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and Rutland, showed gains. Six counties, Addison,
Grand Isle, Orange, Washington, Windham and Wind-
sor reported losses. The largest gains were made in


Chittenden and Rutland counties. The following table
gives the population by counties :

Addison 23,484

Bennington 21,325

Caledonia 22,235

Chittenden 36,480

Essex 6,81 1

Franklin 30,291

Grand Isle 4,082

Lamoille 12,488

Orange 23,090

Orleans 21,035

Rutland 40,651

Washington 26,520

Windham 26,723

Windsor 35,196

The following towns and cities contained a popula-
tion in excess of 2,500: Burlington, 14,387; Rutland,
9,834; St. Albans, 7,014; Bennington, 5,760; Brattle-
boro, 4,933; St. Johnsbury, 4,665; Colchester, 3,911;
Brandon, 3,571; Northfield, 3,410; Castleton, 3,243;
Middlebury, 3,086; Montpelier, 3,023; Springfield,
2,937; Woodstock, 2,910; Swanton, 2,866; Rocking-
ham, 2,854; Poultney, 2,836; Randolph, 2,829; Water-
bury, 2,633.

Agricultural statistics show that there were in 1870,
3,073,257 acres of improved and 1,386,934 acres of un-
improved land. The cash value of farms amounted to
$139,367,075. The total value of farm property was
$134,804,951. There were 33,827 farms in the State.


The average value of land and buildings was $3,296, and
of all farm property, $3,985. The aggregate value of
domestic animals, poultry and bees, was $19,111,068.
The average value per acre was $37.21, but this was not
the gold value.

There were in the State in 1870, 180,285 milch cows.
112,741 other cattle and 27,809 working oxen. There
were 65,015 horses, 580,347 sheep, and 46,345 swine.
Pounds of wool produced amounted to 3,102,137: pounds
of butter made, 17,844,396; pounds of cheese made,
4,830,700. Vermont ranked ninth in pounds of butter
made and sixteenth in number of milch cows. Crop
yields were reported as follows: Barley, 117,333 bu. ;
buckwheat, 415,096 bu. ; corn, 1,699,882 bu. ; oats,
3,602,430 bu.; rye, 73,346 bu. ; wheat, 454,703 bu.;
hay, 1,020,669 tons; potatoes, 5,157,428 bu. ; field beans,
95,242 bu.; tobacco, 72,671 lbs.; hops, 527,927 lbs.;
flax, 12,899 lbs. ; sweet potatoes, 96 bu. ; orchard products
(value), $682,241; maple sugar, 8,894,302 lbs.; maple
syrup, 12,023 gals.; honey, 142,932 lbs.; forest products
(value), $1,238,929.

The total value of the manufactures in the State in
1870 was $32,184,606. Some of the more important
products are given herewith : Woolen goods, $3,550,962 ;
cotton goods, $546,510; manufactures of leather,
$2,052,913; lumber mill products, $6,060,725; planed
lumber, $2,554,603; building materials, $7,428,470:
scales, $1,629,000; sash, doors and blinds, $518,125 ; food
and food preparations, $4,608,191. There were in the
State 66 woolen factories, cmj)loying 1,895 hands; 8 cot-
ton mills, with 28,768 spindles, 628 looms, and employ-


Born at Waterbury, V't., December 14, 1837. He enlisted
in the First Vermont Cavalry, going out as Captain. He was
promoted to the rank of Major, Colonel, Brigadier General
and brevet Major General and was the last commander of
the Cavalry Corps. He was awarded a medal of honor for
gallantry at Gettysburg and participated in seventy cavalry
engagements. After the war he became a prominent Bur-
lington manufacturer. He served in both branches of the
Legislature and was Collector of Customs for the district
of Vermont. He died April 29, 1892.



ing 451 hands. The total number of hands employed
in manufacturing estabHshments was 18,686, and the
aggregate amount of capital invested was $20,329,637.
There were 656 lumber mills in the State, employing
4,124 hands, and 19 planed lumber mills, employing 1,342
hands. Lumber was the most valuable product of the
State, in 1870, and the lumber industry of Chittenden
county employed more men than any other industry in
any Vermont county.

There were in Vermont, in 1870, 86 tanneries and
64 establishments making curried leather; 2 scale fac-
tories; 45 agricultural implement factories; 43 mills
making sash, doors and blinds ; 7 hosiery mills ; 97 estab-
lishments making tin, copper and sheet iron ware; 47
making furniture; Z7 making machinery; 169 manufac-
turing carriages and sleds; 29 engaged in marble and
stone work ; 5 basket factories ; 4 paper box factories ; 1
brass foundry; 18 brick yards; 2 bridge plants; 1 brush
factory ; 2 car shops ; 5 charcoal and coke works ; 7 coffin
shops ; 3 confectionery factories ; 4 factories making fire
arms and ammunition ; 2 nail factories ; 1 kaolin estab-
lishment ; 12 lime kilns ; 1 match factory ; 6 patent medi-
cine establishments; 37 starch factories; 7 cigar fac-
tories; 1 stone and earthen ware factory; 2 upholstery
mills; 6 factories making washing machines and wring-
ers; 21 wooden ware factories; 21 wood turning and
carving establishments: 29 wool carding and cloth
dressing mills; 20 establishments making boots and
shoes; 81 flouring mills.

The value of some of the manufactured products is
given herewith: Articles of wear, $1,824,796: marble


and stone products, $960,984; furniture and house
fixtures, $898,103; boots and shoes, $838,325; machin-
ery (not specified), $756,080; carriages and wagons,
$620,207; iron and its manufactures, $589,020; tin, cop-
per and sheet iron ware, v$505,005; iron castings,
$481,520; car shops, $452,470; men's clothing, $361,025;
chair factories, $355,085; organs, $344,874; paper,
$318,510; saddlery and harness, $286,071; packing
boxes, $238,786; roofing materials, $228,675; printing
and publishing, $220,960 ; children's sleds and carriages,

Statistics for mining and quarrying show that there
were 50 establishments in the State in 1870, employing
701 hands, with an output valued at $515,565. The
various mines and quarries in operation were dis-
tributed as follows: Addison county, one marble
quarry; Bennington county, four ochre mines and one
marble quarry; Grand Isle county, one stone quarry;
Orange county, two copper mines and one peat bed;
Rutland county, five marble quarries and thirty slate
quarries ; Washington county, five slate quarries ; Wind-
ham county, one iron mine. No reference is made to
granite quarries.

Woolen factories were distributed as follows : Addi-
son, 2; Bennington, 1; Caledonia, 3; Chittenden. 3;
Franklin, 5 ; Lamoille, 1 ; Orange, 3 ; Orleans, 1 ; Rut-
land, 2; Washington, 5; Windham, 4; Windsor, 12.
There was one worsted goods mill in Rutland county.
Vermont reported 1,984 water wheels and produced
44,897 water horse power. Vermont ranked seventh in


water horse power, twenty-first in value of products
manufactured and twenty-second in all industries.

The Republican State Convention of 1870 nominated
John W. Stewart of Middlebury for Governor over
Julius Converse of Woodstock, by a vote of 125 to 74.
George N. Dale of Island Pond was nominated by accla-
mation for Lieutenant Governor. Homer W. Heaton of
Montpelier was the Democratic candidate for Governor.
The official vote was as follows: Stewart, 33,367;
Heaton, 12,058; scattering, 4.

John Wolcott Stewart, the first Vermonter elected
Governor for a term of two years, was born in Middle-
bury, November 24, 1825. He was graduated from
Middlebury College in the class of 1846, read law in the
office of Hon. Horatio Seymour and was admitted to the
bar in 1850. In 1854 he formed a partnership with Ex-
Senator S. S. Phelps. He was State's Attorney of Addi-
son county, 1851-54; represented Middlebury in the
Legislature, 1856-57, 1864-67, and in 1876, serving as
Speaker in 1865, 1866, 1867 and 1876; Senator from
Addison county, 1861-62; Governor for two years;
member of Congress, 1883-91 ; United States Senator
to succeed Senator Redfield Proctor in 1908, appointed
by the Governor to fill the vacancy until an election could
be held. For several years he was president of the Mid-
dlebury Bank. He died, October 12, 1915. Governor
Stewart, as he was known for many years, was a man
of unusual ability, an efficient public servant, and a
genial companion. During his long public career, cover-
ing a period of fifty-six years, he knew a great number
of influential men in the State and Nation, and his


reminiscences of persons and events were exceedingly
interesting. He was for many years a trustee of Mid-
dlebury College.

Congressmen Poland, Willard and Smith were re-
elected. Charles H. Joyce of Rutland was chosen

In his inaugural message. Governor Stewart referred
to the loss sustained by the State in the death of Gov-
ernor Washburn. He called attention to the need of
amending the laws to conform to the biennial term of
State officers. He reported a manifest advance in the
cause of popular education and referred to the evils
of the jail system.

The Legislature made the necessary changes in the
statutes required by the transfer from annual to biennial
elections. The educational laws were amended so that
towns might abolish school districts and establish a town
system. Compulsory school attendance was required
between the ages of eight and fourteen. The sum of one
thousand dollars was appropriated for each of the three
State Normal Schools. A Board of Agriculture, Manu-
factures and Mining was established to consist of the
Governor, the president of the State Agricultural Col-
lege and six other persons. State Senators were appor-
tioned among the several counties as follows: Addi-
son, 2; Bennington. 2; Caledonia, 2; Chittenden. ?>:
Essex, 1; Franklin, 3; Grand Isle. 1: Lamoille, 1:
Orange, 2; Orleans, 2; Rutland, 4; Washington,
2; Windham, 2; Windsor, 3. The State Treasurer was
authorized to purchase the necessary gold coin with
which to pay State bonds due in 187L A resolution was


adopted providing for the preservation of the battle flags
of the State, carried by the various regiments during
the Civil War.

A State Convention to elect delegates to the Republi-
can National Convention was held at Bellows Falls on
May 1, 1872. The National administration was cor-
dially endorsed and Vermont's first preference for can-
didates was said to be for the renomination of Grant
and Colfax. A resolution favoring Henry Wilson of
Massachusetts as the second choice of the convention
for Vice President was tabled, an act which later was the
cause of no little embarrassment to the Republicans of
the State. The delegates-at-large elected were: John
Gregory Smith of St. Albans, Horace Fairbanks of St.
Johnsbury, Benjamin H. Steele of Hartland (over Ex-
Gov. Frederick Holbrook of Brattleboro) and George
W. Grandey of Vergennes. The following district dele-
gates were chosen: First District — George A. Tuttle
of Rutland, George Nichols of Northfield; Second Dis-
trict — James Hutchinson, Jr., of Randolph, William
Harris, Jr., of Windham; Third District — George Wil-
kins of Stowe, Lav/rence Barnes of Burlington.

The outstanding feature of the campaign of 1872
was the opposition of certain Republicans to the renomi-
nation of President Grant. A Liberal Republican
National Convention, held at Cincinnati, May 1-3,
placed in nomination a ticket headed by Horace Greeley,
editor of the New York Tribune, for President, and
B. Gratz Brown of Missouri for Vice President. The
Vermont delegates to this convention were Rockwood
Barrett, Charles Clement, Maj. J. A. Salisbury and John

50 illSTORV 01<^ VERMONT

Landoii of Rutland, Cicorge W. Bolton of Castleton,
J. B. llollistcr of Manchester, Jed P. Ladd of Alhiirg
and William 11. lliiestis of Ascutneyville. On the first
four ballots the Vermont delegation cast seven votes
for Horace Greeley and one vote for Charles Francis
Adams. On the fifth ballot the vote was divided equally
between Greeley and Adams.

At the Republican National Convention, held at Phila-
deli)hia. June 5-6, Ex-Gov. J. Gregory Smith announced,
when the name of the State was called, "Vermont, as
ever loyal, casts her ten votes for Ulysses S. Grant."
The Vermont vote for a Vice Presidential candidate was
cast for Schuyler Colfax of Indiana. President Grant
was renominated and Henry Wilson was nominated for
Vice President.

A stormy Democratic State Convention was held at
Montpelier on June 12. Four-fifths of the delegates
favored the endorsement of Greeley and the majority
leaders were IT. B. Smith of Milton, B. B. Smalley of
Burlington and Hiram Atkins of Montpelier. The
minority, led l)y John Cain of Rutland, Charles N.
naveni)ort of Brattleboro and Gen. L. S. Partridge of
Norwich, opposed a coalition with the Liberal Republi-
cans. The platform adopted indicated a willingness to
cooperate with the bolting Republicans and the following
delegates, favorable to an endorsement of the Greeley-
Brown ticket, were electe<:l: H. B. Smith of Milton,
George 11. Weeks of Lyndon, William T. Horrobin of
Bennington, Homer W. Heaton of Montpelier, Bradley
B. v^malley of Burlington, James H. Williams of Bel-
lows Falls, George W. Aiken of Troy, Charles J. Soper


of Middlebury, Thomas Keefe of Windsor and Lucius
Robinson of Newport.

The Republican Convention to nominate a State ticket
was one of the most largely attended ever held. There
were three candidates for Governor on the first ballot,
Governor Stewart, Julius Converse of Woodstock and
Frederick Billings of Woodstock. After the first ballot
had been taken Governor Stewart's name was withdrawn
and much of his strength was thrown to Mr. Converse,
who was nominated by a very narrow margin. The
vote was: Converse, 202; Billings, 194; scattering, 4.
Russell S. Taft of Burlington was nominated for Lieu-
tenant Governor over Henry Clark of Rutland.
Speeches were made by Senator Morrill and by Mr. Bil-
lings, the defeated candidate. The eloquence of Mr.
Billings' speech aroused such enthusiasm that it was
frequently remarked that had such a speech been made
before, rather than after the voting, he would have been
the nominee.

Mr. Billings was one of Vermont's great men. Born
at Royalton, Vt., September 27, 1823, he removed with
his father to Woodstock in 1835. He was prepared
for college in the Woodstock schools and entered the
University of Vermont at the age of seventeen, graduat-
ing in the class of 1844. He studied law and was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1848. In 1846 he was appointed
Secretary of Civil and Military Affairs by Governor
Eaton, serving two terms. In 1848 he went to Califor-
nia, and began the practice of law at San Francisco,
where he soon acquired wealth and influence. He be-
came a partner in the law firm of Halleck, Peachy, Bil-


lings and Park, the head of the firm later being General-
-in-Chief of the Union armies during a part of the Civil
War, and the junior member, Mr. Park, later was a dis-
tinguished citizen of Bennington, Vt. Mr. Billings be-
came prominent in the affairs of California and it was
reported that President Lincoln shortly before his death
contemplated inviting him to take a seat in the Cabinet.
After his marriage in 1862 to Julia, daughter of Eleazer
Parmly of Xew York, he closed his business in San Fran-
cisco and after a period spent in foreign travel returned
to Woodstock, Vt., which, thereafter, was his home.
After the failure of Jay Cooke, in 1873. Mr. P>illings
became interested in the Northern Pacific Railroad enter-
prise, which was in financial straits, lie bought a large
block of the stock, secured additional capital, and was
active in pushing the work to completion, although he
sold enough stock to Henry V'illard to give the latter
control before the work was actually finished. I le was
interested in all good things, in religion, in education,
in art. His noble gift of a beautiful library building
to the University of Vermont is a monument alike to his
generosity and his artistic taste. He died September 30.

Luke \\ Poland was renominated for Congressman
over B. II. Steele of Derby, by a vote of 93 to ()0.

A Liberal Republican State Convention was held at
Burlington, of which Daniel Roberts was chairman. .'\
Democratic Convention was held at the same place on
the same day, and a fusion ticket was agreed upon.
A. B. Ciardner was nominated for Governor, and
W. H. H. Bingham of Stowe, a Democrat, was nomi-


nated for Lieutenant Governor. Later in the campaign
the "Straight-out" Democrats, who had nominated a
national ticket headed by Charles O'Conor of New York
and John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, held a State
Convention. A call was issued, signed by Charles N.
Davenport and others, and an electoral ticket was

Early in the campaign the coalition of Democrats and
Liberal Republicans appeared to be formidable.
Strenuous efforts were made by both parties. During
the summer President Grant spent a few days with
George M. Pullman at his summer home at Thousand
Islands, N. Y. On Wednesday morning, August 7,
General and Mrs. Grant, their sons, Fred and Jesse
Grant, Gen. P. H. Sheridan and Gen. Horace Porter,
arrived at Ogdensburg, N. Y. The directors' car of
the Central Vermont Railroad carried the distinguished
party to Plattsburg, where a steamboat trip to Lake
George was arranged. An invitation was extended, ask-
ing the President and his party to visit Burlington, and
it was accepted. The guests arrived on the Oakes Ames
on Thursday morning, August 8, and were met at the
steamboat wharf, where carriages were taken for a drive
around the city. A procession was formed and the visi-
tors were driven through the principal streets amid the
cheers of the people and the ringing of bells. Many of
the buildings along the route were decorated. A recep-
tion was held at the American House, the citizens being
presented by Mayor Dodge and Gen. William Wells.
Returning to the wharf, the visitors embarked on the


steamer Vermont for the trip to the southern part of the

During the campaign Mr. Greeley visited the Ver-
mont State Fair, held at St. Johnsbury, where he deliv-
ered a speech on agriculture and greeted many people.

The result of the election showed a gain of 4,000 in
the Republican majority over that of 1870, which, it was
believed, foreshadowed Grant's reelection. The vote
was: Converse, 41,946; Gardner, 16,613; scattering,

Vermont's vote for President by counties in 1872 was
as follows:

Anti-Greelev Scatter-

Addison . . .
Caledonia . .
Chittenden .


Franklin . . .
Grand Isle .
Lamoille . . .
Orange . . .
Orleans . . .
Rutland . . .
Windsor . .

Total .... 41,480 10.926 55?> 21

Majority for Grant, 29,980.












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The Vermont Presidential Electors, who cast their
votes for Ulysses S. Grant and Henry Wilson, were
Harmon Canfield of Arlington, Elisha P. Jewett of
Montpelier, Alonson Allen of Fair Haven, Abishai Stod-
dard of Townshend and Romeo H. Start of Burlington.

Franklin Fairbanks of St. Johnsbury was elected
Speaker. Governor Converse, in his inaugural message,
opposed the purchase of Vermont bonds at a large
premium, when they had only a few years to run. In
his opinion the burden of taxation was unequally dis-
tributed. The enforcement of the liquor laws in some
parts of the State was "lamentably neglected if not
wholly disregarded." He recommended the establish-
ment of a public library in every town in the State.

The Legislature passed an act reorganizing the militia.
One regiment of infantry was authorized, containing
twelve companies, each company to contain fifty-one
officers and men. The formation and operation of rail-
road companies were regulated by law. Authority was
given towns and cities to aid in constructing railroads,
but the liability assumed must not exceed eight times the
amount of the grand list. The editing, printing and
publishing of the journals of the Council of Safety and
the Governor and Council were authorized and the office
of State Geologist was created.

The bondholders under the first or second mortgages
of the Vermont Central Railroad, and others were in-
corporated as the Central Vermont Railroad Company,
for the purpose of purchasing the Vermont Central or
Vermont and Canada Railroad, or both. Ten other
railroad companies were incorporated. The acts of in-


corporation numbered one hundred and sixty-five. Joint
resolutions were adopted, approving the course of Presi-
dent Grant in his endeavor to reform the civil service,
and accepting a bust of Gov. Erastus Fairbanks.

Governor Converse was nearly seventy-four years old
when he entered upon his duties. He was born at Staf-
ford, Conn., December 27, 1798. He came to Ver-
mont in 1801, was educated in the common schools and
Randolph Academy. He studied law in the office of
William Nutting at Randolph, and was admitted to the
bar in 1826. He began the practice of law at Bethel,
where he formed a partnership with A. P. Hunton. In
1840 he removed to Woodstock and formed a partner-
ship, first with Andrew Tracy and later with James
Barrett. He represented Bethel in the Legislature in
1833; was a member of the first and the second Senate,
from Windsor county, in 1836 and 1837; was State's
Attorney of Windsor county, 1844-47; represented
Woodstock in the Legislature, 1847-49 and 1867-68: and
was Lieutenant Governor, 1850-52.

Congressmen Poland and Willard were reelected.
Congressman Worthington C. Smith was succeeded by
George W. Hendee of Morrisville. Mr. Hendee was
born at Stowe, November 30, 1832. He was educated
in the public schools and at People's Academy, Morris-
ville. He studied law in the office of W. G. Ferrin of
Johnson and was admitted to the bar in 1855, opening an
office at Morrisville. He served as State's Attorney of
Lamoille county, 1857-59; represented Morristown in the
Legislature, 1861-62; was Deputy Provost Marshal dur-
ing the Civil War; was Senator from Lamoille county,


1866-68; and was chosen Lieutenant Governor in 1869.
When Governor Washburn died, February 7, 1870, he
succeeded to the Governorship, serving until his suc-
cessor qualified in October of that year. His Congres-
sional service included three terms, 1873-79. He was a
member of the Committee on Private Land Claims and
the District of Columbia, and aided in drafting and
securing the passage of a bill changing the form of gov-
ernment of the Federal District. Governor Hendee was
National Bank Examiner from 1879 to 1885. For many
years he was a director of the Portland and Ogdens-
burg Railroad and at one time was president of the
Montreal, Portland and Boston Railroad of Canada.
He was also a director and vice president of the Union
Savings Bank and Trust Company of Morrisville. He
died December 6, 1906.

One of the principal events of 1873 was the dedication
at Burlington, on July 4, of a lofty monument, sur-
mounted by a statue of Ethan Allen, over the grave of
the hero of Ticonderoga. The exercises included a mili-
tary and civic parade and an oration by Lucius E. Chit-
tenden. The Governor and his staff. Judges and other
public officials, and sixteen veterans of the War of 1812
were in attendance. It is estimated that ten thousand
persons were present at the dedication.

Before the electoral votes cast in 1868 were officially
counted. Senator Edmunds, on February 8, 1869, intro-
duced a resolution relating to the vote of the State of
Georgia. In this connection Rhodes says: "Edmunds
was one of the best lawyers in the Senate, and to settle
the difficult question had proposed the plan which fol-


lowed the precedents of 1821 and 1837 in the cases of
Missouri and Michigan." Rhodes frequently refers to
the part taken by Senator Edmunds in the great debates
of the Reconstruction period, mentioning his clear legal
mind and his power of sarcasm. Writing of the Ku-
Klux bill, which was pending in 1871, this eminent his-
torian says: "The Senate Committee on the Judiciary
w^as a strong body. Of the seven who composed it five
were excellent lawyers, Trumbull (the chairman),

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