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that formerly a Wildgrave, or keeper of a royal
named Faulkenburg, was so much ad-
dicted to the pleasures of the chase, and other-
> extremely profligate and cruel, that he
not only followed this unhallowed amusement
on the Sabbath, and other days consecrated to
religious duty, but accompanied it with the
most unheard-of oppression • upon the poor
peasants, who were under his vassalage. When
1 >nd Nimrod died* the people adopted



a superstition, founded probably on the many
various uncouth sounds heard in the depth of a
German forest, during the silence of the night.
They conceived they still heard the cry of the
Wildgrave's hounds ; and the well-known cheer
of the deceased hunter, the sounds of his horses'
feet, and the rustling of the branches before
the game, the pack, and the sportsmen, ar^ also
distinctly discriminated : but the phantoms are
rarely, if ever, visible. Once, as a benighted
Chasseur heard this infernal chase pass by him,
at the sound of the halloo, with which the
Spectre Huntsman cheered his hounds, he
could not refrain from crying, ' Gluck zu Fal-
ke7iburgh /' (Good sport to ye, Falkenburgh !)
4 Dost thou wish me good sport ? ' answered a
hoarse voice ; ' thou shalt share the game ; '
and there was thrown at him what seemed to
be a huge piece of foul carrion. The daring
Chasseur lost two of his best horses soon after,
and never perfectly recovered the personal ef-
fects of this ghostly greeting. This tale, though
told with some variations, is universally believed
all over Germany.

44 The French had a similar tradition con-
cerning an aerial hunter who infested the for-
est of Fontainebleau. He was sometimes
visible; when he appeared as a huntsman,
surrounded with dogs, a tall grisly figure.
Some account of him may be found in Sully's
Memoirs, who says he was called Le Grand
Veneur. At one time he chose to hunt so near
the palace, that the attendants, and, if I mistake
not, Sully himself, came out into the court, sup-
posing it was the sound of the king returning
from the chase. This phantom is elsewhere
called Saint Hubert.

44 The superstition seems to have been very
general, , as appears from the following fine
poetical description of this phantom chase, as
it was heard in the wilds of Ross-shire : —

4 Ere since of old, the haughty thafles of Ross —
So to the simple swain tradition tells —
Were wont with clans, and ready vassals thronged,
To wake the bounding stag, or guilty wolf,
There oft is heard, at midnight, or at noon,
Beginning faint, but rising still more loud,



BALLADS FROM THE GERMAN, ETC.



625



And nearer, voice of hunters, and of hounds,

And horns, hoarse winded, blowing far and keen : —

Forthwith the hubbub multiplies ; the gale

Labors with wilder shrieks, and rifer din

Of hot pursuit ; the broken cry of deer

Mangled by throttling dogs ; the shouts of men,

And hoofs, thick beating on the hollow hill.

Sudden the grazing heifer in the vale

Starts at the noise, and both the herdsman's ears

Tingle with inward dread. Aghast, he eyes

The mountain's height, and all the ridges round,

Yet not one trace of living wight discerns,

Nor knows, o'erawed, and trembling as he stands,

To what, or whom, he owes his idle fear,

To ghost, to witch, to fairy, or to fiend ;

But wonders, and no end of wondering finds.'

A Ibania — reprinted in Scottish Descriptive Poems
pp. 167, 168.
" A posthumous miracle of Father Lesley, a
Scottish capuchin, related to his being buried
on a hill haunted by these unearthly cries of
hounds and huntsmen. After his sainted relics
had been deposited there, the noise was never
heard more. The reader will find this, and
other miracles, recorded in the life of Father
Bonaventura, which is written in the choicest
Italian."



®he jFtte4£thtg.

This ballad was written at the request of
Mr. Lewis, to be inserted in his Tales of Won-
der (published in 1801). It is the third in a
series of four ballads on the subject of Ele-
mentary Spirits. The story is, however, partly
historical; for it is recorded that during the
struggles of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem,
a Knight-Templar, called Saint Alban, deserted
to the Saracens, and defeated the Christians in
many combats, till he was finally routed and
slain, in a conflict with King Baldwin, under
the walls of Jerusalem.



JFwUericft anU &lta.

This tale is imitated, rather than translated,
from a fragment introduced in Goethe's Clau-
dina von Villa Bella, where it is sung by a mem-
ber of a gang of banditti, to engage the attention
of the family, while his companions break into
the castle. It owes any little merit it may pos-
sess to my friend Mr. Lewis, to whom it was
sent in an extremely rude state ; and who, after
some material improvements, published it in
his Tales of Wonder.



€ty Battle of Sempacij.

Of this poem, written in 1818, Scott says : —
"These verses are a literal translation of an
ancient Swiss ballad upon the battle of Sem-
pach, fought 9th July, 1386, being the victory
by which the Swiss cantons established their
independence ; the author, Albert Tchudi, de-
nominated the Souter, from his profession of a
shoemaker. He was a citizen of Lucerne, es-



teemed highly among his countrymen, both for
his powers as a Meister singer, or minstrel, and
his courage as a soldier ; so that he might share
the praise conferred by Collins on iEschylus,
that —

* Not alone he nursed the poet's flame,
But reached from Virtue's hand the patriot steel.'

" The circumstance of their being written by a
poet returning from the well-fought field he de-
scribes, and in which his country's fortune was
secured, may confer on Tchudi's verses an in-
terest which they are not entitled to claim from
their poetical merit. But ballad poetry, the
more literally it is translated, the more it loses
its simplicity, without acquiring either grace or
strength ; and, therefore, some of the faults of
the verses must be imputed to the translator's
feeling it a duty to keep as closely as possible
to his original. The various puns, rude at-
tempts at pleasantry, and disproportioned epi-
sodes, must be set down to Tchudi's account,
or to the taste of his age.

" The military antiquary will derive some
amusement from the minute particulars which
the martial poet has recorded. The mode in
which the Austrian men-at-arms received the
charge of the Swiss was by forming a phalanx,
which they defended with their long lances.
The gallant Winkelreid, who sacrificed his own
life by rushing- among the spears, clasping in
his arms as many as he could grasp, and thus
opening a gap in those iron battalions, is cele-
brated in Swiss history. When fairly mingled
together, the unwieldy length of their weapons,
and cumbrous weight of their defensive armor,
rendered the Austrian men-at-arms a very un-
equal match for the light-armed mountaineers.
The victories obtained by the Swiss over the
German chivalry, hitherto deemed as formi-
dable on foot as on horseback, led to important
changes in the art of war. The poet describes
the Austrian knights and squires as cutting the
peaks from their boots ere they could act upon
foot, in allusion to an inconvenient piece of
foppery, often mentioned in the Middle Ages.
Leopold III., Archduke of Austria, called 'the
handsome man-at-arms,' was slain in the battle
of Sempach, with the flower of his chivalry."



Wbt Noble IHormger.

The translation of The Noble Moringer ap-
peared originally in the Edinburgh Annual
Register for 1816 (published in 1819). It was
composed during Sir Walter Scott's severe and
alarming illness of April, 1819. He says of it : —

" The original of these verses occurs in a
collection of German popular songs, entitled
Sammlung Deutschen Volkslieder, Berlin, 1807,
published by Messrs. Busching and Von der
Hagen, both, and more especially the last,
distinguished for their acquaintance with the
ancient popular poetry and legendary history
of Germany.



40



626



NOTES.



"In the German Editor's notice of the ballad,
it is stated to have been extracted from a manu-
script Chronicle of Nicolaus Thomann, chaplain
to Saint Leonard in Weisenhorn, which bears
the date 1533; and the song is stated by the
author to have been generally sung in the
neighborhood at that early period. Thomann,
as quoted bv the German Editor, seems faith-
fully to have believed the event he narrates.
He quotes tombstones and obituaries to prove
the existence of the personages of the ballad,
and discovers that there actually died, on the
nth May, 1349, a Lady Von Neuffen, Countess
of Marstetten, who was, by birth, of the house
of Moringer. This lady he supposes to have
been Moringer's daughter, mentioned in the
ballad. He quotes the same authority for the



death of Berckhold Von Neuffen, in the same
year. The editors, on the whole, seem to em-
brace the opinion of Professor Smith of Ulm,
who, from the language of the ballad, ascribes
its date to the fifteenth century. #

" The legend itself turns on an incident not pe-
culiar to Germany, and which, perhaps, was not
unlikely to happen in more instances than one,
when crusaders abode long in the Holy Land,
and their disconsolate dames received no tidings
of their fate. A story, very similar in circum-
stances, but without the miraculous machinery of
Saint Thomas, is told of one of the ancient Lords
of Haigh-hall in Lancashire, the patrimonial
inheritance of the lateCountessof Balcarras; and
the particulars are represented on stained glass
upon a window in that ancient manor-house."



35allaOs*



(glcnfinlas.

This ballad first appeared in Lewis's Tales of
Wonder (1801).

The simple tradition upon which it is founded
runs thus: While two Highland hunters were
passing the night in a solitary bothy (a hut, built
for the purpose of hunting), and making merry
over their venison and whiskey, one of them
expressed a wish that they had pretty lasses to
complete their party. The words were scarcely
uttered, when two beautiful young women,
habited in green, entered the hut, dancing and
singing. One of the hunters was seduced by
the siren who attached herself particularly to
him, to leave the hut ; the other remained, and,
suspicious of the fair seducers, continued to
play upon a trump, or Jew's harp, some strain
consecrated to the Virgin Mary. Day at length
came, and the temptress vanished. Searching
in the forest, he found the bones of his unfortu-
nate friend, who had been torn to pieces and
devoured by the fiend into whose toils he had
fallen. The place was from thence called the
Glen of the Green Women.

Glenfinlas is a tract of forest-ground, lying
in the Highlands of Perthshire, not far from
Callender in Menteith. It was formerly a royal
forest, and now belongs to the Earl of Moray.
>untry, as well as the adjacent district
ot P.alquidder, was, in times of yore, chiefly
inhabited by the Macgregors. To the west of
Glenfinlas lies Loch Katrine, and
its romantic avenue, called the Troshachs.
Benledi, Benmore, and Benvoirlich are moun-
tains in the same district, and at no great dis-
tance from Glenfinlas. The river Teith passes
Callender and the castle of Uoune, and joins
the Forth near Stirling. The Pass of Lenny is
immediately above Callender, and is the prin-
cipal access to the Highlands, from that town.
Glcnartm y is a forest, near Benvoirlich. The
whole forms a sublime tract of Alpine scenery.



How blazed Lord Ronald's beltane-tree. The
fires lighted by the Highlanders, on the first of
May, in compliance with a custom derived from
the Pagan times, are termed The Beltane-tree.
It is a festival celebrated with various super-
stitious rites, both in the north of Scotland and
in Wales.

The seer's prophetic spirit found. I can only
describe the second sight, by adopting Dr. John-
son's definition, who calls it " an impression,
either by the mind upon the eye, or by the eye
upon the mind, by which things distant and
future are perceived and seen as if they were
present." To which I would only add, that the
spectral appearances, thus presented, usually
presage misfortune ; that the faculty is painful
to those who suppose they possess it ; and that
they usually acquire it while themselves under
the pressure of melancholy.

Will good Saint Oran's rule prevail '? Saint
Oran was a friend and follower of Saint Co-
lumba, and was buried at Icolmkill. His pre-
tensions to be a saint were rather dubious.
According to the legend, he consented to be
buried alive, in order to propitiate certain
demons of the soil, who obstructed the at-
tempts of Columba to build a chapel. Columba
caused the body of his friend to be dug up, after
three days had elapsed ; when Oran, to the
horror and scandal of the assistants, declared
that there was neither a God, a judgment, nor
a future state ! He had no time to make
further discoveries, for Columba caused the
earth once more to be shovelled over him with
the utmost despatch. The chapel, however,
and the cemetery, was called Relig Ourdn ;
and, in memory of his rigid celibacy, no female
was permitted to pay her devotions or be
buried in that place. This is the rule alluded
to in the poem.

And thrice Saint Fillan's pozuerful prayer.
Saint Fillan has given his name to many chap-
els, holy fountains, etc., in Scotland. He was,



BALLADS.



627



according to Camerarius, an Abbot of Pitten-
weem, in Fife ; from which situation he retired,
and died a hermit in the wilds of Glenurchy,
a. D. 649. While engaged in transcribing the
Scriptures, his left hand was observed to send
forth such a splendor as to afford light to that
with which he wrote, — a miracle which saved
many candles to the convent, as Saint Fillan
used to spend whole nights in that exercise.
The 9th of January was dedicated to this saint,
who gave his name to Kilfillan, in Renfrew, and
St. Phillans, or Forgend, in Fife.



€\)t &at of Saint Sohn.

SMAYLHOLMEor Smallholm Tower, the scene
of the following ballad, is situated on the north-
ern boundary of Roxburghshire, among a clus-
ter of wild rocks, called Sandiknow-Crags, the
property of Hugh Scott, Esq., of Harden.
The tower is a high square building, sur-
rounded by an outer wall, now ruinous. The
circuit of the outer court, being defended on
three sides, by a precipice and morass, is acces-
sible only from the west, by a steep and rocky
path. The apartments, as is usual in a Border
keep, or fortress, are placed one above another,
and communicate by a narrow stair; on the
roof are two bartizans, or platforms, for defence
or pleasure. The inner door of the tower is
wood, the outer an iron gate ; the distance be-
tween them being nine feet, the thickness,
namely, of the wall. From the elevated situa-
tion of Smaylholme Tower, it is seen many
miles in every direction. Among the crags
by which it is surrounded, one, more eminent,
is called the Watchfold, and is said to have
been the station of a beacon, in the times of
war with England. Without the tower-court
is a ruined chapel. Brotherstone is a heath,
in the neighborhood of Smaylholme Tower.

This ballad was first printed in Mr. Lewis's
Tales of Wonder. The catastrophe of the tale
is founded upon a well-known Irish tradition. 1
This ancient fortress and its vicinity formed
the scene of the Editor's infancy, and seemed
to claim from him this attempt to celebrate
them in a Border tale.

The black rood-stone. The black rood of Mel-
rose was a crucifix of black marble, and of
superior sanctity.

The Eildon-tree. Eildon is a high hill, ter-
minating in three conical summits, immediately
above the town of Melrose, where are the ad-
mired ruins of a magnificent monastery. Eildon-

1 The following passage, in Dr. Henry More's Appen-
dix to the Antidote against Atheism, relates to a similar
phenomenon: "I confess, that the bodies of devils may
not be only warm, but singeingly hot, as it was in him that
took one of Melancthon's relations by the hand, and so
scorched her, that she bare the mark of it to her dying
day. But the examples of cold are more frequent ; as in
that famous story of Cuntius, when he touched the arm
of a certain woman of Pentoch, as she lay in her bed, he
felt as cold as ice; and so did the spirit's claw to Anne
Styles." — Ed. 1662, p. 135-



tree is said to be the spot where Thomas the
Rhymer uttered his prophecies.

That nun who ne'er beholds the day. The
circumstance of the nun "who never saw
the day," is not entirely imaginary. About
fifty years ago, an unfortunate female wanderer
took up her residence in a dark vault, among
the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey, which, during
the day, she never quitted. When night fell,
she issued from this miserable habitation, and
went to the house of Mr. Haliburton of New-
mains, the Editor's great-grandfather, or to that
of Mr. Erskine of Sheilfield, two gentlemen of
the neighborhood. From their charity she
obtained such necessaries as she could be pre-
vailed upon to accept. At twelve, each night,
she lighted her candle, and returned to her
vault, assuring her friendly neighbors that
during her absence her habitation was arranged
by a spirit, to whom she gave the uncouth name
of Fatlips ; describing him as a little man, wear-
ing heavy iron shoes, with which he trampled
the clay floor of the vault, to dispel the damps.
This circumstance caused her to be regarded,
by the well-informed, with compassion, as de-
ranged in her understanding ; and by the vulgar,
with some degree of terror. The cause of her
adopting this extraordinary mode of life she
would never explain. It was, however, be-
lieved to have been occasioned by a vow that
during the absence of a man to whom she was
attached, she would never look upon the sun.
Her lover never returned. He fell during the
civil war of 1745-46, and she nevermore would
behold the light of day.

The vault, or rather dungeon, in which this
unfortunate woman lived and died, passes still
by the name of the supernatural being with
which its gloom was tenanted by her disturbed
imagination, and few of the neighboring peasants
dare enter it by night.



(JTaogoto &astlr.

The ruins of Cadyow, or Cadzow Castle, the
ancient baronial residence of the family of
Hamilton, are situated upon the precipitous
banks of the river Evan, about two miles above
its junction with the Clyde. It was dismantled,
in the conclusion of the Civil Wars, during the
reign of the unfortunate Mary, to whose cause
the house of Hamilton devoted themselves with
a generous zeal, which occasioned their tempo-
rary obscurity, and, very nearly, their total ruin.
The situation of the ruins, embosomed in wood,
darkened by ivy and creeping shrubs, and over-
hanging the brawling torrent, is romantic in the
highest degree. In the immediate vicinity of
Cadyow is a grove of immense oaks, the re-
mains of the Caledonian Forest, which anciently
extended through the south of Scotland, from
the eastern to the Atlantic Ocean. Some of
these trees measure twenty-five feet, and up-
wards, in circumference ; and the state of decay
in which they now appear shows that they have



628



NOTES.



witnessed the rites of the Druids. The whole
scenery is included in the magnificent and ex-
tensive park of the Duke of Hamilton. There
was long preserved in this forest the breed of
the Scottish wild cattle, until their ferocity oc-
casioned their being extirpated, about forty years
ago. Their appearance was beautiful, being
milk-white, with black muzzles, horns, and
hoofs. The bulls are described by ancient
authors as having white manes ; but those of
latter days had lost that peculiarity, perhaps
by intermixture with the tame breed.

In detailing the death of the Regent Murray,
which is made the subject of the following bal-
lad, it would be injustice to my reader to use
other words than those of Dr. Robertson, whose
account of that memorable event forms a beau-
tiful piece of historical painting.

" Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh was the person
who committed this barbarous action. He had
been condemned to death soon after the battle
of Langside, as we have already related, and
owed his life to the Regent's clemency. But
part of his estate had been bestowed upon one
of the Regent's favorites, 1 who seized his house
and turned out his wife, naked, in a cold night,
into the open fields, where, before next morn-
ing, she became furiously mad. This injury
made a deeper impression on him than the
benefit he had received, and from that moment
he vowed to be revenged of the Regent. Party
rage strengthened and inflamed his private re-
sentment. His kinsmen, the Hamiltons, ap-
plauded the enterprise. The maxims of that
age justified the most desperate course he could
take to obtain vengeance. He followed the
Regent for some time, and watched for an op-
portunity to strike the blow. He resolved at
last to wait till his enemy should arrive at Lin-
lithgow, through which he was to pass in his
way from Stirling to Edinburgh. He took his
stand in a wooden gallery, which had a window
towards the street : spread a feather-bed on the
floor to hinder the noise of his feet from being
heard ; hung up a black cloth behind him, that
his shadow might not be observed from with-
out ; and, after all this preparation, calmly ex-

the Regent's approach, who had lodged,
during the night, in a house not far distant.
Some indistinct information of the danger which
threatened him had been conveyed to the Re-
gent, and he paid so much regard to it that he
resolved to return by the same gate through
which he had entered, and to fetch a compass
round the town. But as the crowd about the
"id he himself unacquainted
with fear, he proceeded directly along the street ;
and the throng of people obliging him to move

»wly, gave the assassin time to take so
true an aim, that he shot him, with a single
bullet, through the lower part of his belly, and
killed the horse of a gentleman who rode on
hil Other tide. I lis followers instantly endeav-
ored to break into the house whence the blow

1 This was Sir James Bellenden, Lord Justice-Clerk,
btmefa] and inhuman rapacity occasioned the
catastrophe in the text.



had come ; but they found the door strongly
barricadoed, and, before it could be forced open,
Hamilton had mounted a fleet horse which stood
ready for him at a back passage, and was got
far beyond their reach. The Regent died the
same night of his wound " {History of Scotland,
book v.).

Bothwellhaugh rode straight to Hamilton,
where he was received in triumph; for the
ashes of the houses in Clydesdale, which had
been burned by Murray's army, were yet smok-
ing ; and party prejudice, the habits of the age.
and the enormity of the provocation, seemed to
his kinsmen to justify the deed. After a short
abode at Hamilton, this fierce and determined
man left Scotland, and served in France, un-
der the patronage of the family of Guise, to
whom he was doubtless recommended by hav-
ing avenged the cause of their niece, Queen
Mary, upon her ungrateful brother. De Thou
has recorded that an attempt was made to
engage him to assassinate Gaspar de Coligni,
the famous Admiral of France, and the buckler
j of the Huguenot cause. But the character of
Bothwellhaugh was mistaken. He was no
mercenary trader in blood, and rejected the
offer with contempt and indignation. He had
no authority, he said, from Scotland to commit
murders in France, he had avenged his own
just quarrel, but he would neither, for price nor
prayer, avenge that of another man ( Thuanus,
cap. 46.).

The Regent's death happened 23d January,
1569. It is applauded or stigmatized, by con-
temporary historians, according to their reli-
gious or party prejudices. The triumph of
Blackwood is unbounded. He not only extols
the pious feat of Bothwellhaugh, "who," he ob-
serves, " satisfied, with a single ounce of lead,
him whose sacrilegious avarice had stripped
the metropolitan church of St. Andrews of its
covering; ' but he ascribes it to immediate di-
vine inspiration, and the escape of Hamilton to
little less than the miraculous interference of
the Deity (/ebb, vol. ii. p. 263). With equal in-
justice, it was, by others, made the ground of a
general national reflection; for when Mather
urged Berney to assassinate Burleigh, and
quoted the examples of Poltrot'and Bothwell-
haugh, the other conspirator answered, c ' that
neyther Poltrot nor Hambleton did attempt
their enterpryse, without some reason or con-
sideration to lead them to it ; as the one, by
hyre, and promise of preferment or rewarde ;



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