Three thousand people assembled at St. Albans as the
Machine Gun Company, commanded by Capt. Edward
F. Smith, a son of Ex-Gov. Edward C. Smith, left for
Fort Ethan Allen. Everywhere there were patriotic
demonstrations as the militia left for the State ren-
dezvous.

The entire regiment was drafted into the service of



Online LibraryWalter Hill CrockettVermont, the Green mountain state (Volume 4) → online text (page 32 of 43)