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surprise us, and do with us what they please/ Hereupon we
took advice what was best to be done. We sent notice pre-
sently to all parts to raise the country, and to come to us with
all the speed they could ; and withal we sent to Carlisle to
raise the townsmen ; for without foot we could do no good
against the tower. There we staid some hours, expecting
more company ; and within short time after the country came
in on all sides, so that we were quickly between three and four
hundred horse ; and, after some longer stay, the foot of Car-
lisle came to us, to the number of three or four hundred men ;
whom we presently set to work, to get up to the top of the
tower, and to uncover the roof; and then some twenty of them
to fall down together, and by that means to win the tower.
The Scots, seeing their present danger, offered to parley, and
yielded themselves to my mercy. They had no sooner opened
the iron gate, and yielded themselves my prisoners, but we
might see 400 horse within a quarter of a mile coming to their
rescue, and to surprise me and my small company ; but of a


sudden they stayed, and stood at gaze. Then had I more to
do than ever; for all our Borderers came crying, with full
mouths, ' Sir, give us leave to set upon them ; for these are
they that have killed our fathers, our brothers, and uncles, and
our cousins ; and they are coming, thinking to surprise you,
upon weak grass nags, such as they could get on a sudden ;
and God hath put them into your hands, that we may take re-
venge of them for much blood that they have spilt of ours.' I
desired they would be patient a while, and bethought myself,
if I should give them their will, there would be few or none of
the Scots that would escape unkilled (there were so many
deadly feuds among them) ; and therefore I resolved with my-
self to give them a fair answer, but not to give them their de-
sire. So I told them, that if I were not there myself, they
might then do what pleased themselves ; but being present, if
I should give them leave, the blood that should be spilt that
day would lie very hard upon my conscience. And therefore
I desired them, for my sake, to forbear ; and, if the Scots did
not presently make away with all the speed they could, upon
my sending to them, they should then have their wills to do
\vhat they pleased. They were ill satisfied with my answer,
but durst not disobey. I sent with speed to the Scots, and
bade them pack away with all the speed they could ; for if
they stayed the messenger's return, they should few of them re-
turn to their own home. They made no stay; but they were
turned homewards before the messenger had made an end of
his message. Thus, by God's mercy, I escaped a great dan-


ger ; and, by my means, there were a great many men's lives
saved that day."

On many a cairn's gray pyramid,
Where urns of mighty chiefs lie hid.

St. XXIX. p. 95.

The cairns, or piles of loose stone, which crown the summit
of most of our Scottish hills, and are found in other remark-
able situations, seem usually, though not universally, to have
been sepulchral monuments. Six flat stones are commonly
found in the centre, forming a cavity of greater or smaller di-
mensions, in which an urn is often placed. The author is pos-
sessed of one, discovered beneath an immense cairn at Rough-
lee, in Liddesdale. It is of the most barbarous construction;
the middle of the substance alone having been subjected to the
fire, over which, when hardened, the artist had laid an inner
and outer coat of unbaked clay, etched with some very rude
ornaments ; his skill apparently being inadequate to baking the
vase, when completely finished. The contents were bones and
ashes, and a quantity of beads made of coal. This seems to
have been a barbarous imitation of the Roman fashion of se-




Great Dundee. St. II. p. 102.
The Viscount of Dundee, slain in the battle of Killycrankie.

For pathless marsh, and mountain cell,

The peasant left his lowly shed. St, III. p. 103.
The morasses were the usual refuge of the Border herds-
men, on the approach of an English army. (Minstrelsy of the
Scottish Border, Vol.'I. p. 49.) Caves, hewed in the most dan-
gerous and inaccessible places, also afforded an occasional
retreat. Such caverns may be seen in the precipitous banks
of the Teviot at Sunlaws and Ancram, upon the Jed at Hun-
dalee, and in many other places upon the Border. The banks


of the Eske, at Gorton and Hawthornden, are hollowed into
similar recesses. But even these dreary dens were not always
secure places of concealment. " In the way as we came, not
far from this place (Long Niddry), George Ferres, a gentle-
man of my Lord Protector's happened upon a cave in

the grounde, the mouth whereof was so worne with the fresh
printe of steps, that he seemed to be certayne thear wear sum
folke within ; and gone domic to trie, he was redily recey ved
with a hakebut or two. He left them not yet, till he had
knowen wheyther thei wold be content to yeld and come out,
which they fondly refusing, he went to my lorde's grace, and
upon utterance of the thynge, gat lisence to deale with them
BS he coulde ; and so returned to them, with a skore or two of
pioners. Three ventes had their cave, that we wear ware of,
wherof he first stopt up on ; anoother he fil'd ful of strawe, and
set it a fyer, whereat they within cast water apace ; but it was
so wel maynteyned without, that the fyer prevayled, and thei
within fayn to get them belyke into anoother parler. Then
devised we (for I hapt to be with hym) to stop the same up,
whereby we should eyther smoother them or fynd out their
ventes, if thei hadde any moe : as this was done at another
issue, about xii score of, we moughte see the fume of their
smoke to come out; the which continued with so great a
force, and so long a while, that we could not but thinke they
must needs get them out, or smoother within : and forasmuch
as we found not that they dyd the tone, we thought it for
certain thei wear sure of the toother." PATTEN'S Account of


Somerset's Expedition into Scotland, apud DALYELL'S Frag-

Southern ravage. St. III. p. 103.

From the following fragment of a letter from the Earl of
Northumberland to King Henry VIII, preserved among the
Cotton MSS. Calig. B. vii. 179, the reader may estimate the
nature of the dreadful war which was occasionally waged upon
the Borders, sharpened by mutual cruelties, and the personal
hatred of the wardens, or leaders.

Some Scottish barons, says the earl, had threatened to come
within " thre miles of my pore house of Werkworth, where I
lye, and gif me light to put on my clothes at mydnyght ; and
alsoo the said Marke Carr said there opynly, that seyng they
had a governor on the marches of Scotland, as well as they
hairl in Ingland, he shulde kepe yonr highnes instructions, gyf-
fyn unto your garyson, for making of any day-forrey; for he
and his friends wolde burne enough on the nyght, lettyng your
counsaill here defyne a notable acte at theyre. pleasures. Up-
on whiche, in your highnes' name, I comaundet dewe watche
to be kepte on your marchies, for comyug in of any Scotts.
Neutheless, upon Thursday at night last, came thyrty light
horsemen into a litil village of myne, called Whitell, having
not past sex houses, lying toward Ryddisdaill, upon Shilbotell
more, and ther wold have fyred the said howses, but ther was
noo fyre to get there, and they forgate to brynge any withe
theyme ; and toke a wyf, being great with chylde, in the said


towne, and said to hyr, Wher we can not gyve the lard lyght,
yet we shall doo this in spyte of hym ; and gyve hyr iii mor-
tall wounds upon the heid, and another in the right side, with
a dagger : wheruppori the said wyf is deede, and the childe in
her bely is loste. Beseeching your most gracious highncs to
reduce unto your gracious memory this wylful and shamefull
murder, done within this your highnes' realme, notwithstand-
ing all the inhabitants thereabout rose unto the said fray, and
gave warnynge by becons unto the countrey afore theyme, and
yet the Scottsmen dyde escape. And uppon certeyne know-
ledge to my brother Clyfforthe and me, had by credable per-
sons of Scotland, this abomynable act not only to be done by
dyverse of the Mershe, but also the afore named persons of
Tyvidaill, and consented to, as by appearance, by the Erie of
Murey, upon Friday at night last, let slyp C of the best horse-
men of Glendaill, with a part of your highnes' subjects of Ber-
wyke, together with George Dowglas, whoo came into Ingland
agayne, in the dawning of the day ; but afore theyre retorne,
they dyd mar the Earl of Murrei's provisions at Coldingham :
for they did not only burne the said town of Coldingham, with
all the corne thereunto belonging, which is esteemed wurthe
cii marke sterling ; but alsoo burned twa townes nye adjoin-
ing thereunto, called Branerdergest and the Black Hill, and
toke xxiiii persons, Ix horse, with cc hed of cataill, which
nowe, as I am informed, hathe not only been a staye of the
said Erie of Murrei'b not coming to the bordure as yet, but al-
soo, that none inlande man will adventure theyre selfs uppon


the marches. And as for the tax that shulde have been graun-
tyd for finding of the said iii hundred men, is utterly denyed.
Upon which the King of Scotland departed from Edynburgh to
Stirling, and as yet ther doth remayn. And alsoo I, by the ad-
vice of my brother Clyfforth, have devysed that within this iii
nyghts, Godde willing, Kelsey, in lyke case, shall be brent, with
all the corne in the said town ; and then they shall have noo
place to lye any garyson in, nygh unto the borders. And as I
shall atteigne further knawledge, I shall not faill to satisfye
your highness, according to my most bounden dutie. And for
this burnyng of Kelsey is devysed to be done secretly, by Tyn-
daill and Ryddisdale, And thus the holy Try nite and***
your most royal estate, with long lyf, and as much increase of
honour as your most noble heart can desire. At Werkworth,
the jaiid day of October." (1522.)

Watt Tinlinn.St. IV. p. 103.

This person was, in my younger days, the theme of many a
fireside tale. He was a retainer of the Buccleuch family, and
held for his Border service a small tower on the frontiers of
Liddesdale. Watt was, by profession, a sutor, but, by inclina-
tion and practice, an archer and warrior. Upon one occasion,
the captain of Bewcastle, military governor of that wild dis-
trict of Cumberland, is said to have made an incursion into
Scotland, in which he was defeated, and forced to fly. Watt
Tinlinn pursued him closely through a dangerous morass : the


captain, however, gained the firm ground : and seeing Tinlinn
dismounted, and floundering in the bog, used these words of
insult; " Sutor Watt, ye cannot sew your boots; the heels risp,
and the seams rive."* " If I cannot sew," retorted Tinlinn,
discharging a shaft, which nailed the captain's thigh to his sad-
dle, " If I cannot sew, I can yerk."^.

Bilhope Stag.St.V. p. 104.

There is an old rhyme, which thus celebrates the places in
Liddesdale, remarkable for game :

Bilbope braes for bucks and raes,
And Carit haugh for swine,

And Tarras for the good bull-trout,
If lie be ta'cn in time.

The bucks and roes, as well as the old swine, are now ex-
tinct ; but the good bull-trout is still famous.

Of silver broach and bracelet proud. St. V. p. 104.
As the Borderers were indifferent about the furniture of
their habitations, so much exposed to be burned and plunder-
ed, they were proportionally anxious to display splendour in
decorating and ornamenting their females. See LESLY de Mo-
ribus Limitaneorum.

* Risp, creak.> Rive, tear.

t Yerk, to twitch, as shoemakers do, in securing the stitches of
their work.


Belted Will Howard. St. VI. p. 105.

Lord William Howard, third son of Thomas, duke of Nor-
folk, succeeded to Naworth Castle, and a large domain annex-
ed to it, in right of his wife Elizabeth, sister of George Lord
Dacre, who died without heirs male, in the llth of Queen
Elizabeth; By a poetical anachronism, he is introduced into
the romance a few years earlier than he actually flourished.
He was warden of the Western Marches; and, from the riooar

* ' O

with which he repressed the Border excesses, the name of
Belted Will Howard is still famous in our traditions. In the
castle of Naworth, his apartments, containing a bed-room, ora-
tory, ind library, are still shewn. They impress us with an
unpleasing idea of the life of a lord warden of the marches.
Three or four strong doors, separating these rooms from the
rest of the castle, indicate apprehensions of treachery from
his garrison ; and the secret winding passages, through which
he could privately descend into the guard-room, or even into
the dungeons, imply the necessity of no small degree of secret
superintendence on the part of the governor. As the ancient
books and furniture have remained undisturbed, the venera-
ble appearance of these apartments, and the armour scattered
around the chamber, almost lead us to expect the arrival of the
warden in person. Naworth Castle is situated near Brampton,
in Cumberland. Lord William Howard is ancestor of the
Earls of Carlisle.


Lord Dacre.St. VI. p. 105.

The well-known name of Dacre is derived from the exploits
of one of their ancestors at the siege of Acre, or Ptolemais, un-
der Richard Cceur de Lion. There were two powerful branches
of that name. The first family, called Lord Dacres of the
South, held the castle of the same name, and are ancestors to
the present Lord Dacre. The other family, descended from
the same stock, were called Lord Dacres of the North, and
were barons of Gilsland and Graystock. A chieftain of the
latter branch was warden of the West Marches during the
reign of Edward VI. He was a man of a hot and obstinate
character, as appears from some particulars of Lord Surrey's
letter to Henry VIII., giving an account of his behaviour at the
siege and storm of Jedburgh. It is printed in the Minstrelsy
of the Scottish Border, Appendix to the Introduction.

The German hagbut-men. St. VI. p. 105.
In the wars with Scotland, Henry VIII. and his successors
employed numerous bands of mercenary troops. At the bat-
tle of Pinky there were in the English army six hundred hack-
butters on foot, and two hundred on horseback, composed
chiefly of foreigners. On the 27th September, 1549, the Duke
of Somerset, Lord Protector, writes to the Lord Dacre, war-
den of the West Marches : " The Almains, in number two
thousand, very valiant soldiers, shall be sent to you shortly
from Newcastle, together with Sir Thomas Holcroft, and with
the force of your wardenry (which we would were advanced


to the most strength of horsemen that might be), shall make
the attempt to Loughmaben, being of no such strength but that
it may be skailed with ladders, whereof, beforehand, we would
you caused secretly some number to be provided ; or else un-
dermined with the pyke-axe, and so taken : either to be kept
for the king's majesty, or otherwise to be defaced, and taken
from the profits of the enemy. And in like manner the house
of Carlaverock to be used." Repeated mention occurs of the
Almains, in the subsequent correspondence ; and the enter-
prise seems finally to have been abandoned, from the difficulty
of providing these strangers with the necessary " victuals and
carriages in so poor a country as Dumfries-shire." History of
Cumberland, Vol. I. Introd. p. Ixi. From the battle-pieces of
the ancient Flemish painters, we learn that the Low-Country
and German soldiers marched to an assault with their right
knees bared. And we may also observe, in such pictures, the
extravagance to which they carried the fashion of ornamenting
their dress with knots of ribband. This custom of the Ger-
mans is alluded to in the Mirrourfor Magistrates, p. 121.

Their plcited garment^ therewith well accord,
All jagcle and frounst, with rlivers colours deckt.

His ready lances Thirlestane brave

Arrayed beneath a banner bright. St. VIII. p. 107.
Sir John Scott of Thirlstaine flourished in the reign of
James V., and possessed the estates of Thirlestaine, Games-
cleuch, &c. lying upon the river of Ettricke, and extending to

St Mary's Loch, at the head of Yarrow. It appears, that when
James had assembled his nobility, and their feudal followers,
at Fala, with the purpose of invading England, and was, as is
well known, disappointed by the obstinate refusal of his peers,
this baron alone declared himself ready to follow the king
wherever he should lead. In memory of his fidelity, James
granted to his family a charter of arms, entitling them to bear
a border of fleurs-de-luce, similar to the treasure in the royal
arms, with a bundle of spears for the crest; motto, Heady, aye
ready. The charter itself is printed by Nisbet; but his work
being scarce, I insert the following accurate transcript from
the original, in the possession of the Right Honourable Lord
Napier, the representative of John of Thirlestaine.


" We James, be the grace of God King of Scottis, consider-
and the ffhith and gnid servis of of of* right traist friend John
Scott of Thirlestane, quha cummand to our hoste at Soutra
Edge, with three score and ten launcieres on horsback of his
friends and followers, and beand willing to gang with ws into
England, when all our nobles and others refuised, he was read-
dy to stake all at our bidding; ffor the quhilk cause, it is our
will, and we doe straitlie command and charg our lion hcrauld,
and his deputies for the time beand, to give and to graunt to
the said John Scott, ane Border of ffleure de lises about his

* Sic. in orig.


coatte of arrives, sik as is on our royal banner, and alsua ane
bundell of launces above his helmet, with thir words, Readdy,
ay Readdy, that he and all his aftercumrners may bruik the
samine, as a pledge and taiken of our guid will and kyndnes
for his true worthines ; and thir our letters seen, ye nae wayes
failzie to doe. Given at Ffalla Muire, under our hand and
privy cashet, the xxvii day of July, me and xxxii zeires. By the
King's graces speciall ordinance.


On the back of the charter, is written,
Edin. 14. January, 1713. Registred, conform to the act of
parliament made anent probative writs, per M'Kaile, pror. and
produced by Alexander Borthwick, servant to Sir William
Scott of Thirlestane. M. L. J ,"

An aged knight, to danger steeled,

With many a moss-trooper, came on ;
And azure in a golden field,
The stars and crescent graced his shield,

Without the bend of Murdieston. St. IX. p. 108.
The family of Harden are descended froin a younger son ef
the laird of Buccleuch, who flourished before the estate of
Murdieston was acquired by the marriage of one of those
chieftains with the heiress, in 1296. Hence they bear the cog-
nizance of the Scotts upon the held; whereas those of the
Buccleuch are disposed upon a bend dexter, assumed in con-

sequence of that marriage. See GLADSTAINE of Whitelawe's
MSS. and SCOTT of Stokoe's. Pedigree, Newcastle, 1783.

Walter Scott of Harden, who flourished during the reign of
Queen Mary, was a renowned Border free-booter, concerning
whom tradition has preserved a variety of anecdotes, some of
which have been published in the Minstrelsy of the Scottish
Border, and others in LEYDEN'S Scenes of Infancy. The bugle
horn, said to have been used by this formidable leader, is pre-
served by his descendant, the present Mr Scott of Harden.
His castle was situate upon the very brink of a dark and pre-
cipitous dell, through which a scanty rivulet steals to meet the
Borthwick. In the recess of this glen he is said to have kept
his spoil, which served for the daily maintenance of his re-
tainers, until the production of a pair of clean spurs, in a co-
vered dish, announced to the hungry band, that they must ride
for a supply of provisions. He was married to Mary Scott,
daughter of Philip Scott of Dryhope, and called in song the
Flower of Yarrow. He possessed a very extensive estate,
which was divided among his five sons. There are numerous
descendants of this old marauding Baron. The following
beautiful passage of LEYDEN'S Scenes of Infancy, is founded
on a tradition respecting an infant captive, whom Walter of
Harden carried off in a predatory incursion, and who is said to
have become the author of some of our most beautiful pastoral

Where Bortha hoarse, that loads the meads with sand,
Roils her red tide to Teviot's western strand,
Through slaty hills, whose sides are shagged with thorn,
Where springs, in scattered tufts, the dark-green corn,
Towers wood-girt Harden, far above the vale,
And clouds of ravens o'er the turrets sail.
A hardy race, who never shrunk from war,
The Scott, to rival realms a mighty bar,
Here fixed his mountain-home ; a wide domain,
And rich the soil, had purple heath been grain ;
But, what the niggard ground of wealth denied,
From fields more blessed his fearless arm supplied.

The waning harvest-moon shone cold and bright ;
The warder's horn was heard at dead of night ;
And, as the massy portals wide were flung,
With stamping hoofs the rocky pavement rung.
What fair, half-veiled, leans from her latticed hall,
Where red the wavering gleams of torch-light fall ?
'Tis Yarrow's fairest Flower, who, through the gloom,
Looks, wistful, for her lover's dancing plume.
Amid the piles of spoil, that strewed the ground,
Her ear, all anxious, caught a wailing sound ;
With trembling haste the youthful matron flew,
And from the hurried heaps an infant drew.

Scared at the light, his little hands he flung
Around her neck, and to her bosom clung ;
While beauteous Mary soothed, in accents mild,
His fluttering soul, and clasped her foster child.
Of milder mood the gentle captive grew,
Nor loved the scenes that scared his infant view ;
In vales remote, from camps and castles far,
He shunned the fearful shuddering joy of war}
Content the loves of simple swains to sing,
Or wake to fame the harp's heroic string.


His are the strains, whose wandering echoes thrill
The shepherd, lingering on the twilight hill,
When evening brings the merry folding hours,
And sun-eyed daisies close their winking flowers.
He lived, o'er Yarrow's Flower to shed the tear,
To strew the holly leaves o'er Harden's bier;
But none was found above the minstrel's tomb,
Emblem of peace, to bid the daisy bloom :
He, nameless as the race from which he sprung.
Saved other names, and left his own unsuue.

Scott$ ofEskdale, a stalwart band. St. X. p. 109.
In this, and the following stanzas, some account is given of
the mode in which the property of the valley of Esk v. as trans-
ferred from the Beattisons, its ancient possessors, to the name
of Scott. It is needless to repeat the circumstances, which
are given in the poem, literally as they have been preserved
by tradition. Lord Maxwell, in the latter part of the six-
teenth century, took upon himself the title of Earl of Morton.
The descendants of Beattison of Woodkerricke, who aided the
earl to escape from his disobedient vassals, continued to hold
these lands within the memory of man, and were the only
Beattisons who had property in the dale. The old people give
locality to the story, by showing the Galliard's haugh, the
place where Buccleugh's men were left, &c.

Their gathering word teas Bellenden. St. XIII. p. 114.
Bellenden is situated near the head of Borthwick water, and,
being in the centre of the possession of the Scotts, was frc-


quently used as their place of rendezvous and gathering word.-
Survey of Selkirkshire, in Macfarlane's MSS., Advocates'
Library. Hence Satchells calls one part of his genealogical
account of the families of that clan, his Bellenden.

The camp their home, their law the szcord,

They knew no country, owned no lord. St. XVIII. p. 119.

The mercenary adventurers, whom, in 1380, the Earl of
Cambridge carried to the assistance of the King of Portugal
against the Spaniards, mutinied for want of regular pay. At an
assembly of their leaders, Sir John Solder, a natural son of Ed-
ward the Black Prince, thus addressed them : " I counsayle,
let us be alle of one alliance, and of one accorde, and let us
among ourselves reyse up the baner of St George, and let us be
frendes to God, and enemyes to alle the worlde; for without
we make ourselfe to be feared, we gette nothynge."

" By my fayth," quod Sir William Helmon, " ye saye right

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