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missioner. The town of Salem was annexed to Derby.

The redistribution of Congressional seats resulted in


a loss of one Vermont Congressman and the State was
divided into two districts, the First including Addison,
Bennington, Chittenden, Franklin, Grand Isle, Lamoille
and Rutland counties, and the Second, Caledonia, Essex,
Orange, Orleans, Washington, Windham and Windsor

A resolution was adopted hailing with satisfaction the
efforts of President Hayes to reform the civil service.
A joint resolution was adopted inviting General Grant to
visit Vermont as the guest of the State. He accepted
for the week of October 24, but later was obliged to de-
cline the invitation.

Twenty-three proposals of amendment to the State
Constitution were presented to the Senate. The first,
changing the date of the State election to November and
the convening of the Legislature to January, was adopted
by the Senate, 20 to 0, but was rejected by the House,
li to 133.

A House of Representatives of one hundred and fifty
members, apportioned according to population, was
adopted in the Senate, 20 to 0, and rejected in the House,
14 to 140.

Other proposals were as follows : Forbidding legisla-
tion enabling towns to aid railroads, was adopted, 26 to
in the Senate, and 144 to 3 in the House; in 1882, con-
curred in by the House, 144 to 3, but rejected by the
Senate, 12 to 16, lacking the necessary two-thirds vote.

Providing for annual instead of biennial elections and
sessions of the Legislature, rejected by the Senate.

Making members of the General Assembly ineligible


to election to any executive or judicial office, rejected
by the Senate.

Providing for special elections to fill vacancies in the
Senate or House, adopted by the Senate, 22 to 0, and
by the House, 132 to 25; in 1882, rejected by the Senate,
6 to 22, and by the House, 38 to 131.

Repealing amendments requiring election of Assist-
ant Judges of county courts, rejected by the Senate.

Relating to trials by jury in cases where real estate
was not involved and the amount in controversy did not
exceed one hundred dollars, rejected by the Senate.

Empowering the Governor, the Senate and the House
to require the opinion of the Supreme Court, adopted by
the Senate, 25 to 0, but concurrence refused by the

Enabling constitutional amendments to be proposed
at any legislative session, rejected by the Senate.

Limiting municipal indebtedness, rejected by a vote of
13 to 1 1, being less than the necessary two-thirds.

Relating to the returning and canvassing of votes for
State officers, adopted by the Senate, 25 to 0, but re-
jected by the House.

Empowering the Governor to veto certain items in
appropriation bills, rejected by the Senate.

Empowering the Legislature to establish one Supreme
Court for the State and to regulate terms and places of
session, rejected by a vote of 10 to 17.

Creating an advisory board of pardons, adopted by
the Senate, 21 to 7, and by the House, 132 to 13 ; in 1882,
adopted by the Senate, 25 to 0, but rejected by the House,
164 to 0.


Making special charters subject to alteration, amend-
ment or repeal by future Legislatures, adopted by the
Senate, 26 to 0, but not reported out of committee to
the House.

Requiring an additional oath of members of the Gen-
eral Assembly concerning Federal offices of profit or
trust and defining such offices, adopted by the Senate,
27 to 0, and by the House, 123 to 0; in 1882, concurred
in by the Senate, 19 to 9, and by the House, 125 to 2.

Providing for the election of the Secretary of State
and Auditor of Accounts by popular vote, adopted by
the Senate, 21 to 1, and by the House, 132 to 13 ; in 1882,
concurred in by the Senate, 16 to 12, and by the House,
159 to 27.

Relating to future proposals of amendment, rejected
by the Senate.

Permitting constitutional amendments to be proposed
every fourth year, adopted by the Senate, 22 to 1, but
rejected by the House.

Prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating
liquors, adopted by the Senate, 21 to 1, and by the
House, 134 to 28; in 1882, concurred in by the Senate,
23 to 5, but rejected by the House, 117 to 78.

The only proposals of amendment submitted to the
people on March 6, 1883, were the nineteenth, relating
to an additional oath for members of the General
Assembly, and the twentieth, providing for the election
of Secretary of State and Auditor of Accounts on the
regular State ticket. The first of the two submitted
was adopted by a vote of 11,135 to 556; and the second,
bv a vote of 11,059 to 557.


Senator Edmunds was reelected, receiving all the votes
in the Senate. The vote in the House was, Edmunds,
203; B. B. Smalley (Dem.), 16.

William Wallace Grout, the new member of the Con-
gressional delegation, was born of American parents at
Compton, Que., May 24, 1836. He attended the com-
mon schools, St. Johnsbury Academy, the Orleans Lib-
eral Institute at Glover and was graduated from the
Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) Law School in 1857. He was
admitted to the bar and opened a law office at Barton.
In 1862 he recruited a company for the Fifteenth Ver-
mont Regiment and was appointed Captain. Later he
was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, serving
in General Stannard's Brigade. Following the St.
Albans Raid he was given command of the troops
stationed along the Canadian frontier and was given
the rank of Brigadier General. In 1866 he purchased
the Orleans Independent Standard, a Barton newspaper,
and conducted it for about a year. From 1864 to 1866
he was State's Attorney of Orleans county. He repre-
sented Barton in the Legislature in 1868, 1869 and
1870 and was one of the active members of the House,
serving again in 1874. In 1876 he was a member of the
State Senate and was President Pro Tem of that body.
In 1868 he was a delegate to the Republican National
Convention. He served one term in Congress, 1881-83,
was defeated for renomination in 1882, but again was
elected in 1884 and served continuously until he retired
voluntarily in 1901. His service in the House, of which
he was an active and useful member, covered a period of
nine terms, or eighteen years, a longer term of service


than that of any other Vermont Congressman. He died
at Kirby, October 7, 1902.

Unlike the election of 1876, there was no prolonged
uncertainty concerning the result of the contest in 1880.
Garfield and Arthur were elected, although the majority
was not large. The Presidential vote in Vermont by
counties in 1880 was as follows:

Green- Scatter-

Rep. Dem. hack ing

Addison 3,608 570 52 5

Bennington.... 2,631 1,411 ....

Caledonia 3,134 1,372 29 4

Chittenden 3,902 2,020 94

Essex 853 472 5

Franklin 3,018 1,652 354 3

Grand Isle .... 397 239 17

Lamoille 1,702 587 268

Orange 3,107 1,631 32 26

Orleans 2,911 804 27 5

Rutland 5,458 2,331 42 11

Washington... 3,611 1,927 224 35

Windham 4,637 1,426 9 15

Windsor 6,122 1,740 59 5

Total 45,091 18,182 1,212 109

Majority for Garfield, 25,588.

The Presidential Electors chosen were: W. Y. W.
Ripley of Rutland, William W. Lynde of Brattleboro,
James K. Batchclder of Arlington, Sumner S. Thomp-
son of Lyndon and David H. Beattie of Maidstone.


Born in Middlebury, November 24, 1825, and graduated
from Middlebury College in 1846. He was admitted to
the bar in 1850. He served in both branches of the State
Legislature and was chosen Speaker in 1865, 1866, 1867 and
1876. He was elected Governor in 1870, being the first
incumbent of the office elected for a term of two years. He
was a member of Congress from 1883 to 1 891. Upon the
death of Senator Redfield Proctor he was appointed to
succeed him, being then in his eighty-third year, but vigorous
and active. He served until Carroll S. Page was elected.
His public career covered a period of fifty-six years. He
died October 12, 1915.


The Republicans celebrated Garfield's election, and Sena-
tor Edmunds spoke at a meeting held in Burlington.

Late in June President Garfield planned a trip through
New England, the schedule including the Commence-
ment exercises at Williams College, the President's
alma mater; the meeting of the American Institute of
Instruction at St. Albans, Vt. ; a visit at the home of
Secretary of State James G. Blaine in Augusta, Me. ; the
acceptance of an invitation given by the New Hampshire
Legislature ; and a visit at Boston. It had been planned
that Gen. T. S. Peck, Gen. L. G. Kingsley and Col. G. W.
Hooker, of the Governor's stafif, should meet the Presi-
dential party at Williamstown, Mass., and escort its
members into Vermont, while Governor Farnham and
other members of his staff would meet the President at
Bennington, proceeding with him through the State.

On Saturday morning, July 2, 1881, President Gar-
field and Secretary Blaine drove to the Baltimore and
Potomac station at Washington to take a train for New
England. As the President entered the station he was
shot by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker,
who may have been mentally unbalanced. The Presi-
dent lingered between life and death for several weeks.
The most skilful medical aid was summoned, one of the
attending physicians being Dr. Frank H. Hamilton, an
eminent surgeon, who was a native of Wilmington, Vt.
In spite of all that medical science could do, death came
on September 19, 1881. A message of condolence was
sent to Mrs. Garfield by Governor Farnham, and the
Governor issued a proclamation recommending that the
people of the State assemble in their respective churches


on the Friday afternoon following the President's death
and that places of business be closed from three to four
o'clock. This recommendation was generally followed
and on the next Sunday many memorial sermons were
preached. Senator Edmunds was a member of the Sena-
torial Committee appointed to accompany the dead Presi-
dent to his last resting place in Ohio. Governor Farn-
ham attended the funeral as a representative of Vermont.
As a result of the assassination of President Gar-
field, Vice President Chester Alan Arthur succeeded to
the Presidency, being the only native of Vermont thus
far (1921) to hold the highest office in the Nation.
Stephen A. Douglas, a son of Vermont, had been a regu-
larly nominated candidate for the Presidency and votes
in National Conventions had been cast for Senators
Jacob Collamer and George F. Edmunds as possible
Presidential nominees. General Arthur was the first
native of Vermont to be elected Vice President. Since
that time two others, Levi P. Morton, born in Shoreham,
\'t., and Calvin Coolidge, born in Plymouth, Vt., have
been elected Vice Presidents of the United States, and
one Vice President, William A. Wheeler, of New York,
was educated at the University of Vermont. Silas
Wright of New York, a graduate of Middlebury Col-
lege, declined a Vice Presidential nomination.

William Arthur, a native of Ireland, emigrated to the
United States in 1820, coming to Vermont where he
taught school in Fairfield, Burlington, Jericho, Williston,
Waterville and Bennington, beginning the study of law
during this period. Later he decided to become a clergy-
man, and in 1828 was ordained a Baptist preacher. He


was an impulsive, enthusiastic man of excellent char-
acter and was much beloved. Several years before he
entered the ministry he had married Miss Melvina Stone
of Dunham, Que. His first parish was the Baptist
Church at Fairfield, Vt., over which he was settled soon
after his ordination. In 1830 the family moved into a
new log parsonage, and here, on October 5, 1830, a son
was born. It is related that the clergyman danced with
joy when informed that the baby was a boy. The attend-
ing physician was Dr. Chester Abell, and tradition says
that in accordance with Doctor Abell's request the name
Chester was bestowed upon the minister's son. Many
years later the site of this log parsonage was marked
with a granite block, to commemorate the birthplace of
a President of the United States.

After several years in Fairfield, the family moved to
Essex, and later to New York. Chester was a good
student and at the age of eighteen years graduated from
Union College. After teaching school he studied law,
was admitted to the bar and began the practice of his
profession in New York City. He was an anti-slavery
Whig and joined the Republican party when it was
organized. He became a successful lawyer and was
active in Republican politics. In 1859 he married Ellen
L. Herndon of Fredericksburg, Va., and two children,
Chester A., Jr., and Nellie, were born to them. Mrs.
Arthur died in 1879. At the age of thirty years. Gov-
ernor Morgan appointed Arthur Engineer-in-Chief of
the militia of New York with the rank of Brigadier
General. During a part of the Civil War he was Acting
Quartermaster General and Inspector General of New


York, and in this capacity organized and equipped thou-
sands of New York troops. In 1871 President Grant
appointed him Collector of Customs for the port of New
York, an office which he held until 1878, when President
Hayes removed him as a result of a factional contest
in the Republican party. His record as a public official
was admirable. He resumed the practice of law as a
member of the firm of Arthur, Phelps, Knevals and Ran-
som. In 1880 he was a delegate-at-large to the Republi-
can National Convention and supported the candidacy
of General Grant. Garfield's nomination made the
choice of a Grant supporter as a Vice Presidential can-
didate a matter of political expediency. The New York
delegation considered General Arthur and Stewart L.
Woodford for the position and chose the former.

Soon after the inauguration of President Garfield he
appointed as Collector of the port of New York a man
particularly offensive to Senators Conkling and Piatt of
the Empire State, whereupon they resigned and sought a
reelection. Arthur was a friend of Conkling and was
supposed to be an opponent of the administration in the
bitter contest that followed. Much anxiety was ex-
pressed by thousands of American citizens when the pos-
sibility of Arthur's succession to the Presidency became
apparent. By many he was considered only a machine
politician, unfitted for the high office of President, and
it was feared that he would be controlled by Conkling
and the reactionary forces of American politics. Never
were prophets of evil more thoroughly discredited.
Chester A. Arthur was a credit to the high office which
he filled, and his record is one of the most admirable


made by any President in recent years. Steering clear
of factionalism, he administered his duties honestly and
faithfully, with a statesmanlike grasp of public ques-
tions. Never has a more perfect gentleman occupied the
White House. A fine figure of a man, he impressed all
who came in contact with him by his tact and courtesy.
He was a candidate for the Presidential nomination in
1884, but was defeated by James G. Blaine, by a small
majority. He died November 18, 1886.

The American Institute of Instruction opened its ses-
sions at St. Albans on the evening of July 5 and con-
tinued through July 6 and 7. Governor Farnham wel-
comed the visitors to the State. The speakers included
Mrs. Julia Ward Howe and Charles Carleton Coffin of
Boston, J. L. M. Curry of Virginia and President Buck-
ham of the University of Vermont. A telegram was
sent to Secretary Blaine regretting President Garfield*s
inability to attend the convention and expressing sym-
pathy for his sufferings and hope for ultimate recovery.

The Centennial of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at
Yorktown, Va., was observed October 18-20, 1881.
Lieut. Gov. John L. Barstow had been appointed com-
missioner to make preparations for the participation of
Vermont in this event. Two companies of Vermont
militia, each containing fifty-one men, represented Ver-
mont, the Ransom Guards of St. Albans (Co. D), Capt.
F. Stewart Stranahan commanding, and the Estey
Guards of Brattleboro (Co. I), commanded by Capt.
E. A. Bond, being chosen for the honor. The Brigade
Band of St. Albans, accompanied the militia and the
Burleigh Guards of Whitehall, N. Y., accompanied the


Vermont soldiers. A special train was provided and
was in charge of Quartermaster General Levi G. Kings-
ley of Rutland. Governor Farnham and Adjutant Gen-
eral Peck were guests of the Centennial Commission.
President Arthur, members of his Cabinet, and many
distinguished guests were present. The Vermont com-
panies participated in a grand review on October 20.

A Republican Congress, chosen in 1880, elected Col.
George W. Hooker of Brattleboro, Sergeant-at-Arms of
the House of Representatives. One of the few acts
which bears Senator Edmunds' name is the anti-
polygamy law, which he was influential in enacting in
1882. This was supplemented in 1884 by the Edmunds-
Tucker Act, which authorized the United States Govern-
ment to seize and administer the property of the Mor-
mon Church.

During the Arthur administration a vacancy occurred
on the Supreme Court bench, and the President sent the
nomination by Secretary of State Frelinghuysen to
Senator Edmunds' committee room, urging him to accept
it, but the dangerous state of health of a member of his
family, which he felt might necessitate leaving Wash-
ington for a long time, made it seem best to decline the
honor. The Judges of the court, knowing the situation,
kindly offered to perform his duties during his enforced
absence, but the Senator did not feel that he ought to
accept under the circumstances.

The Republican State Convention, held June 21. 1882,
nominated Lieut. Gov. John L. P>arstow of Shellmrne
for Governor by acclamation. Col. Samuel E. Pingrce
of Hartford was nominated for Lieutenant Governor


over Levi K. Fuller of Brattleboro, by a vote of 291 to
208, few votes being cast for other candidates. The
Democratic candidate for Governor was George E.
Eaton of Danville.

Congressman Joyce was defeated for renomination in
the First district by Ex-Gov. John W. Stewart of Mid-
dlebury, the vote being, Stewart, 178; Joyce, 139;
H. Henry Powers, 8; scattering, 6. Judge Powers had
declined to be a candidate. In the Second district, Con-
gressman Grout failed of reelection, being defeated by
Ex-Congressman Luke P. Poland. The vote was,
Poland, 167; Grout, 123; W. P. Dillingham, 10; James
M. Tyler, 7; scattering, 1. The name of VV. C. French
of Woodstock was withdrawn.

During the first term Congressman Grout had served
on the Committee on Territories he had prepared and
reported from the committee the bill creating the Terri-
tory of North Dakota. His first speech in Congress was
in support of a bill making the Bureau of Agriculture a
separate department and its head a Cabinet officer.

The old antagonism against Judge Poland had not
subsided, and a closely contested campaign was waged.
Many of General Grout's friends insisted upon voting
for him, although he did not formally become a candi-
date. However, Poland won by the narrow majority of

The vote was as follows: Luke P. Poland, 12,394;
George L. Fletcher, 6,363; William W. Grout, 4,583;
H. D. Dunbar, 390; W. P. Dillingham, 338; scattering,


John L. Barstow, the new Governor, was born in Shel-
burne, February 21, 1832, and was educated in the public
schools. Ht began to teach in the district schools at the
age of fifteen. He went West while a young man and
engaged in business in Detroit. In 1857 he returned to
Shelburne and took charge of his father's farm. In
the fall of 1861, while serv^ing as Assistant Clerk of the
Vermont House of Representatives, he was appointed a
non-commissioned officer of the Eighth Vermont Volun-
teers and later was promoted to the positions of Adju-
tant, Captain and Major. He was commended for
service in the field and for gallantry in the assault on
Port Hudson. He served as Acting Adjutant General
under Generals Thomas and Weitzel. When he was
promoted to the rank of Major his company gave him a
handsome sword, and when he was mustered out the
men of his regiment presented him with another sword,
even more beautiful than the first. As a result of his
service in the Louisiana swamps his health was afifectcd.
and for several years he suffered from malaria. He
represented the town of Shelburne in the Legislatures
of 1864 and 1865 and was a Senator from Chittenden
county in 1866. While serving his first term in the
House, at the request of Adjutant General Washburn,
he was sent on a special mission to Canada in connection
with developments growing out of the St. Albans Raid.
He was appointed commander of one of the three
brigades of State militia, organized after the Civil War.
From 1870 to 1878 he served efficiently as United States
Pension Agent at Burlington and was commended by
Hr)n. Carl Schurz, Sccretarv of the Interior, for his


fidelity. He served as Vermont Commissioner at the
Yorktown Centennial Celebration. In 1880 he was
chosen Lieutenant Governor and was elected Governor
in 1882. He was one of the commissioners designated
to purchase a site for the Bennington Battle Monument.
President Harrison appointed him a commissioner to act
with Gen. A. McD. McCook to treat with the Navajo
Indians and served as the disbursing officer. For many-
years he was a trustee of the Burlington Savings Bank.
He died at his home in Shelburne, June 28, 1913.

The Legislature organized by reelecting James L.
Martin, Speaker. In his inaugural message Governor
Barstow referred to the death of George P. Marsh and
Judge Pierpoint. He discussed educational topics at
some length. In 1880 there were in Vermont 2,359
school districts, 75,238 pupils in school, and 4,359 teach-
ers. The average weekly wage of Vermont teachers
was $5.55, including board. This was compared with
an average wage of $3.15 in 1850, $3.72 in 1860 and
$6.06 in 1870. The total school expenditures in 1880,
not including text books, was $446,216.90. These
figures were compared with an expenditure for education
of $217,402.33 in 1850; $334,932 in 1860; and
$543,629.28 in 1870. The Governor called attention to
the fact that the Board of Education was abolished in
1874 by a vote that was practically unanimous. In 1878
each town was permitted to select its own text books and
one hundred and eighty-six towns went back to an
''obsolete" arithmetic of 1867. He recommended creat-
ing the office of Attorney General and suggested a joint
standing committee of phraseology to examine and make


uniform the language of all bills introduced. Attention
was called to the decrease of rural wealth and population
and the small gain in villages and cities.

Among the important laws passed was an act estab-
lishing a system of corporation taxes, which included in
its provisions railroad, insurance, express, telegraph and
telephone companies, savings banks and trust companies.
It is worthy of note that at this stage in the history
of Vermont telephone property appears as a proper
object of taxation. The office of Commissioner of Taxes
was created and the salary was fixed at one thousand
dollars and expenses. An act was passed revising, con-
solidating and amending the laws relating to the grand
list. The text books recommended in 1879 were to be
continued until 1889, together with a text book on
physiology and hygiene, giving "special prominence to
the efifects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human
system." Redfield Proctor, S. E. Pingree and G. G.
Benedict were appointed commissioners to arrange for
the publication of a State military history. Joint reso-
lutions were adopted relating to the death of George P.
Marsh, expressing appreciation of his honorable serv-
ices, and providing for the appointment of a commission
of three members to investigate the condition of \''ermont
forests and report on their need of protection.

Governor Barstow appointed as a Forestry Commis-
sion, Redfield Proctor, Frederick Billings and Edward
J. Phelps. William P. Dillingham of Waterbury was
appointed the first Commissioner of Taxes. The amount
of revenue contributed during the first year the law was
in force amounted to $196,678.51, and of this sum the


railroads paid in taxes $85,516.96. Gen. Edward H.

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