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VII






Ipart, g)c!)afEttcr & ^Harj;
Pri^e (Economic (Eegaps



THE CAUSE AND EXTENT OF THE RECENT INDUS-
TRIAL PROGRESS OF GERMANY. By Earl D. Howard.

THE CAUSES OF THE PANIC OF 1893. By William J.
Lauck.

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. By Harlow Stafford Person,
Ph.D.

FEDERAL REGULATION OF RAILWAY RATES. By Al-
bert N. Merritt, Ph.D.

SHIP SUBSIDIES. An Economic Study of the Policy of Sub-
sidizing Merchant Marines. By Walter T. Dunmore.

SOCIALISM: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS. By O. D. Skelton.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS ANDTHEIR COMPENSATION.
By Gilbert L. Campbell, B. S.

THE STANDARD OF LIVING AMONG THE INDUSTRIAL
PEOPLE OF AMERICA. By Frank H. Streightoff.

THE NAVIGABLE RHINE. By Edwin J. Clapp.

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF CRIMINAL STATIS-
TICS IN THE UNITED STATES. By Louis Newton
Robinson.

SOCIAL VALUE. By B. M. Anderson, Jr.

FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION. By J. F. Strombeck.

V/ATERWAYS VERSUS RAILV/AYS. By Harold Glenn
Moulton.

THE VALUE OF ORGANIZED SPECULATION. By Harri-
son H. Brace.

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION: ITS PROBLEMS, METHODS
AND DANGERS. By Albert H. Leake.

THE UNITED STATES INTERNAL TAX HISTORY FROM
I 86 1 TO I 87 I . By Harry Edwin Smith.

Vi'ELFARE AS AN ECONOMIC QUANTITY. By G. P. Wat-
kins.

CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION IN THE COAL IN-
DUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. By Arthur E. Suf-
fern.

THE CANADIAN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY. By W. J.
A. Donald.

THE TIN PLATE INDUSTRY. By D. E. Dunbar.

THE MEANS AND METHODS OF AGRICULTURAL EDU-
CATION. By Albert H . Leake.

THE TAXATION OF LAND VALUE. By Yetta Scheftel.

RAILROAD VALUATION. By Homer Bews Vanderblue.

RAILV/AY RATES AND THE CANADIAN RAILWAY COM-
MISSION. By D. A. MacGibbon.

THE CHICAGO PRODUCE MARKET. By Edwin Griswold
Nourse.

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
Boston and New York



Wiaxt, ^c^affmv & QUatx ^t\j^ 600a^0



V

SHIP SUBSIDIES



A.



T

IV-

t.



SHIP SUBSIDIES

AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE POLICY
OF SUBSIDIZING MERCHANT MARINES



BY



WALTER T. DUNMORE

IKSTEtJCTOE IS THE LAW SCHOOL OP WESTERN
RESERVE UNIVERSITY




BOSTON AND NEW YORK

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

^fft IMMtr^ibe J^xt0 Cambcibge



COPYRIGHT :907 BY HART, SCHAFFNER * MARX
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Published November [^






PREFACE

This series of books owes its existence to the generosity
of Messrs. Hart, Schaffner, and Marx of Chicago, who
have shown a special interest in trying to draw the
attention of American youth to the study of economic
and commercial subjects, and to encourage the best
thinking of the country to investigate the problems
which vitally affect the business world of to-day. For
this purpose they have delegated to the undersigned
Committee the task of selecting topics, making all an-
nouncements, and awarding prizes annually for those
who wish to compete.

In the year ending June 1, 1906, the following
topics were assigned:

1. To what extent, and by what administrative
body, should the public attempt to control railway
rates in interstate commerce ?

2. A just and practicable method of taxing rail-
way property.

3. Will the present policy of the labor unions in
dealing with non-union men, and the "closed shop,"
further the interests of the workingmen ?

4. Should ship subsidies be offered by the govern-
ment of the United States ?

5. An examination into the economic causes of
large fortunes in this country.



vi PREFACE

6. The influence of credit on the level of prices.

7. The cattle industry in its relation to the ranch-
man, feeder, packer, railway, aud consumer.

8. Should the government seek to control or regulate
the use of mines of coal, iron, or other raw materials,
whose supply may become the subject of monopoly ?

9. What provision can be made for workingmen
to avoid the economic insecurity said to accompany
the modern wage-system ?

A First Prize of One Thousand Dollars, and a
Second Prize of Five Hundred Dollars, in cash, were
offered for the best studies presented by Class A, com-
posed exclusively of all persons who had received the
bachelor's degree from an American college in 1894
or thereafter.

The present volume was awarded the second prize.

Professor J. Laurence Laughlin,

University of Chicago, Chairman.
Professor J. B. Clark,

Columbia University.
Professor Henry C, Adams,

University of Michigan.
Horace White, Esq.,

New York City.
Hon. Carroll D. Wright,

Clark College.



CONTENTS

Bibliography, xi.
I. Introduction, 1-5.

A. Use of the term "subsidy," 1, 2.

B. Purpose of the discussion, 2, 3.

C. Difficulties surrounding consideration, 3-5.

1. Views often prejudiced, 3, 4.

2. The question an international one, 4.

3. Existing conditions not natural, 4, 5.
n. Re^hew of American Shipping, 6-26.

A. Tonnage carried in American bottoms, 6-8.

1. In coastwise trade, 6, 7.

2. In foreign trade, 7, 8.

B. Shipping legislation, 9-23.

1. As to coastwise trade, 9-11.

2. As to foreign trade, 11-23.

C. EflFect of legislation upon tonnage, 23-26.

1. In coastwise trade, 23.

2. In foreign trade, 24-26.

m. Present Status of American Shipping, 27-57.

A. In coastwise trade, 27-30.

1. Tonnage, 27, 28.

2. Efficiency, 28, 29.

3. Reasons for growth, 29, 30.

a. Growth in trade, 29.

b. Monopoly, 29, 30.

B. In foreign trade, 30-57.

1. Tonnage, 30-32.

2. Efficiency, 32.

3. Reasons for existing conditions, 32-57.

a. Change from wooden to iron ships, 33-35.
(1) Our advantage with wood, 33, 34.



viii CONTENTS

(2) England's advantage with iron, 34, 35.

(3) Lloyds' discrimination against wood, 35.

b. Civil War, 36, 37.

c. Higher returns elsewhere, 37-41.

(1) On labor, 38, 39.

(2) On capital, 39-41.

(a) In railroads, 39, 40.

(b) In manufacturing, 40.

(c) In trade generally, 40, 41.

d. American Protective Tariff, 41-47.

(1) Effect on price of materials, 41-44.

(2) Effect on securing cargo, 44, 45.

(3) Effect on wages of seamen, 45-47,

e. High wages, 47-54.

(1) In shipbuilding, 47-50.

(2) In ship operating, 50-54.

f. American navigation laws, 54-57.

(1) American registry law, 54, 55.

(2) Compelling hire of American officers, 55.

(3) Food scale, 56.

(4) Release of sailors, 56, 57.
IV. The Remedy, 58-103.

A. Why try to remedy, 58-70.

1. Commercial interests, 58-67.

a. Freight money, 58-60.

b. Increase of commerce, 60-64.

c. Carriage during wars abroad, 64-67.

2. National defense, 67-70.

a. Sailors for navy, 67, 68.

b. Auxiliary ships, 68-70.

B. Remedies suggested, 70-103.

1. Free ships, 70-75.

a. Policy considered, 70-73.

b. Objections, 73-75.

(1) Would injure American shipbuilding, 73,

74.

(2) Would not build up shipping, 74, 75.

2. General discriminating duties, 76-79.
a. Policy considered, 76, 77.



CONTENTS ix

b. Objections, 77-79.

(1) Probability of retaliation, 77, 78.

(2) Would operate unequally, 78, 79.

(3) Many imports not dutiable, 79.

3. Discriminating duties in indirect trade, 80, 81.

a. Policy considered, 80.

b. Objections, 80, 81.

(1) Probability of retaliation, 80, 81.

(2) Ships would be transferred, 81.

4. Naval subventions, 81, 82.

a. Policy considered, 81, 82.

b. Objections, 82.

(1) Class legislation, 82.

(2) Could not build up general carrying

trade, 82.

5. Subsidies, 83-103.

a. Policy considered, 83.

b. Objections, 84-102.

(1) World's experience does not warrant, 84-

95.

(a) Great Britain's policy, 84-87.

(b) Germany's policy, 87-89.

(c) France's experience, 89-92.

(d) Experience of the United States, 92-

95.

(2) Unavailing because not permanent, 95-

97.

(3) Wrong on principle, 97-99.

(4) High cost, 99-102.

c. Conclusion adverse to subsidies, 102, 103.
Policy Recommended, 104-119.

A. Free ships in foreign trade, 104-106.

B. Free building materials, 106, 107.

C. Intelligent application of the policy of the law of

1891, 107, 108.

D. Discriminating duties in indirect trade, 109-114.

E. Measures proposed satisfactory, 114-119.
1. Liberal to shipbuilder, 114-116.

a. Gives him monopoly in coastwise trade, 114.



CONTENTS

b. Gives him monopoly in vessels receiving sub-

ventions, 114.

c. Enables him to buy cheaper materials, 114,

115.

d. Would give him large repairs, 115, 116.

e. Encourages shipowning habit, 116.
Fair to sailors 116, 117.

a. Gives Americans employment as officers, 116,

117.

b. Gives Americans employment on vessels under

contract, 117.
Would materially aid American shipowner, 118,
119.

a. By enabling him to buy cheaply, 118.

b. By giving him benefit of subventions, 118.

c. By giving him preference in obtaining home

cargo, 118, 119.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS AND ARTICLES CONSULTED

American Merchant Marine, The, Winthrop L. Marvin.

American Navigation. W. W. Bates.

British and American Shipping. Benjamin Taylor.

Nineteenth Century, 52, 19.
British Shipping Subsidies. J. W. Root. Atlantic Monthly,

85, 387.
British Subsidies and American Shipping. Charles H.

Cramp. North American Review, 175, 829.
Decay of Our Ocean Mercantile Marine : its Cause

and Cure. David A. Wells.
Development of British Shipping, The. Benjamin

Taylor. Forum, 30, 463.
Development of Russia's Merchant Marine. J. Charles

Roux. Review of Reviews, 30, 612.
Future of American Shipping, The. Arthur Goodrich.

World's Work, 4, 2191.
Gap in America's Armor, The. Senator William P, Frye.

National Magazine, 16, 337.
Growth of American Merchant Marine. Scientific

American, 90, 454.
History of Shipping Subsidies. Royal Meeker.
How to protect American Shipping. Gunton, 25, 163.
How to restore American Shipping. Nelson Dingley, Jr.

North American Review, 148, 687.
Merchant Marine, The. Speech by Mr. Rainey. Con-

gressiotial Record, volume 38, part 5, page 4310.
Merchant IVLirine Commission, The. Winthrop L. Mar-
vin. Review of Reviews, 30, 675.
Merchant IVLirine Investigation, The. James W.

Garner. North American Review, 180, 360.



xii BIBLIOGRAPHY

Merchant Seaman and the Subsidy Bill. Walter Mac-

arthur. Arena, 25, 149.
Misrepresentation of the Shipping Crisis. W. W. Bates.

Gunton, 27, 571.
National Problem, A. M. A. Hanna. Independent, 53, 10.
Need of American Shipping, The. Nation, 78, 285.
Objections to Ship Subsidy Bill. John DeWitt Warner.

Independent, 53, 185.
Opposition to Ship Subsidy. Nation, 73, 294.
Our Neglected Shipping. Alexander R. Smith. North

American Review, 163, 470.
Policy of Steamship Subsidies, The. Arthur T. Hadley.

Revieiv of Reviews, 21, 325.
Present Status of American Shipbuilding. Scientific

American, 89, 115.
Problem of an American IMarine. W. W. Bates. Forum,

28, 81.
Problem of an American Marine, — A Reply. Alexander

R. Smith. Forum, 28, 297.
Protected American Shipping Needed, A. Overland

Monthly, 34, 401.
Report of Merchant Marine Commission. Senate

Reports, No. 2755, volumes 2, 3, and 4, 58th Congress, 3d

Session, 1904-05.
Report (Supplemental) of Merchant IVIarine Com-
mission. Filed by C. H. Grosvenor, February 24, 1906.
Report of the Select Committee of the House of

Commons on Steamship Subsidies. Journal Political

Economy, 11, 466.
Reports, Congressional. 57th and 58th Congresses.
Shall we have Free Ships? Captain John Codman,

North American Review, 154, 353.
Ship-building vs. Ship-owning. Captain John CodmaOo

North American Review, 142, 478.
Shipping and Subsidies. Benjamin Taylor. North Ameri-
can Review, 176, 490.
Shipping Subsidies. Frank L. McVey. Journal Political

Economy, 9, 24.
Shipping Subsidies. Nation, 70, 64.



BIBLIOGRAPHY xiu

Ship-subsidy Htjmbug, The. Nation, 72, 5.
Shipping Subsidies Plot, The. Nation, 69, 104.
Ship-subsidy Question in England, The. Nation, 76, 144.
Ship-subsidies and Bounties. Alexander R. Smith.

Giinton, 19, 333.
Shipping Subsidies and Bounties. Captain John Cod-
man.
Shipping Subsidy Bill, The. Eugene T. Chamberlain.

Forum, 29, 532.
Shipping Trust, A. Nation, 73, 410.
Should our IVIarine be Subsidized? John C. Watson.

Arena, 23, 606.
Simple Solution of the Shipping Question, A. Edward

C. Plummer. North American Review, 166, 634.
Substitutes for Ship Subsidies. Louis Windmliller

North American Revieiv, 172, 113.
Substitutes for Ship Subsidies, — A Reply. Alexander

R. Smith. North American Review, 172, 285,
Statesman's Year Book, 1905-06.
Unwise Taxation on Shipping. Charles E. Naylor.

Overland Monthly, 2d s., 25, 567.



ARRANGED ACCORDING TO AUTHORS

Bates, W. W. American Navigation.

Bates, W. W. Misrepresentation of the Shipping Crisis.
Gunton, 27, 571.

Bates, W. W. The Problem of an American Marine.
Forum, 28, 81.

Chamberlain, Eugene T. The Shipping Subsidy Bill.
Forum, 29, 532.

CoDMAN, Captain John. Shall we have Free Ships.'
North American Review, 154, 353.

CoDMAN, Captain John. Ship-building vs. Ship-owning.
North American Revieiv, 142, 478.

CoDMAN, Captain John. Shipping Subsidies and Bounties.

Cramp, Charles H. British Subsidies and American Ship-
ping. North American Review, 175, 829.



xiv BIBLIOGRAPHY

DiNGLEY, Nelson, Jr. How to restore American Shipping,

North American Review, 148, 687.
Editor, The. Growth of American Merchant Marine.

Scientific American, 90, 454.
Editor, The. How to protect American Shipping. Gunton,

25, 163.
Editor, The. Need of American Shipping. Nation, 78, 285.
Editor, The. Opposition to Ship Subsidy. Nation, 73, 294.
Editor, The. Present Status of American Shipbuilding.

Scientific American, 89, 115.
Editor, The. Report of the Select Committee of the House

of Commons on Steamship Subsidies. Journal Political

Economy, 11,466.
Editor, The, Shipping Subsidies. Nation, 70, 64.
Editor, The. Ship Subsidies Abroad. Outlook, 67, 387.
Editor, The. The Ship-subsidy Humbug. Nation, 72, 5.
Editor, The. The Shipping-subsidies Plot. A^ahon, 69, 104.
Editor, The. The Ship-subsidy Question in England.

Nation, 76, 144.
Frte, Senator William P. The Gap in America's Armor.

National Magazine, 16, 337.
Garner, James W. The Merchant Marine Investigation.

North American Review, 180, 360.
Goodrich, Arthur. The Future of American Shipping.

World's Work, 4,2191.
Hadley, Arthur T. The Policy of Steamship Subsidies.

Review of Reviews, 21, 325.
Hanna, M. a. a National Problem. Independent, 53, 10.
^Iacarthur, Walter. The Merchant Seaman and the Sub-
sidy Bill. Arena, 25, 149.
Marvin, Winthrop L. The American Merchant Marine.
MLarvin, Winthrop L., Secretary of Commission. The

Merchant Marine Commission. Review of Reviews^

30, 675.
Meeker, Royal. History of Shipping Subsidies.
McVey, Frank L. Shipping Subsidies. Journal Political

Economy, 9, 24.
Naylor, Charles E. Unwise Taxation on Shipping. Over-
land Monthly, 2d s., 28, 567.



BIBLIOGRAPHY xv

Plummer, Edward C. A Simple Solution of the Shipping

Question. North American Review, 166, 634.
Rainey, Mr. Speech on Merchant Marine. Congressional

Record, volume 38, part 5, page 4310.
Root, J. W. British Shipping Subsidies. Atlantic Monthly,

85, 387.
Roux, J. Charles. The Development of Russia's Marine.

Review of Reviews, 30, 612.
Smith, Alexander R. Out Neglected Shipping. North

American Review, 163, 470.
Smith, Alexander R. A Protected American Shipping

Needed. Overland Monthly, 34, 401.
Smith, Alexander R. The Problem of the American

Marine. A Reply. Forum, 28, 297.
Smith, Alexander R. Ship-subsidies and Bounties.

Giinton, 19,333.
Smith, Alexander R. Substitutes for Ship-subsidies.

North American Review, 172, 285.
Taylor, Benjamin. British-American Shipping. Nine-
teenth Century, 52, 19.
Taylor, Benjamin. The Development of British Shipping.

Forum, 30, 463.
Taylor, Benjamin. Shipping and Subsidies. North

American Review, 176, 490.
Warner, John DeWitt. The Objection to the Ship Subsidy

Bill. Independent, 53, 185.
Watson, John C. Should our Merchant Marine be Sub-
sidized? Arena, ^3, 606.
Wells, David A. The Decay of our Ocean Mercantile

Marine : its Cause and Cure.
WiNDMiJLLER, Louis. Substitutes for Ship Subsidies. North

American Review, 172, 113.



rvi BIBLIOGRAPHY



COMMENTS ON AUTHORITIES

Bates, W. W. — W. W. Bates, formerly United States
Commissioner of Navigation and an able writer on shipping
questions, has devoted a great amount of study to ascertain
how best to encourage the American Merchant Marine.
His book, " American Navigation," is of considerable value
historically. ^Ir. Bates is a decidedly ardent advocate of
general discriminating duties, but, although undoubtedly
disinterested in his beliefs, he fails to see merit in any plan
other than his own, and at the same time frequently over-
looks almost entirely the difficulties in the way of his policy.

CoDMAN, Captain John. — Captain Codman is an earnest
advocate of the policy of free ships. He is candid and dis-
interested in his convictions. Captain Codman is, however,
inclined to deal with the shipping question from a theoretical
rather than from a practical standpoint.

Cramp, Charles H. — Mr. Cramp has been an unwavering
supporter of ship subsidies. Because of his large shipbuild-
ing interests, his opinion has frequently been sought to gain
the benefit of his practical knowledge. It is but natural that
Mr. Cramp should favor subsidies. He is, however, fre-
quently far from logical in giving reasons for the faith that
is in him.

Marvin, Winthrop L. — Mr. Marvin has written a
very valuable and interesting work in "The American
Merchant Marine." He is one of the fairest of all the
writers who have considered the shipping question from a
practical standpoint. Mr. Marvin believes that the United
States should subsidize, although stating that "subsidies
are potent but not omnipotent."

McVey, Frank L. — Mr. McVey has prepared an excel-
lent discussion on the ship-subsidy question. He does not



BIBLIOGRAPHY xvii

believe in subsidies, and believes that growth will come
when the country is ready for it. Mr. McVey suggests no
present remedy.

Meeker, Royal. — Mr. Meeker in his "History of Ship-
ping Subsidies" has given a thorough and able historical
treatment. His conclusion is against ship subsidies. Mr.
Meeker is fair and logical, but does not attempt to provide
a way for building up our marine.

Merchant Marine Commission. — This Commission,
composed of five Senators and five Representatives, was ap-
pointed to investigate the shipping question under an Act
of Congress passed April 28, 1904, at the suggestion of
President Roosevelt. The Commission, consisting of mem-
bers of both political parties, visited all important ports
on the Atlantic, the Pacific, and the Great Lakes, and
examined a great number of shippers, shipowners, ship-
builders, sailors, and business men. The Commission sub-
mitted its findings, \nih the testimony taken, in a three-vol-
ume report. All the members of the Commission advocated
some active measures to build up the American merchant
marine. The majority report, signed by foiu* Senators and
three Representatives, advocated naval subventions to mail
vessels, subsidies and tonnage duties. The minority favored
discriminating duties.

This report, although influenced in a measure by political
views, is based upon evidence taken, and is valuable because
giving the views of many having so practical a knowledge of
the question to be solved.

Wells, David A. — Mr. Wells is strongly opposed to
subsidies. He carries his argument out logically and favors
absolutely free trade. He treats the subject theoretically, from
the point of view of the economist who refuses to sacrifice
anything in order to arrive at a practical solution as con-
ditions exist to-day.

Generally. — The great majority of persons who have
written or spoken on the shipping question have favored
taking some steps to remedy existing conditions.



xviii BIBLIOGRAPHY

Economists have almost universally condemned ship-
subsidies, and have favored free ships as a solution.

Shipbuilders and shipowners naturally are in favor of
direct subsidies. Subsidies have also found many support-
ers among Republican leaders, while free ships have been
urged by many Democrats.

The public generally has looked with suspicion upon
any subsidy plan as a further concession to special interests.
Discriminating duties have therefore aroused less public
hostility, and a considerable number of the editorials in news-
paper and periodical literature have favored this policy.



SHIP SUBSIDIES



%IV*



SHIP SUBSIDIES



^ I. INTRODUCTION



A. Use of the Term "Subsidy"

The term "subsidy" is defined in Webster's
Dictionary as "A grant from the government
to a private person or company to assist in
the establishment or support of an enterprise
deemed advantageous to the pubHc." A ship-
ping subsidy offered by the government of the
United States would be a direct grant from^
the national treasury in the form of a gift or
bounty to encourage and build up the ship-
ping industry, and in no sense a remuneration
for services rendered. Very frequently the
term ship subsidy has been applied by writers
to payment made by a government out of the
treasury for services in carrying the mails or.
for holding a vessel in readiness for use as an
adjunct to the navy. A failure to distinguish
clearly between a gift out of the public treas-
ury to shipowners and a payment for service
rendered is the basis for many erroneous ar-
guments from analogy on the ship-subsidy
question. It is, therefore, important to remem-
ber that a ship subsidy, as considered in this



2 SHIP SUBSIDIES

discussion, is a gift in the form of a bounty,
and has no relation to services directly ren-
dered to the giver by the recipient.

B. Purpose of the Discussion

For the last quarter of a century the sub-
sidy question has been under consideration
by debating societies, chambers of commerce,
economists and legislators, so that it would
seem that some answer satisfactory to a rea-
sonable majority might have been given.
Such, however, is far from being the case, and
the answers to the question are still as various
and conflicting, and at the same time as posi-
tively given, as though it were being considered
for the first time, and as though the Library of
Congress did not contain two thousand books
and pamphlets written by persons who sever-
ally conceived that they had furnished the one
perfectly obvious and only rational solution.
Since a subsidy measure is now^ pending
before the Federal Congress, framed in accord
with the majority report of the Merchant
Marine Commission appointed at the sugges-
tion of President Roosevelt, the solution of
the problem presented is one of prime impor-
tance to-day. Congress is dealing with a great
problem, and any decision favoring subsidies
which it may reach must of necessity involve

» March, 1906.



INTRODUCTION 3

the expenditure of a large amount of money,
and the inauguration of a policy which from
the nature of the end sought cannot be tem-
porary, but must extend over a considerable
number of years, if anything of value is to be
accomplished.

It may be of value, therefore, to consider
the question from an unprejudiced, non-par-
tisan standpoint, and to endeavor to decide
what is the best policy from the point of view
of the commercial and economic interests of
the United States ; and also what is best, con-
sidering the question in its bearing on the
national defense.

C. Difficulties Surrounding Consider-
ation

1. Views often Prejudiced

Naturally, a number of difficulties are at
once met with in the investigation of the
conditions existing in the American merchant
marine, and in the endeavor to provide a
remedy which shall satisfactorily meet those
conditions. A very large part of the testimony
available has of course been given by ship-
owners, shipbuilders, or those in some way
pecuniarily interested in a flourishing con-
dition of shipping interests. Those who are
devoting their lives to shipping and investing
their capital therein are the ones to whom



4 SHIP SUBSIDIES

Congress has most frequently gone to obtain
evidence, and while this evidence is not pur-
posely falsified, it is given with the welfare of
the shipping interests always foremost in the
minds of the witnesses. When the question
has been considered in Congress the debates
have ordinarily been inspired with political
interests. It would be inconsistent for the
legislator elected on a protective tariff plat-
form to deny all protection to ships. The
statistics there used have been selected with a
view to upholding the position of the debater,
and very frequently the same statistics have


1 3 4 5 6 7

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