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mont officer was kept at Washington for some time
as aide on personnel. In 1913 he was promoted to the
rank of Rear Admiral. After six weeks of duty at
the War College at Newport, R. I., he was transferred
to the fourth division of the Atlantic fleet.

In April, 1914, he demanded from the Huerta govern-
ment of Mexico a salute because American sailors at
Tampico had been subjected to the indignity of arrest.
His vigorous stand for American rights brought out
much favorable comment in the newspapers of this
country. He served notice on the contending parties at
Tampico that he had created a neutral zone within which
was much valuable property belonging to Americans and
other foreign residents, and suggested that fighting be
done elsewhere.

At the outbreak of the World War he was made Com-
mander-in-Chief of the Atlantic fleet with the rank of
Admiral. Admiral Mayo made several trips across the
Atlantic. On one of these trips he made an extensive
tour of inspection, visiting the American and British
Navies and every branch of the Allied force in Europe.
On this tour he was entertained by the Kings of Great
Britain and Italy. While engaged in inspection duties
Admiral Mayo and Admiral Jellicoe of the British Navy
were under fire from the German batteries at Ostend.
On his flagship, the Pennsylvania, Admiral Mayo
escorted President Wilson on the latter's first trip abroad
to attend the Peace Conference. When the Admiral re-
tired from the command of the Atlantic fleet he was


assigned to duty on the General Board of the Navy at
Washington, which duty he performed until he reached
the age limit for retirement, December 9, 1920. After
the war he became a Rear Admiral. France decorated
him with the Cross of the Legion of Honor.

Admiral Mayo's services during the war were sum-
marized as follows by the Army and Navy Journal:

"He was Commander-in-Chief of the American fleet
in the war, but owing to the fact that the British fleet
controlled the sea and Germany only waged a submarine
war, he did not command abroad but was left on this
side. His fleet in home waters became the great train-
ing school for the new personnel which had to man the
transports and merchant ships. At the outbreak of war
the Admiral and the work of the fleet were lost in mys-
tery. The fleet retired beyond the capes of the Chesa-
peake and trained thousands of men. This was hard
work and unthankful work, but work that had to be done.
Transports and new ships had to be officered and it was
natural that the fleet should lose many of its best officers,
but in spite of it the general efficiency of the fleet re-
mained high.

"The peculiar conditions of the present war, the effect
of the submarine menace and the requirements of the
transporting of large numbers of troops overseas made
it necessary to distribute the various units of the fleet
over large areas on more or less diversified duties. One
division of dreadnoughts was sent to join the British
Grand Fleet, where they operated with credit. Another
division of dreadnoughts was sent to base on the Irish
coast in readiness for oft'ensive action against any Ger-


man raiders which might escape. Then there were ves-
sels assigned to the transport, cruiser, destroyer, patrol
and mine forces for duty overseas. Ships of battleship
forces 1 and 2 remained in home waters ready for active
service and for training new officers and men.

"Upon taking command three years ago Admiral
Mayo found practically only battleships operating with
the flag. He brought together all forces to one organi-
zation, the destroyer force, air and submarine force.
The train, that is the supply vessels of the big ships, was
organized and developed into its proper function of sup-
plying and maintaining the combatant ships. Com-
mander Pye was the strategic officer gmd Commander
Bingham in charge of the fleet's gimnery, and it may
be said that the marksmanship of the fleet established
under the direction of Commander Bingham as fleet
gunnery officer was astonishingly fine. In addition to
the ordinary main and secondary gimnery exercises,
special attention has been given to spotting practice, anti-
aircraft and anti-periscope practice and the use of air-
craft for spotting in connection with big gun firing.
Twenty-eight fleet exercises have been held by the com-
mander-in-chief in which all possible phases of fleet war
activities have been worked out. An entirely new system
of fleet tactics has been developed by Admiral Mayo and
his staff.

"A standardized communication system was built up
throughout the fleet. Its correct principle was indicated
by the fact that ships of the fleet assigned to foreign
service and required to operate under foreign methods
of signaling, were able quickly and satisfactorily to adapt


themselves to new and foreign methods. Admiral Mayo
and his staff assisted the Navy Department in getting
out an entirely new system of codes, signal books and
ciphers. Requirements of war robbed the fleet of a
large proportion of regular officers and caused a dilution
of regular office personnel. The system of training
established by Admiral Mayo enabled reserve officers
to be utilized to an extent which would not have been
thought possible before the war. In the enlisted per-
sonnel, green recruits were likewise trained and placed
in positions formerly occupied by experienced men with
results which were very gratifying,

"A new system of training men for the engineer force
was adopted in which the training of all-round engineers
was discontinued and new men were trained for only cer-
tain parts of the engineering trade. Certain ships of
battleship force 1 carried on this engineer training and
by this method it was possible to meet the unprecedented
demand for men in the engineering force of transports
and new ships. The question of morale has been seri-
ously studied and in conjunction with the sixth divi-
sion of the Bureau of Navigation, excellent results are
being maintained.

"To summarize, the fleet was first built up into a
proper fleet and trained for war as it might be expected
to occur. In spite of adverse conditions of separation
and wide distribution of units the. fleet was maintained
with comparatively small loss in efficiency up to the sign-
ing of the Armistice."

Admiral Mayo served continuously in a flag command
longer than any other Rear Admiral on the Navy list


and he commanded the United States fleet longer than
any other naval officer in the modern American Navy.
He served more than forty-seven years in the Xavy.

In 1919, Admiral Mayo received the degree of Doctor
of Laws from the University of Vermont. On March
16, 1921, he addressed the Legislature of Vermont in
Joint Assembly, and the Vermont Society, Sons of the
American Revolution, presenting medals to members of
that organization who served in the World War.

An erroneous report that hostilities had ceased on the
European battle front was widely circulated throughout
the United States on November 7, 1918. It was gen-
erally accepted, and the people of the country, forsaking
their ordinary tasks, gave themselves up to rejoicing.
Bells were rung, whistles were blown, parades were
speedily organized, bands played, and flags were gen-
erally displayed. Before the day ended an official denial
of the peace rumor was issued. When authentic news
of the signing of the Armistice came on Monday morn-
ing, November 11, there was a repetition of the cele-
bration of the preceding Thursday. There were bonfires,
parades, speeches, the ringing of bells, the blowing of
whistles, the firing of cannon and the burning of the
German Kaiser in efligy, — the demonstrations continuing
from early in the morning until late in the evening.

The home coming of A^ermont troops began in Decem-
ber, 1918, and continued well into the summer of 1919.
Most of the members of the old First Vermont Infantry
returned on the transports America, Agamemnon and
Patricia, which arrived on April 5, 7, and 17, respect-
ively, and on the battleship Nezv Jersey, which arrived


on April 23. About two thousand Vermonters took part
in a grand parade of the Twenty-sixth Division, held in
Boston, April 25, 1919. Governor Clement, Adjt. Gen.
H. T. Johnson and several delegations from towns and
cities of this State met the returning Vermonters at
Boston. The Governor reviewed the parade of the
''Yankee" Division and the Vermont State flag was car-
ried in the parade. The One Hundred and First
Ammunition Train arrived on April 23 on the New Jer-
sey. The men were warmly welcomed at their homes.

The Vermont allotments to the various loans were
as follows: First Loan, $6,992,150; Second Loan,
$10,061,550; Third Loan, $9,330,750; Fourth Loan,
$15,315,450; Fifth (Victory) Loan, $11,135,600. This
makes a total allotment of $52,835,500. All these loans
were over subscribed.

The receipts from the first Red Cross "war fund
drive" in Vermont was $200,000, and from the second,
$302,837.06. The Red Cross membership in Vermont
was 37,699 in 1917 and 80,703 in 1918.

It is difficult to determine the exact number of Ver-
monters who served in the war, as some enlisted in regi-
ments in other States, and some went out in Canadian
regiments. The number, according to the report of the
Adjutant General, is approximately fifteen thousand, and
more than half of them went overseas.

The record of casualties, given in the report of the
Adjutant General for 1920, follows:

The records of this office show that over six hundred
men of Vermont made the supreme sacrifice and that


nearly eight hundred others were wounded in action dur-
ing the war.

Killed in action (verified by War Department

records) 119

Died of wounds (verified by War Department

records) 47

Died of disease (verified by War Department

records) 271

Additional names not yet verified by War Depart-
ment records 175

Total deaths 612

Wounded in action:

Severely (verified by War Department records) 205

Slightly (verified by War Department records) 298

Degree undetermined 135

Additional names not verified by War Depart-
ment records 140

Total wounded 778

Total casualties 1,390

The first Vermonter killed in the war is said to have
been George H. Marchessault of St. Albans, who served
with the Canadian troops and fell on May 13, 1915.
The first Vermonter enlisted in this State who lost his
life was Corp. Leonard A. Lord of Swanton, originally
a member of Company B, Vermont National Guard, later
of the One Hundred and Third Machine Gun Battalion,


who was killed in the Battle of Apremont, April 12,

The following list of men credited to Vermont who
were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extra-
ordinary heroism in connection with military operations
is taken from the report of the Adjutant General :

'"^Perry H. Aldrich, First Lieutenant, Air Service
observer, 135th Aero Squadron. For extraordinary
heroism in action near St. Mihiel, France, October 29,
1918. He, as an observer, with First Lieut. E. C. Lan-
den, volunteered and went on an important mission for
the corps commander without the usual protection.
Forced to fly at an altitude of 1,000 meters because of
poor visibility soon after crossing the lines they encoun-
tered an enemy Rumpler plane and forced it to the
ground. On returning they attacked another Rumpler
and drove it off. After completing their mission and
seeing an enemy observation tower on Lake Lachaussee,
they re-entered enemy territory and fired upon it.
Immediately attacked by seven enemy planes (Fokker
type), a combat followed in which Lieutenant Aldrich
was mortally wounded. * * * Residence at appoint-
ment, Essex Junction.

''Alfred C. Arnold, Lieutenant Colonel, 9th Infantry.
For extraordinary heroism in action near Medeah Farm,
France, October 4-9, 1918. This officer displayed the
most inspiring personal bravery and cool judgment
under massed counter attacks, heavy machine gim fire,
and intensive artillery barrage. Performing many gal-
lant acts beyond those in the line of his duty, he held his

♦Indicates posthumous award.


line, maintained liason under difficult conditions with the
unit on his right, and at a critical time repelled a serious
counter attack. In addition to the distinguished service
cross, Lieutenant Colonel Arnold is awarded an oak-leaf
cluster for the following act of extraordinary heroism in
action near Thiaucourt, France, September 12, 1918:
At a critical moment in the advance he went through a
barrage and stopped the assaulting lines of a neighbor-
ing unit which had failed to halt on their objective and
were in danger from their own barrage. His coolness
in walking up and down the line under heavy enemy
bombardment inspired confidence and restored order in
a wavering line. h< * * Appointed from the Army.
Residence at appointment, St. Johnsbury.

''■•' Frederick B. Ballard, Private, Company C, 102nd
Machine Gun Battalion. For extraordinary heroism in
action near Marcheville, France, September 26, 1918.
He displayed remarkable courage and coolness during
this engagement. When apparently trapped in an enemy
trench near a machine gun emplacement he worked his
way out under the ware entanglements in plain view of
the enemy, and returning with hand grenades, assisted in
bombing out the machine gun nest and capturing some of
the men who were defending it. Later, he accompanied
a detachment and assisted in mopping up the town, driv-
ing out the enemy and taking several prisoners. While
thus engaged, he was struck by an exploding shell and
killed. * * * Residence at enlistment, Ludlow\

"Harold W. Batchelder, First Lieutenant, 30th Infan-
try. For extraordinary heroism in action near Bois
d'Aigremont, France, July 15, 1918. When it seemed


impossible for a runner to get through the violent bar-
rage, he volunteered and carried an important message
to regimental headquarters, returning with an answer.
* * * Entered military service from Vermont.

"Frederick V. Burgess, First Lieutenant, Company C,
15th Machine Gun Battalion. For extraordinary hero-
ism in action near St. Mihiel, France, September 13,
1918. After being painfully wounded by a machine gun
bullet, in a particularly intense barrage of machine gun
and shell fire, he remained with his platoon, visiting his
guns and directing their fire throughout a determined
counter attack, refusing to be evacuated until the attack
was over. Residence at appointment, Burlington.

''Israel J. Chamberlain, Private, First Class, Company
B, 1 16th Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action
in Bois Bossois, France, October 9, 1918. Private
Chamberlain went through an open country under heavy
machine gun fire to ascertain whether friendly troops
were ahead of his regiment, after unknown soldiers had
been observed; he was urged by the French troops on
the fiank not to make the return trip, as certain death
seemed sure to be the outcome, but without hesitation,
returned with information which resulted in the wound-
ing of one of the enemy, the killing of two, and the cap-
ture of 37, including one officer. Residence at enlist-
ment, Huntington.

"*LeonJ. Cushion, Private, Company D, 103rd Infan-
try. For extraordinary heroism in action at Marche-
ville, France, September 26, 1918. Under terrific
machine gun, artillery and rifle fire he displayed great
courage in locating and fighting enemy machine gun-


ners. He was killed while rushing a machine gun nest.
Residence at enlistment, East Hardwick.

"Bert J. Devlin, Private, First Class, Company F, 5th
Regiment, United States Marine Corps. For extraordi-
nary heroism in action near Blanc Mont, France, October
5, 1918. He demonstrated the highest degree of courage
by offering his services in bringing the wounded to a
place of safety from a region which was under constant
shell and machine gun fire. Residence at enlistment,

"Leo J. Dorey, Private, Company F, 103d Infantry.
For extraordinary heroism in action near Bois de St.
Remy, France, September 12, 1918. Throughout a
period of extreme shelling and unusually heavy machine
gun fire. Private Dorey volunteered and carried messages
repeatedly from his platoon to his company commander.
He conveyed information which resulted in the capture
of two officers and 22 men of the enemy. Residence
at enlistment, Burlington.

"Donald Emery, Private, First Class, Medical Detach-
ment, 107th Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in
action near Dickebusch, France, August 22, 1918. Dis-
playing an absolute disregard of danger in caring for
wounded under shell and rifle fire and a continuous cheer-
fulness under trying conditions, his courageous example
was inspiring to his comrades. Emergency address,

"Charles H. Hunt, Private 4th Machine Gun Bat-
talion. For extraordinary heroism in action at Blanc
Mont Ridge, France, October 3, 1918. Detailed with
two other soldiers to undertake a dangerous recon-


naissance, he made his way to the point designated
through heavy shell and machine gun fire. Neglecting
a wound in his back, he proceeded to his destination and
to the dressing station, where he was tagged for evacua-
tion. Regardless of his wound, he returned and re-
mained on duty until the battalion was relieved on
October 10, 1918. Residence at enlistment, White River

''Horatio N. Jackson, Major, Medical Corps, attached
to 313th Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action
near Montfaucon, France, September 26 and 29, 1918.
Constantly working in the face of heavy machine gun
and shell fire, he was most devoted in his attention to
the wounded, always present in the line of advance,
directing the administering of first aid and guiding the
work of litter bearers. He remained on duty until
severely wounded by high explosive shells, when he was
obliged to evacuate. Residence at appointment, Bur-

"Donald S. Mackay, First Lieutenant, 168th Infantry.
For extraordinary heroism in action near Sergy, France,
July 26-30, 1918. In an eflfort to locate enemy machine
gun emplacements. Lieutenant Mackay constantly
exposed himself to enemy fire, and, while so doing, was
severely wounded. During the entire five days of opera-
tions he led a scout group forward, locating nests that
had been stubbornly resisting the progress of our troops
and supplying artillery with most valuable information,
resulting in the destruction of the nests. Residence at
appointment, St. Albans.


Born in Schenectady, N. Y., September 3, 1861, is well
known in this country as an engineer, manufacturer and
inventor. He has taken out approximately one hundred
patents on his inventions, has perfected the turret lathe and
is president of a company which manufactures these lathes
at Springfield, Vt. He has been president of the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers. He has served as chairman
of the Vermont State Board of Education, was State Food
Administrator during the World War, Chairman of the Com-
mittee of Public Safety and in 1920 was elected Governor
of Vermont.

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•"■Klrtlnir li. Miller, rrivatc, First Class, Company B,
47th Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action
near Sergy, France, August 1, 1918. Private Miller
was killed while returning with an answer to a very
important message which he had voluntarily delivered at
a very critical stage of the attack. His mission was one
of extreme danger, taking him to the most advanced
position through a sweeping fire of artillery and machine
gims. Residence at enlistment, Websterville.

"Guy I. Rowe, Major, 38th Infantry. Fourteen and
a half hours on July 15, 1918, he held his battalion in an
advanced and exposed position on the Marne, east of
Chateau-Thierry, France, although violently and persist-
ently attacked on his front and on both flanks by greatly
superior enemy forces. Entered military service from

"Dzvight F. Smith, Captain, Company I, 6th Regi-
ment, United States Marine Corps. In the Bois de Bel-
leau, France, June 8, 1918, he was conspicuous for his
gallantry and energy in conducting attacks against forces
in strongly fortified machine gun positions. Under
heavy machine gun fire he fought until incapacitated by
wounds. Residence at appointment, Stowe.

"*Jerry Sullivan, Sergeant, Company F, 16th Infan-
try. For extraordinary heroism in action south of Sois-
sons, France, July 18, 1918. He displayed exceptional
courage and initiative by leading his platoon to the attack
and capture of a battery of 77-millimeter gims. After
the successful accomplishment of this unusual and heroic
duty he w^as killed in action. Residence at enlistment,


''Charles S. Sumner, Captain, 372d Infantry. For
extraordinary heroism in action at Bussy Farm and
Sechault, France, September 28-29, 1918. During the
attack on Bussy Farm and Sechault he courageously led
his command under the most intense artillery fire and in
the face of a fusillade of machine gun bullets. Although
he was suffering from the effects of gas and had been
twice knocked down by the explosion of shells, he re-
mained on duty, and, inspired by his example, his men
overcame the strong enemy resistance. Residence at
appointment, St. Albans.

"John William Thompson, Private, Company H, 5th
Regiment, United States Marine Corps, 2nd Division.
For extraordinary heroism in action near Blanc Mont
Ridge, France, October 4, 1918. After locating a
machine gun nest, he destroyed one of the gims and re-
turned to our lines wdth valuable information concerning
the location of the nest. Residence at enlistment,

"Julius S. Tnrrill, Lieutenant Colonel, 5th Regiment,
United States Marine Corps, 2nd Division. In the Bois
de Belleau, France, June 6, 1918, he displayed extra-
ordinary heroism and set a splendid example in fearlessly
leading his command under heavy fire against superior
odds. Because of his bravery and initiative every pos-
sible advantage in the attack was obtained. Residence
at appointment, Burlington.

"James Walsh, Sergeant, Company A, 102nd Infan-
try. For extraordinary heroism in action September
26, 1918, near Marcheville, France. He displayed re-
markable coolness, courage, and devotion to duty under


terrific shell and machine gun fire. When surrounded
by the enemy he organized men near him, collected the
wounded, and brought them to safety. He was himself
wounded but remained in action until his company was
relieved, several hours later."

In the regular naval service there were sixty-seven
Vermont officers engaged during the World War, four
retired officers and fifty-two officers of the United States
Naval Reserve, a total of one hundred and twenty-three.
Rear Admiral William B. Fletcher was Commander of
Squadron 3 of the patrol force of the Atlantic fleet and
later was assigned to the command of the Hawaiian
naval station. Capt. G. C. Day was assigned to the
America and the Montana; Capt. P. Williams to the
Chester; Commander L. F. Kimball to the San Francisco.
Commander Leigh Noyes was aide on the personnel staff'
of Admiral Mayo. Commander B. F. Taylor was
assigned to duty at the Charleston, S. C, Navy Yard
and later to the ship Northern Pacific. Lieut. Comdr.
G. T. Swasey was assigned to the Balch with the de-
stroyer force based on Ireland. Lieut. Comdr. H. G.
Fuller saw service on the Rhode Island, the New Jersey,
the Wenonah and the Des Moines and at American
headquarters at Paris. Other assignments were: Lieut.
Comdr. Gerard Bradford to the Arizona, the San Diego
and the Louisiana; Lieut. Comdr. G. M. Cook to the
Taconia; Lieut. Comdr. G. C. Hitchcock to the Pulton
and the submarine base at New London, Conn. ; Lieut.
Comdr. A. H. Donahue to the Pulton; Commander
G. P. Auld, in the Bureaus of Supplies and Accounts on
the staff of the commander of the European fleet ; Com-


mander G. C. Mayo, at the Boston Navy Yard; Com-
mander D. W. C. Webb at the Boston and Philadelphia
Navy Yard; Commander R. M. Warfield at the Naval
Air Station at Pensacola, Fla. Capt. G. R. Evans
(retired) was assigned to duty at the American Embassy

Online LibraryWalter Hill CrockettVermont, the Green mountain state (Volume 4) → online text (page 35 of 43)