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wealth, 1919-20. He has been president of the Nona-
tuck Savings Bank.

In 1905 he married Grace Goodhue, daughter of Mr.
and Mrs. Andrew L Goodhue of Burlington, Vt., a
graduate of the University of Vermont in the class of
1902, whom he had met when she was a teacher in the
Clarke School at Northampton. They have two sons,
John and Calvin, Jr.

Mr. Coolidge has a remarkable ability to sum up great
truths in a few^ clear cut, striking phrases. No public
man of modern times has used better or more forceful
English. He is a master of epigram, and his style has
been likened to that of Abraham Lincoln. He has won
an enviable reputation for courage, honesty and ability,
and he ranks easily among the greatest men Vermont has
produced.

One of the first speeches made after his nomination as
a candidate for Vice President was the Commencement
address delivered at the University of Vermont, June 28,



544 HISTORY OF VERMONT

1920, where he received the degree of Doctor of Laws.
A great throng assembled to hear him and his speech
was quoted far and wide. Alkiding to his native State
he said:

"Vermont was fashioned by men with an overmaster-
ing desire to be free. They had their hardships and
their problems, but these differed from those of the orig-
inal colonists, whose chief effort in their formative
period had been for existence. Here it was for inde-
pendence. There was never any doubt about their
ability to survive in their contest with nature. What
was to be the outcome of their contest with man was not
so sure. They could exist, but could they be free and
independent ? The answer was found in the deep deter-
mination of a hardy people to deserve freedom by a read-
iness to die for it and to preserve freedom by establish-
ing a government of laws supported by institutions for
public enlightenment. Ungoverned they founded a
State; unlettered they established a university. With
the directness of men inspired they drew freedom from
the source that exists throughout all generations, a
knowledge of the truth."

Governor Coolidge spent his summer vacation on his
father's farm ill Plymouth. On July 15, 1920, approxi-
mately three thousand persons, including Governor
Clement and most of the State officials, assembled at the
Coolidge homestead to greet the Vice Presidential candi-
date. Hundreds of motor cars and many horse drawn
vehicles brought the visitors. Representatives of press
associations, and metropolitan newspapers were present,



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 545

and with them came photographers and motion picture
men. In a brief speech Governor Coolidge said:

"My guests and fellow Vermonters, I want to thank
you for the reception you have tendered me today. I
want to thank you for coming in such numbers and I am
glad of the respect and compliment your visit has given
me. I am here by right of birth. Vermont is my
birthright and a noble and high birthright for all to
have, and living up to it entails a very great obligation.

"In these mountains, in these brooks hurrying down to
the sea, in lakes shining like silver in their green setting,
and fields cultivated by brain and brawn of man, is a
place of rest. Yonder schoolhouse, a monument to pop-
ular education, the church across the way, by position
and size is a symbol of the temporal and eternal. It
ministers to the reverent.

"It is a great heritage to be reared here among these
hills, given to thrift and industry and all that is noblest
and best. The schools are doing away with ignorance
and aggression by inspiring reverence that ought to be
there with the works of nature all around. The young
men attend school in order that they may understand the
educational advantages of law and order, the privilege of
being Americans and of going on as Americans, faithful
to themselves and all mankind."

In the Democratic National Convention, Vermont's
eight votes were cast for William G. McAdoo on the
first ballot. On the second ballot the vote was:
McAdoo, 4; Cox, 2; Palmer, 2. During the greater
part of the prolonged balloting Vermont's vote was
evenly divided, McAdoo and Cox each receiving four



546 HISTORY OF VERMONT

votes. On the forty-fourth and last ballot all of Ver-
mont's votes were cast for Gov. James M. Cox of Ohio,
who was nominated.

Strong pressure was brought to bear upon Governor
Clement to call an extra session of the Legislature to
ratify the amendment to the Federal Constitution per-
mitting women to vote. The ratification by one more
State was needed to complete the number necessary to
make the amendment efifective, and permit the women
of the country to vote in the elections of 1920. There was
a strong desire on the part of many Vermonters that this
State should have the honor of being the common-
wealth to give the required vote conferring the suffrage
privilege upon the women of America. The Republican
State Convention by a large majority asked the Governor
to convene the General Assembly. This he offered to
do if the Republican National Convention would adopt a
plank calling for a referendum vote on all future consti-
tutional amendments, but such action was not taken.
Governor Clement later conferred with Senator Hard-
ing, the Republican Presidential candidate, but finally
declined to call a special session of the Legislature, issu-
ing a proclamation in which he asserted that the mem-
bers were elected before the question of ratifying the
suffrage amendment had arisen, and proposed that can-
didates for the session of 1921 declare themselves on
this issue. In his proclamation he said:

"The provisions for changes in the Federal Constitu-
tion, to which we Vermonters are loyal subscribers, are
in conflict with those laid down in the Constitution of
Vermont. The Federal Constitution provides that pro-



THE PERIOF:) of the world war 547

posals for change therein shall, if favorable action is
taken thereon by the Congress, be submitted to the Legis-
latures of the several States for their action, and the
Supreme Court of the United States has in a recent
decision, Hawke vs. Smith, June I, 1920, declared:

" 'The referendum provisions of State Constitutions
and statutes cannot be applied, consistently with the Con-
stitution of the United States, in the ratification or re-
jection of amendments to it.'

"This decision leaves the people at the mercy of any
group of men, who may lobby a proposal for change to
the Federal Constitution through Congress and then
through the Legislatures of the States.

"In the face of this situation, I am asked to call the
Legislature of Vermont into extraordinary session, not
for the purpose of debating, considering, deliberating on
the question at issue, but with a majority of its members
pledged beforehand and in private, as I understand it, to
ratify the proposed amendment.

"If the people of V^ermont, in accepting a place in the
Union of States, inadvertently lost in whole or in part
the right of self-government and conferred it on a Legis-
lature, there is all the more reason why a Legislature
should not pass upon a question which has arisen since
their election and upon which their constituents have had
no opportunity to express themselves.

"The people are the supreme governing power of the
State, and the legislators, under our Constitution, are
their representatives and responsible to the people, yet
it is now proposed that their Legislature take action
without the sanction of the people and in direct



548 HISTORY OF VERMONT

invasion of their rights. * * * It is evident from
the reading of the Constitution of Vermont that when
the framers of it accepted in 1791 a place in the Union
of States they had no idea that they were signing away
liberties which had been boldly proclaimed and zealously
guarded up to that time.

"We must now either remodel our own Constitution
to conform with the mandate of the Supreme Court of
the United States, or the Constitution of the United
States must be amended to provide for a referendum to
the freemen of the several States before amendments to
that Constitution become efifective. As it stands and is
interpreted by the Supreme Court today, the Federal
Constitution threatens the foundation of free popular
government. * * *"

Later the Tennessee Legislature ratified the suffrage
amendment and the women of Vermont were able to
participate in the primary election, although the time for
getting their names on voting lists was short.

There were four candidates for the Republican nomi-
nation for Governor in 1920, Frank W. Agan of Lud-
low, Frederick H. Babbitt of Bellows Falls, Curtis S.
Emery of Newport and James Hartness of Springfield.
Mr. Agan, the last candidate in the field, based his can-
didacy on opposition to prohibition and to the Volstead
act, designed to enforce this policy. The result of the
vote in the primaries was as follows : Hartness, 2?>,7Z?> ;
Agan, 12,844; Emery, 12,489; Babbitt, 11,413; scatter-
ing, 1. Many women voted for Mr. Hartness. Abram
W. Foote of Cornwall was nominated for Lieutenant
Governor, receiving 43,776 votes. W. P. Dillingham



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 549

was renominated as a candidate for United States Sena-
tor, receiving 52,666 votes. Fred C. Martin of Benning-
ton was nominated as the Democratic candidate for Gov-
ernor, receiving 3,406 votes.

The Republican State Convention, for the first time
in the history of Vermont, nominated two women as
candidates for Presidential Electors. Ex-Gov. Charles
S. Whitman of New York addressed the convention.
The Democrats also nominated two women for Presi-
dential Electors.

In the November election James Hartness received
66,494 votes as the Republican candidate for Governor
and 1,180 votes as the Prohibition candidate. Fred C.
Martin, the Democratic nominee, received 18,917 votes
and there were 171 scattering votes. The majority-
given Governor Hartness was 48,586. For United
States Senator the vote was: William P. Dillingham
(Rep.), 69,650; Howard E. Shaw (Dem.), of Stowe,
19,580; scattering, 41. Senator Dillingham's majority
was 50,029.

The vote for Presidential Electors was as follows:
Republican, 68,212; Democratic, 20,919; Prohibition,
774; scattering, 56. The Republican majority was
46,463. The Democrats carried only three out of a
total of two hundred and forty-seven towns and cities.
The Presidential vote by counties follows:











Scat-




Rep.


Dem.


Pro.


tering


Addison


. 4,515


503


59




Bennington . .


. 4,172


1,615


40


14


Caledonia . . .


. 5,537


1,694


69


, ,



550



HISTORY OF VERMONT



Chittenden
Essex ....
Franklin .
Grand Isle
Lamoille
Orange . .
Orleans .
Rutland .
Washington
Windham
Windsor



Total



7,215

1,243

4,869

928

2,311
3,713
4,400
8,940
6,418
5,551
8,400



68,212 20,919 774



3,564


86




552


9




2,342


87




354


14




458


47




938


53




738


39




3,192


94


3


1,953


S7


13


1,302


55


, .


1,714


35


26



56



The Presidential Electors chosen were Gardner W.
McGraw of Fair Haven, Mrs. Maud E. Bailey of St.
Johnsbury, William B. McKillip of Burlington and Mrs.
Lillian Olzendam of Burlington.

For the first time in the history of the State the census
of 1920 showed a decrease of Vermont's population,
which was 352,428, a loss of 3,528, or one per cent.
Six counties, Bennington, Chittenden, Franklin, Grand
Isle, Orleans and Windsor, showed gains, Windsor gain-
ing more than 3,000 and Chittenden, more than 1,000.
The counties reporting losses were Addison, Caledonia,
Essex, Lamoille, Orange, Rutland, Washington and
Windham. The census was taken early in the year,
when travelling was difficult in remote districts, when
not a few people were out of the State, and at a time
when the granite and marble industries had not recov-
ered from the losses incident to the war. The depletion
of the rural districts which had been going on for



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 551

well nigh a century, still continued. The agricultural
interests of the State were more prosperous than they
had been for many years and farmers enjoyed more of
the comforts of life than at any previous time, but the
attractions of the cities continued to draw persons from
the farms.

The census figures showed that the population con-
sisted of 178,851 males and 173,577 females.

The population by counties is given herewith:

Addison 18,666

Bennington 21,577

Caledonia 25,762

Chittenden 43,708

Essex 7,364

Franklin 30,026

Grand Isle 3,784

Lamoille 11,858

Orange 17,279

Orleans 23,913

Rutland 46,213

Washington 38,921

Windham 26,343

Windsor 36,984

Total 352,428

The towns and cities having a population exceeding
2,500 are given herewith: Burlington, 22,779; Rut-
land City, 14,954; Barre City, 10,008; Bennington,
9,982; St. Johnsbury, 8,708; Brattleboro, 8,332; St.
Albans City, 7,588; Springfield, 7,202; Montpelier,



552 HISTORY OF VERMONT

7,125; Colchester, 6,627; Rockingham, 6,231; Newport
City, 4,976; Hartford, 4,739; Barre Town, 3,862; Wind-
sor, 3,687; Lyndon, 3,558; Waterbury, 3,542; Barton,
3,506; West Rutland, 3,391; Swanton, 3,343; North-
field, 3,096; Randolph, 3,010; Middlebury, 2,914; Bran-
don, 2,874; Poultney, 2,868; Richford, 2,842; Morris-
town, 2,813; Hardwick, 2,641; Fair Haven, 2,540.

The largest gain made was that of the industrial town
of Springfield, which practically doubled its population
in the decade. The average density of population per
square mile was 38.6.

Only the preliminary agricultural and industrial
figures from the census of 1920 were available when this
chapter was written. These statistics showed that in
1919 the total value of Vermont crops amounted to
$48,006,628, compared with a total value of $23,697,700
in 1919. This increase was due to higher prices rather
than to largely increased yields. The total value of
cereals was $5,171,758; of hay and forage, $29,581,464;
of potatoes, $5,110,252; of other vegetables, $2,337,002;
and of other fruits, $1,957,515.

The acreage and yield of the principal Vermont crops
in 1919 was as follows:

Acres Bushels

Corn 21,186 937,375

Oats 83,097 2,396,349

Wheat 11,276 176,003

Barley 8,594 196,815

Hay and forage 991,757 1,748,358 (tons)

Other forage crops, inchid-

ing silage 83,900 571,509 (tons)

Potatoes 24,182 2,277,387



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 553

Maple sugar 6,251,734 (pounds)

Maple syrup 631,924 (gallons)

Strawberries 275 428,335 (quarts)

Apples 712,594 (trees) 960,252

The acreage of wheat had increased from 678 in 1909
to 11,276 in 1919, the increase being due largely to a
revival of wheat growing during the World War.

There were in Vermont in 1920, 29,075 farms, the
total area of which was 4,235,811 acres, and the area of
improved land, 1,641,895 acres. Since 1910 the number
of farms had decreased 11.1 per cent, and the total
acreage, 9.2 per cent. The improved acreage had in-
creased 3.5 per cent. The number of farms operated by
owners was 25,121, of which number 12,225 were mort-
gaged and 12,132 were free from mortgage. The aver-
age acreage per farm was 145.7 compared with 142.6 in
1910. The value of all farm property was $222,736,620,
an increase during the decade of 53.2 per cent. The
value of land and buildings was $159,117,159, an in-
crease of 41.3 per cent; of implements and machinery,
$21,234,130, an increase of 108.8 per cent; and of live
stock, $42,385,331, an increase of 87.2 per cent. The
average value of land and buildings was $5,473, com-
pared with $3,442 in 1910. The amount paid farm labor
in 1919 was $7,712,305.

The number of horses in Vermont in 1920 was
77,231, valued at $10,421,141. The total number of
cattle was 435,480, of which number 14,200 were beef
cattle. Dairy cows numbered 290,122, Vermont's rank
being twenty-seventh. The value of all cattle was
$28,502,803, and the total value of dairy cows, $23,027,-



554 HISTORY OF VERMONT

209. There were 62,756 sheep, valued at $723,683,
73,761 swine and 10,024 hives of bees. The total pro-
duction of milk, in 1919, was 122,095,734 gallons, com-
pared with 114,317,169 gallons in 1909.

This State manufactured in 1919, 10,676,538 pounds
of creamery butter, ranking nineteenth among the States,
and 38,987,068 pounds of condensed and evaporated
milk, only eight States exceeding this production. Ver-
mont ranked tenth in the production of cheese, manu-
facturing, in 1919, 4,431,834 pounds.

The value of all dairy products, excluding home use
of milk and cream, was $27,152,954. The production of
wool was 417,955 pounds; and of honey, 234,326 pounds.
There were 1,015,742 chickens, valued at $1,300,150;
and 5,166,689 dozens of eggs were produced, valued at
$2,738,345.

According to the crop reports of the United States
Department of Agriculture for 1920, Vermont's average
yield of corn per acre, 47 bushels, was larger than that
of any other State, and exceeded by more than 52 per
cent the average yield per acre for the United States.

Average crop values per acre for the United States
and Vermont for the period 1910-18, compiled from
Government figures, indicate the fertility of Vermont
soil.

United States Vermont

Corn $19.91 $ 44.63

Wheat 17.67 34.12

Oats 15.18 24.13

Barley 17.94 29.26

Rye 15.51 21.61



GEORGE HARVEY

Born in Peacham, Vt., February i6, 1864. In his early
life he was a newspaper reporter and editor. Later he con-
structed and was president of several electric railways. He
purchased the North American Review in 1899 and was its
editor until 192 1. He was president of the firm of Harper
Bros, for fifteen years and later edited and published Honey's
Weekly. In 192 1 he was appointed United States Ambassador
to Great Britain.




Y вАҐ17JT/.VI arr



TIIK I1-:kl()l) OF THE WORLD WAR 555

Buckwheat 17.79 23.52

Potatoes 78.59 105.74

Hay 19.02 19.35

The average returns per acre for eight staple crops
for the nine years, 1910-18, were:

United States $25.20

Vermont 37.82

A preliminary statement concerning the manufactures
of Vermont indicated a considerable gain over the figures
for 1914, although some of the principal stone industries
suffered seriously during the war on account of shortage
of labor, insufficient transportation and decreased de-
mand. The following summary is given:

Per cent of
1919 1914 Increase
Number of establish-
ments 1,792 1,772 1.1

Persons engaged in man-
ufactures 38,908 37,217 4.5

Proprietors and firm

members 1,806 1,787 1.1

Salaried employees 3,568 2,726 30.9

Wage earners (average

number) 33,534 32,70+ 2.5

Primary horse power... 185,107 173,937 6.4

Capital $134,020,000 $79,847,000 67.8

Services 41,530,000 22.002,000 88.8

Salaries 7,4<H,000 3.385,000 118.7

Wages 34.126,000 18,617,000 83.3

Materials 95,175,000 42,706,000 122.9

Value of products 168.159,000 76,991,000 118.4

Value added by manu-
facture 72.984,000 34,285.000 1 12.9



556 HISTORY OF VERMONT

The gathering of manufacturing statistics came at an
unfortunate period for the quarrying and mining indus-
tries of Vermont, and does not indicate normal condi-
tions. Many foreign laborers in the quarries and shops
returned to Europe to fight in the battles of the World
War. Lack of labor, lack of transportation, a falling
off of orders and numerous difficulties resulted in a
serious depression in the granite, marble and slate
industries.

The census figures, compiled in 1919, showed 108
mines and quarries in Vermont, a decrease of 42.6 per
cent since 1909. There were 3,239 persons engaged, a
decrease of 62.9 per cent in the decade. The average
number of wage earners was 2,936, a loss of 64.2 per
cent. The capital invested was $10,709,058, a decrease
of 28.6 per cent. Wages paid amounted to $3,041,551,
a falling off of 32 per cent. The value of products was
$8,554,030, a gain of 4 per cent. The value of granite
sold in 1917 was $15,544,957; in 1914, $20,160,730.
The value of marble sold in 1917 was $6,330,387; in
1914, $8,121,412..

James Hartness, elected Governor in 1920, was born
in Schenectady, N. Y., September 3, 1861. He was edu-
cated in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio, where his
childhood and youth were passed, and there he began
practical work in machinery building plants. For three
years he was foreman of a manufacturing plant in Win-
sted. Conn., and for the four years following was
employed in a hardware manufacturing plant in Tor-
rington. Conn., where he perfected some inventions.
In the fall of 1888 he entered the employ of the Jones



THE PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 557

and Lamson Machine Company of Springfield, Vt.,
where he designed machinery. He served successively
as superintendent, manager and president. He has been
a notable inventor, perfecting the flat turret lathe and
making Springfield the chief manufacturing center of
the turret lathe in the world. He is interested in
astronomy and invented the turret equatorial telescope,
which protects the astronomer from the severity of a
winter climate. He has erected an observatory at his
Springfield home. He is one of the prominent manufac-
turers of New England and one of the most widely
known engineers in the country. He has taken out
nearly one hundred patents on his inventions. In 1914
he was elected president of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers. In 1920 he headed the list of
four eminent scientists and inventors to receive awards
from the century-old fund given to Philadelphia by John
Scott. He is a member of various American and for-
eign scientific societies. He has received the honorary
degrees of M. E. from the University of Vermont, M. A.
from Yale University, and LL. D. from the University
of Vermont and Norwich University.

He has held the offices of Chairman of the State Board
of Education, Federal Food Administrator for Vermont,
Chairman of the Vermont Committee of Public Safety,
and represented the United States Air Board at the
Inter-Allied Standardization Conference at London and
Paris during the war.

The House organized by electing as Speaker, Frank-
lin S. Billings of Woodstock. In his retiring message
Governor Clement called attention to the fact that in the



558 HISTORY OF VERMONT

purchase of a considerable area near the Sandbar
Bridge, in Milton, for a migratory wild fowl sanctuary,
Vermont was the first Eastern State to join the nation-
wide movement for wild life conservation. He approved
the parole method of handling prisoners and called atten-
tion to the unequal assessment of property in certain in-
stances. He favored increased salaries for State
officers, particularly for the Judges of the Supreme
Court and Superior Courts.

In his inaugural message Governor Hartness wel-
comed women to active participation in State affairs,
Miss Edna L. Beard having a seat in the House as the
member from Orange and being the first woman to be-
come a member of the Vermont Legislature. He urged
that the spirit of cooperation awakened during the war
should be continued. He discussed the labor situation
and the possibility of establishing desirable industries,
advocating the development of new plants as the out-
growth of existing industries. He suggested that the
future growth of towns would depend in large measure
upon their alertness in providing safe landings for
aircraft.

Early in the legislative session, on January 18, 1921,
Vice President-elect Calvin Coolidge addressed a joint
assembly, speaking under the auspices of the Vermont
Historical Society. In his address he paid an eloquent
tribute to his native State, saying in part:

"The State House of Vermont holds an interest for
me that no public building can ever exceed. This hall
of the House of Representatives has a fascination that
is unapproachable. Here my father sat as a member



THE rEr<ion of the world war 559

of the Legislature and his father before him. At an age
so early that my memory holds no previous recollection,
I was brought here by my mother and my grandfather
to visit my father, and among other experiences, seated
in the chair of the Chief Executive with a veneration
which has forever marked for me the reverence due that
righteous authority which is vested in a government
over which the people are supreme. Compared with that
visit no other journey will ever seem of equal impor-
tance. No other experience will ever touch in like man-
ner and in like degree my imagination. Here I first
saw that sacred fire which lights the altar of my country.

"These surroundings make a proper setting for the



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