Walter Thomas Rogers.

A manual of bibliography : being an introduction to the knowledge of books, library management and the art of cataloguing, with a list of bibliographical works of reference, a Latin-English and English-Latin topographical index of ancient printing centres, and a glossary online

. (page 1 of 14)
Online LibraryWalter Thomas RogersA manual of bibliography : being an introduction to the knowledge of books, library management and the art of cataloguing, with a list of bibliographical works of reference, a Latin-English and English-Latin topographical index of ancient printing centres, and a glossary → online text (page 1 of 14)
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an 5ntio&uction to tbc 1^vno^vlc^c}e of JBoof^s, library
/Ifcanagcment, aiiD tbe Brt of Cataloguing,









Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, I.d., London and Aylesbury.


'nr^HE following work is founded ^on a translation

of Sig. G. Ottino's interesting little Mauuale

di Bibliogmfia, Milan, 1885. Numerous additions

and alterations have been made in the body of the

work, and the lists of abbreviations and books of

reference entirely revised and enlarged. A list of

printing centres, an enlarged glossary, and index

have also been added. The illustrations are selected

from M. Bouchot's well-known work The Book,

published by Messrs. H. Grevel & Co.

Although this manual makes no pretence to be

a complete summary of the vast subject on which

it treats, we feel confident that it will be found

sufficiently comprehensive to be of great service

and practical utility to book-lovers, and all others

whose inclination or business leads them to make

a study of Bibliography.

W. T. R.

East Dulwich, S.E.
June 1 89 1.



The Invention and Progress of Printing.


Xylographic or Block-Books— Typography— Coster, Castaldi, or
Gutenberg ? -Mentz : Fust and Schoeffer— Italy : Subiaco,
Rome, Venice, Milan, etc. —France— England : Westminster,
London, St. Albans— Other Nations— Progress in the Six-
teenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries— The Nine-
teenth Century .....•••• ^


The Book.

Bibliophile and Bibliomane— Rare Books and Good Books-
Distinctive Signs of the First Printed Books— On Collecting
Books —Abbreviations in English, French, German, and
Italian Catalogues— Collation— Cancels— Size— Pagination—
Signatures— Catchwords— Register— Date— Colophon— Title-
pages — Imprint .....■••• 3^


The Ornamentation of a Book.

Illuminated Capitals - -Wood-engravings— Copper-plate Engravings
— Steel Engravings — Lithography — Chromo-lithography—
Zincography— Albertype—Heliotype—Zincotype— Binding . 67


The Library and the Catalogue.


The Library — Inventory, or Accession Book — Book-plates — The
Catalogue — Card Catalogue — The Entry : Author, Title,
Anonyms, Volumes, Pagination, Size, Editor, Printer, Date,
etc. — Rare Works — Specimens of Entries in Catalogue —
Iconographic Catalogue — Periodicals and Works in Progress
— Arrangement — Bibliographical Systems — Brunei's System —
Alphabetic and Systematic Order — On the Superintendence
of Books — Restoration of Books — Books to Consult . . 98

Books of Reference 14 9

Topographical Index 168

Glossary 183

Index ........... 205




Xylographic or Block-Books — Typography — Coster, Castaldi, or
Gutenberg?— Mentz: Fust and Schoeffer — Italy: Subiaco, Rome,
Venice, Milan, etc. — France — England: Westminster, London,
St. Albans — Other nations — Progress in the Sixteenth, Seven-
teenth, and Eighteenth Centuries — The Nineteenth Century.

Without attempting to trace the origin of printing
among the Chinese, Persians, Greeks, or Romans, we
may assume it as certain that typography, or the art
of printing with movable types, had as a forerunner
xylography, or engraving on wood ; and it was the
successive appHcation of this art that led to the
discovery of printing.

The earliest products of wood-engraving were
playing cards and single leaf woodcuts, with or
without text, known as Hclgeti, or Saint Pictures.
At first, probably, these latter bore an image alone,,
but as the images closely resembled one another, it
became necessary to add the name of the Saint de-
picted. To the name was soon added a word or a line,
then two lines, and, finally, an entire page of letters



was engraved. Several of these pages, printed on one
side only of a piece of paper, were placed together in
continuous order in the form of a book, thus forming
what is now known as a xylographic or block-book, —
one of the greatest of bibliographical rarities.

Fig. I. — Frontispiece to Terence, published by Treschel at Lyons
in 1493. An author writing his book.

Heineken, Sotheby, and others have described the
various block-books, indicating the different editions
of each and the libraries in which they are to be
found. The most notable are the following : —

Historia Veteris ct Novi Tcstamcnti, or Biblia Paupcrum;
in Latin and German. Small folio, about 40 leaves.


Histon'a Saudi Johannis EvangcUsta- cjiisquc Visionis
Apocalypticce. Folio, 48 or 50 leaves.

Histon'a sen Providcntia Virginis Marin ex Cantico
Canticorum. Small folio, 16 leaves.

In these three works there are only a few lines of words
scattered here and there among the engraven figure?,
whilst in the following, the words — or, better still, the
text — are engraven on separate blocks. They are : —

Der Entkrist [Historia Antichristi], with an appendix
of the signs which will precede the final judgment.
Small folio, 39 leaves.

Ars Mcmorandi Notabilis per Figuris Evangelistarum.
15 leaves of figures and as many of text, folio.

Ars Moriendi, or De Tentationibiis Moricntiimt, or
Tentationes Damonis^ in Latin, German, or Dutch.
Folio and 4to, 24 leaves partly figures and partly text.

Speculum Humana: Salvafionis, or Spieghcl onser
Bchoudcnissc. Small folio, 5 leaves of preface and 58
leaves of vignettes, with Latin and Flemish sentences
at the foot.

Die Kunst Cyromantia of Hartlieb, partly printed on
both sides.

There remained but one step to be made, and movable
types and typography were discovered. Who made
this step ?

Several cities have contested the honour of having
been the cradle of the typographical art, but the palm
still remains as incontestably to Mentz, as to Guten-
berg remains the honour of having been the inventor
of Printing.

Among the towns which dispute this glory there are
three which will give the greatest field for historical


or bibliographical studies — Haarlem, Strasburg, and
Mentz ; besides these towns, however, a small number
of persons, blinded probably by great love for their

Fig. 2. — Xylographic figure from the Ars Morioidi, copied in
reverse in the A>-t ati Morier.

country, have attempted to appropriate to Italy the
invention of movable characters, which they attribute
to Pamfilo Castaldi of Feltre.


The following is the basis on which the city of
Haarlem founds its claims : —

Hadrianus Junius (Adriaen de Jonghe), in his
Batavia, a description of Holland, published at Leyden
1588, relates the history of one Lourens (son of) Jan,
surnamed Coster. This Lourens Janszoon Coster,
walking one day in a wood near Haarlem, split off
several pieces of bark from a beech tree, and for
amusement fashioned letters from them, which, being
placed in order, formed words. It then occurred to
him to make a complete alphabet, and to reproduce
it on paper with an ink which he had specially pre-
pared, thicker than that generally used ; but as by this
means he was only able to print the words on one side
of the paper, he stuck two leaves back to back, in order
to hide the blank pages. He eventually exchanged his
wooden type for leaden, and finally tin or composition
type, making of his discovery an immensely lucrative
branch of commerce. He then engaged some workmen,
whom he placed under an oath to preserve his secret.

One of these workmen, named Jan, or Johan, and
who is supposed to have been Fust (the associate of
Gutenberg), had hardly learned the working of the in-
vention, when, one Christmas Eve, he fled from Haarlem,
carrying off the type and printing implements of his
master. By way of Amsterdam and Cologne he reached
Mentz, where he was able to draw abundant remunera-
tion from his theft. At Mentz he printed, about 1442,
with the type of Lourens Janszoon Coster, his late em-
ployer, a grammar (at that time much used) entitled
Dodrinale Alexandri Galli. These, then, are the claims
of Haarlem. What occasioned great doubt as to their


authenticity is, as Meerman points out, that no Dutch
historian makes any mention of Coster until about one
hundred and thirty years after his death. This has
generally caused the story to be considered as the
invention of some fertile brain, but Hessels, in his
Haarlem, not Meiitz, has so strongly advocated the
claims of Coster that the reader should refer to
his work for full particulars.

The titles in favour of Italy, or, to speak more
correctly, of Pamfilo Castaldi, are based on a chronicle
of the seventeenth century, but which refers the reader
back to a still more ancient chronicle, which unfortu-
nately has never been forthcoming.

Father Antonio Cambruzzi has chronicled the follow-
ing in his Memorie Istorichc dc Fcltre, of which several
MSS. have survived to the present day : — " At this
time (1456) flourished Pamfilo Castaldi, Doctor and
Poet of Feltre, who discovered the invention of printing
books, the most noble art and the most worthy that
has ever been discovered in the world ; which having
taught to Fust, who lived at Feltre in his house in
order to learn the Italian language, he carried it off
to Germany and practised it in the city of Mentz,
and soon acquired the title of the first printer. . . .
Others attribute the invention of this art to a German
called Gutenburg, of the city of Argentina (J.c. Stras-
burg), but the first inventor, as is clearly shown in
the Feltrine chronicle, was Pamfilo Castaldi, and being
learned from him by others, was carried into Germany,
and from there," etc., etc.

The Feltrine chronicle, from which Cambruzzi had
extracted the above notice, has unfortunately been lost,.


but even were it still to exist, would that be a proof of
the fact ? Others have even gone the length of insist-
ing that Castaldi had started a printing-office at Milan,
but this assertion has even less foundation than that
which is limited to attributing to him the invention of
movable type.

Fig. 3.— Portrait of Gutenberg, from an engraving of
the sixteenth century.

The claims of Strasburg and Mentz are as follows,
and were founded mainly on documents which have
since been destroyed, at the siege of Strasburg in 1870.

Johan Gutenberg, who is supposed to have been born
at Mentz about 1400, went to Strasburg in 1430, or
perhaps even before. In 1438 he formed a partnership
with Andreas Dritzehn, Hans Riffe, and Andreas


Heilmann, citizens of Strasburg, and pledged himself to
divulge to them an important secret which would ensure
them a fortune. By the agreement, each partner was
to disburse the sum of eighty florins, and shortly after
a further sum of one hundred and twenty-five florirns
was added. The workshop was in the house of
Andreas Dritzehn, who died soon after the second
amount was paid.

Gutenberg sent to tell the brother of Andreas, because
he did not wish any stranger to enter the workshop.
He intended to hide the formes which were about the
place, in order that no one might discover his secret;
but they had already disappeared. This fraud, and the
claims of George Dritzehn, who wished to succeed to
the partnership rights of his brother Andreas, gave rise
to a lawsuit between the partners. The depositions of
the five witnesses and of Lorenz Beildeck, a servant of
Gutenberg, agreed, and established that in the work-
shop in Andreas Dritzhen's house there had been a
press furnished with two screws, with pages, formes,
etc., and that Gutenberg always recommended the hiding
of these formes, in order that no one should be able to
discover his secret.

In consequence of this lawsuit the partnership was
broken up, and Gutenberg, not having been able to
accomplish his aims at Strasburg, returned to Mentz
about 1445, and again occupied himself there with
singular assiduity in the art of printing.

In 1449 he concluded an agreement of partnership
with Johan Fust, an opulent citizen, who advanced
eight hundred guilders to Gutenberg, and later on
another eight hundred, taking as security a mortgage

luQi miD^tn^mf^rim? opuli me
Kto^uotat brETittirquf noa ptcQm
tadta^. %t6.z tUifntott|:^ui c^oDus
flltit(lat.taxiu0 uaQecca:Uj t Imitit?.
fiuattf uaQettoixcrqut mm^ uota^

nmt pnotat.l]iiiIt qufip Ubri nrnHu

}|>idm4p$ai| mDtm{aiiut:tcituitQ«
unt a t^u film namiqm apim tUoa
Cop^it in tEtiuDiiu libera inmtcm
io{un0ut rudi'tiuta in titto iuinai :
!ra a? natcat Ijiftoria. tmm ftqui*
itur rammtquan noa rcpoi^ pnm i
Idimuitimtliuarc? roaladiim in f

Fig. 4.— Fragment of the Gutenberg Bible, printed in two columns.
Beginning of the text in the second column. Original size.


on the press and other printing materials. Gutenberg^
on his part, brought to the fraternity his invention and
experience. Then was it possible for them to under-
take the printing of the Bible, which eventually appeared
about 1455, and from that moment it may be truly said
that printing was invented. The}^ had barely finished
printing the third sheet of their Bible before they had
incurred an expense of four thousand florins, and other
grave obstacles impeded the progress of the workmen.
The imperfection of the print, metal, ink, presses, the
inequality and disproportion of the type, all contributed
to delay them in their undertaking, when they associated
with themselves one Peter Schoeflfer, a skilful cali-
grapher and a man of genius, who invented the matrix
and punches, casting of type, and printing ink. Fust
was so fully aware of his talents that he gave him
the hand of his granddaughter Christina in marriage.
Finall}', the expenses not diminishing, and Gutenberg
being unable to pay Fust the interest on the sum
borrowed, the latter brought an action against Guten-
berg, who was obliged to quit the partnership, and
the possession of the printing-office was adjudged
to Fust.

Gutenberg, who still wished to advance the art of
printing at an}' cost, obtained supplies from Dr. Conrad
Homery, and founded a new printing-office. In 1465
he was admitted among the courtiers or chamberlains
of the Elector Adolph II., and he must have died some
time before the 24th of February, 1468, as on that day
Homery delivered to the Elector a receipt for the resti-
tution of the furniture of the printing-office, at the press
of which it is possible were printed the small books


which were issued about that time without the names
of either Fust or Schoeffer.

Fust and Schoeffer soon made themselves known by
the pubhcation of several remarkable works in folio, all
of which bear the names of the printers, with the in-
dication of the place and year in which they were

Chronologically arranged, they are as follows : —

1457. Psahnonim Codex. Folio. [The first book printed with
a date.]

1459. Ibid. 2nd Edition. FoHo.

,, Guil. Diirandi Rationalis Divinorinn Codex Ojficio7'uin.

1460. Cleme7itis Papa V. Cotistilutiomim Codex.

1462. Biblia Latlna [this Bible is printed in two volumes folio,
with double columns of forty-eight lines each. The
first volume contains 242 ff. ; the second, 239 ff. It is
in Gothic character, and is the first Bible with a
certain date].

1465. Liber VI. Decretaliimi.

,, Officia et Paradoxa Ciccj-onis.

1466. Ibid.

In 1466 Fust died, and from this time until 1503 we
find the name of Schoeffer alone on the books which
he printed.

The chief seat of the new discovery was at Mentz
until 1462 ; but in that year Adolph, Elector of
Nassau, supported by Pope Pius II., attacked and
took the city by assault, carrying devastation every-
where. In consequence of this the working printers
of Mentz were scattered over Germany, Italy, and
France, carrying everywhere the wonderful art of

Already Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio had com-
menced to ennoble their language, and the learned.


Greeks, flying from the power of the Turks, were re-
pairing to Italy, there to spread the arts and sciences,
either by the emanation of their own talents or by the
communication and translation of the classical works
of their great predecessors.

The names of Cardinal Bessarion, Emmanuel Chry-
soloras, Theodore Gaza, Andronicus Callistus, Demetrius
Chalcondylas, John and Constantine Lascaris, are well
known to the literary world ; by them was awakened
and developed the love for the study of the Greek
language, and the desire to learn the treasures which
it enclosed.

Not alone, however, did they learn the perfection
of the ancient Greek and Latin writers, for not a
few men of the West wished likewise to know those
works ; Poggio-Bracciolini, Angelo Poliziano, Jacopo
Sannazzaro, Julius Pomponius Laetus, Pontanus, and
others, soon sought to enlighten their minds by a
knowledge of these masterpieces.

The Medicean princes established in Florence the
first Academy, founded a library, sent the two Lascaris
into Greece and Asia to make purchases of MSS., and
caused the works of Plato to be translated by Marsilio

Other Italian princes quickly followed this noble
example, as, for instance, Lionello and Borso d'Este
at Ferrara ; Filippo Maria Visconti and his successors
Francesco and Ludovico Moro Sforza at Milan ; at
Mantua the Gonzaga, and at Rome Pope Nicholas V.,
already celebrated, as Tommaso Sarzano, for his zeal
and science as librarian of the Biblioteca Fiorentina,
and who, though head of Christianity, drew his greatest


glory from the foundation of the inestimable collection
of books in the Vatican.

The richest among these princes, Pico della Mirandola,
divested himself of his dignity and inheritance in order
to be able to give himself up freely to stud}^ and daily
conversation with the learned, who formed his habitual
companions ; and transmitted to Angelo Poliziano the
results of his endless researches and assiduous study.
Favoured by such circumstances, printing found among
the Italians such a reception as hardly any other nation
had accorded to it ; and in fact in 1480 it was already
introduced into nearly fifty Italian cities, whilst in the
whole of Germany (as it now is) but eighteen cities had
received it.

Printing was introduced into Italy in 1465, by Conrad
Sweynheim and Arnold Pannartz, who, making their
way to Rome, stopped for a short time at the monastery
of Subiaco, where they had, not only shelter, but all
manner of encouragement from the monks who lived
there ; besides the patronage of the Abbot, afterwards
Pope Paul II. They set up their presses, instructed
several pupils, and printed three hundred copies of a
Donatiis^ but of this first impression it is believed not
a single sheet has come down to us. It has been
generally supposed, up to the present, that after the
Donatiis the}^ had set to work to print their edition of
Lactantius ; but Fumagalii, in his learned essay, has

■ Donatus was a grammarian of the fourth century, and one of the
masters of St. Jerome. He composed a treatise on reasoning, in eight
parts, which Cassiodorus considered to be the most methodical and
the best adapted for beginners. The Donatus mentioned above was
a grammar in use in the schools of the middle ages, and was an
abridgment, in question and answer, of that by Elias Donatus.


clearly proved that the Cicero dc Oratorc, libri III. ad.
O. Fratrcm, had preceded the Lactanthis, which had
formerly always been considered the first book of a
ceiiain date printed in Italy. The Lucius Carlius Lac-
tantius Finnianus dc Divinis Instituiionibus Adversus
Gcntcs, etc., is an excessively rare book, printed in
semi-Gothic character. At the beginning there should
have been a rather long Greek sentence, but, probably
from want of type, a blank space was left to be filled
in by the pen. In the body of the work some of the
quotations are printed in neat Greek characters.

After having printed, in 1467, the work of St.
Augustine, De Civitate Dei, Sweynheim and Pannartz
abandoned the monastery of Subiaco, and at the invi-
tation of the illustrious Pietro and Francesco Massimi,
they transported their press to Rome, where the fame
of their pubhcations had already preceded them. Here
in the same year came also a rival to establish himself,
Udalricus Gallus, or Ulric Han, of Ingoldstadt, who soon
(December 1467) published the Mcditationes Joliannis
dc Turrccrciuata, a work which ranks amongst rarities
of the first order, and of which only three copies are
known. This is the first book ornarnented with

The cordial reception and the favour which the ponti-
fical government accorded to printers went far towards
exciting amongst them a noble contention of emulation,
either for the beauty of their type, quality of the paper,
or for the correctness and merit of their productions.

The same spirit of emulation arose also in Rome
among the literati who were the protectors, friends,
and heads of the printers, and to them we owe in


great part the reproduction of those subhme works of
the ancient authors, which are to this day the deHght
of the scholar. In the year 1500 there were altogether
working in Rome thirty-seven printers.

Johannes de Spira is generally believed to have
introduced the art of printing into Venice, and in 1469
he published Cicero's Epistolcv ad Faniiliares. The
Doge granted him the first privilege which is recorded
concerning printing.

In the Cronica Saniida, the date 1469 {cf. Brown's
Venetian Printing Press, p. 5), occurs the following
entry : " . . . fo presso, attento Parte del stampar sia
veniita a luce, chel sia conscesso a Ziianc de Spira stampa
VEpistole di tiillio et plinio per 5 anni altri non stani-
pino." — Translation :**... in consideration of the art
of printing being brought to light, be it conceded to
Johannes de Spira to print the Epistolee of Tully, and
Pliny, for five years, and let none other print them."

Mr. Brown, however, gives an extract of an entry,
also from the same MS., under the date 1461, in favour
of the claims of Nicolas Jenson to be considered the
introducer of printing into Venice. For particulars
the reader should refer to this above-mentioned work.

To Johannes de Spira succeeded his brother Vin-
delin de Spira, and in 1470 Nicholas Jenson brought
the art of printing to a pitch of perfection never before
reached, and in recompense for his merits Pope
Sixtus IV. conferred upon him the title of Count

Other noted printers of Venice beside Nicholas Jenson
were Christopher Valdarfer (printer of the celebrated
first edition of Boccaccio's Dccamerone, folio, 147 1),


Erhard Ratdolt, Zacherias Calliergi, Ottaviano Scotto,
Alessandro Paganino, and finally those famous masters
of the art, the Aldi.

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Aldus Manutius the elder, the head of this illustrious
family of typographers, opened his office in Venice in
1494, founding in his house a small academy of learned
men for the purpose of judging the value of manuscripts,


collating the variations of texts, and correcting the printed
proofs. He succeeded by this means in printing twenty-
eight Greek classics, the first ever published ; perfected
various characters ; cast successively nine founts of
Greek and fourteen of Latin type ; and finally adopted

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online LibraryWalter Thomas RogersA manual of bibliography : being an introduction to the knowledge of books, library management and the art of cataloguing, with a list of bibliographical works of reference, a Latin-English and English-Latin topographical index of ancient printing centres, and a glossary → online text (page 1 of 14)