Walter William Skeat.

A concise etymological dictionary of the English language online

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at the back of, hinder, adv. backwards. +
Goth, hindar, prep, behind ; hindana, be-
yond ; G. hinter, prep, behind, hint en, adv.
behind. Extended from A. S. hine, hence ;
from hi-, base of he ; see He.

behind. (E.) A. S. behindan, adv. and
prep., after. — A. S. be-, prefix (E. by) ;
hindan, adv. (above).

hilding, a base wretch. (E.) Short
for prov. E. hilderling or hinderling, :
wretch. From M. E. hinderling, jpjg^
From A.S. hinder, adv., backward
suffix ~l-ing. y

Digitized by CjOOQ 1C




hinder. (E.) M. E. hindren. A. S.
hindrian, to put behind, keep back. — A. S.
hinder, hindan (above). Der. hindr-ance
(for hinder-ance).

hindmost. (E.) Corruption of hind-
mest, by confusion with most, Hindm-est
is formed with suffix -est from A.S. hindema,
hindmost, itself a super], form with suffix
•ma (as in L. opti-mus). + Goth, hindu-
mists, hindmost (= hindu-m-ists, with
double superl. suffix).

Hinge ; see Hang.

Hint; see H.unt.

Hip (i), the haunch. (E.) M. E. hupe.
A. S. hype, + Du. heup, Icel. huppr, Dan.
hofte, Swed. hoft, Goth, hups, G. hiifte,
O. H. G. huf. Orig. *a bend' or 'a
hump ; ' cf. Gk. ttv<p6s, bent, icv<pos, a hump,
trim-civ, to bend. (</KUP.) Allied to Heap.

Hip (3), Hep, fruit of the dog-rose.
(E.) M. E. kept. A. S. hedpe, a hip;
heSpbrymel, a hip-bramble. + M. H. G.
hiefe, O. H. G. hiufo, a bramble-bush.

Hippish. (Gk.) Short for hypochon-
driacal, adj. of Hypochondria, q. v.
Hence hippish **hyp-ish. The contraction
was prob. suggested by hipped, foiled,
which may well have been due to the phr.
' to have on the hip, 1 Merch. Ven. i. 3. 47,
iv. 1. 334.

Hippopotamus. (L.-Gk.) L. hippo-
potamus.— Gk. Imrondrafios, the river-horse
of Egypt. — Gk. Xmro-s, horse ; irora/aJ-s,
river. Gk. tirvos is cognate with L. equus ;
see Equine. vora/iSs is fresh water, allied
to Potable.

Hire, sb. (E.) M. E. hire. A. S. hyr, hire,
wages. + Du. huur, Swed. hyra, Dan.
hyre, G. heuer, hire, rent.

Hirsute; see Horrid.

His; see He.

Hiss. (E.) M. E. hissen, hisshen. A. S.
hysian, to hiss. + O. Du. hisschen. An
imitative word.

hist, an interjection enjoining silence.
(E.) A mere variant of hush or hiss. Cf.
Dan. hys, silence ! hysse, to hush. Milton
has hist= silenced, hushed, II Pens. 55.

hush. (E.) M. E. hushen, to make
silent; whence pp. husht, silenced. A
purely imitative word, allied to hiss.

whist, a game requiring silence. (E.)
~rom the use of the word whist to enjoin

llence ; Chaucer has whist, * silenced ' or
•net'; tr. of Boethius, b. ii. met. 5,

Gk. 1. Also called whisk; from Swed.

>S**t. ^ whisper ; see Whisper.


Histology, the science treating of the
structure of tissues of plants, &c. (Gk.)
Gk. IctS-s, a web (hence tissue) ; -Aoyia,
discourse, from \iytiv, to speak. Gk.
fords (also a mast) is allied to tonj/ii, to
set, place. (VSTA.)

History. (L.-Gk.) M. E. historic. -
L. historia. — Gk. laropla, a learning by
enquiry, information. — Gk. Itrrop-, stem of
taroap, to* rap, knowing; put for Id-reap*-—
Gk. Id-, base of clMrac, to know. (</WID.)
Allied to Wit.

Story (1). (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. storie.
— O. F. estoire, estore (and prob. estorie*), a
history, tale. — L. historia {above).

Histrionical, relating to the stage. (L.)
From L. histrionicus, relating to an actor.
L. histrioni-, crude form of histrio, an
actor. Prob. ' one who made others laugh ; '
cf. Skt. has, to laugh, hasra, a fool.

Hit, to light upon, strike, attain to.
(Scand.) M. E. hitten.-Icel. hitta, to hit
upon ; Dan. hitte. Clearly assimilated from
hinta*, cognate with Goth, hinthan, to
catch, as in frahinthan, to seize. See

Hitch, to move by jerks, catch slightly.
(E.) M. E. hicchen, to move, remove. Cf.
Lowl. Sc. hatch, hotch, to move by jerks,
A weakened form from a base HIK,
expressing convulsive motion, as in hic-
cough. % Not allied to hook.

Hithe, Hythe, a small haven. (E.)
M. E. hithe. A. S. hjti, a haven. Lit. 'a
shelter ; ' allied to Hide (1) and Hide (2).

Hither ; see He.

Hive, a house for bees. (E.) A.S. hjf,
hyfe, earliest form hjfi, a hive. Orig. * a
cup ' ; co-radicate with L. cupa ; see Cup.
^[Not allied to A. S. hiwan, domestics
(as said in the first edition).

hind (2), a peasant. (E.) The final d
is excrescent. M. E. hitte, a domestic. A. S.
hina*, a domestic, unauthenticated as a
nominative, and really a gen. pi., so
that hina stands for hina man — a man of
the domestics ; cf. hina ealdor — elder of
the domestics, a master of a household.
Hina = hiwna, gen. pi. of hiwan, domestics

Ho, Hoa, a call to excite attention. (E.)
A natural exclamation. Cf. Icel. hdl hoi
hda, to shout out bo !

Hoar, white. (E.) M. E. hoor. A. S.
hdr. + Icel. hdrr, hoar. Cf. Skt. c&ni,
variegated in colour, also used of hair

Digitized by CjOOQ IC


mixed with gray and white. Der. hoary,
a later form; hoar-frost.

hoarhound, horehound, a plant.
(E.) The true hoarhound is the white,
Marrubium vulgare. The final d is excres-
cent. A. S. hdrhiine, also called simply
hum. — A. S. hdr, hoar ; hiine % i.e. strongly
scented ; cf. L. cttnila, Gk. tcovikr), a species
of origanum, Skt. hnuy, to stink.

Hoard ; see House.

Hoarding, a kind of fence ; see

Hoarhound ; see Hoar.

Hoarse, having a rough, harsh voice.
(£.) The r is intrusive, but sometimes
occurs in M. E. hers, properly hoos, hoarse.
A. S. Ads, hoarse. + Icel. hiss, Dan. has,
Swed. hes, Du. heesch, G. heiser.

Hoary ; see Hoar.

Hoax ; see Hocus.

Hob (i), Hub, the. nave of a wheel,
part of a grate. (E.) The true sense is
'projection;' the hob of a fire-place was
orig. 'the raised stone on either side of the
hearth between which the embers were
confined' (Webster). Closely related to
Hump, which is merely the nasalised
form of it. Der. hobnail, a nail with a
projecting head.

Hob (2), a clown, rustic, a fairy. (F.
-O.H. G.) 'Elves, hobs, and fairies;'
Beaumont and Fletcher, Mods. Thomas,
iv. 6. Hob was a common personal name,
a corruption of Robin (like Hodge from
Roger). The name Robin is F., and is
a mere corruption of Robert, a name of
O. H. G. origin. Der. hob-goblin ; see

Hobble ; see Hop (1).

Hobby (1), an ambling nag ; see
Hop (1).

Hobby (2), a kind of falcon ; see
Hop (i).

Hobgoblin ; see Hob (2).

Hobnail; see Hob (1).

Hobnob, Habnab, with free leave, at
random. (E.) Compounded of hob and
nab, to have or not to have, hence applied
to taking a thing or leaving it, implying
free choice, and hence a familiar invitation
to drink, as in 'to hob-nob together.' Hab
i* from A. S. habban, to have ; nab is from
A. S. nabban, put for ne habban, not to
have; see Have.

Hock (1) ; see Hough.

Hock (2), a wine. <G.) For Hochheim,
the name of a place in Germany, on the



river Main, whence the wine comes. It
means ' high home.'

Hockey, a game ; see Hook.

Hocus-pocus, a juggler's trick, a jug-
gler. (Low L.) As far as it can be said to
belong to any language, it is a sort of
Latin, having the L. termination -us.
But it is merely an invented term, used by
jugglers in performing tricks; see Todds

hoax. (Low L.) Short for hocus, i.e.
to juggle, cheat.

Hod, a kind of trough for carrying
bricks. (E.) A prov. E. form of hold; see
Hold. In Line, and York, hod means
'hold' or 'receptacle'; as in (Whitby)
powder-hod, powder-flask ; cannle-hod, can-
dlestick. ^[ Not from F. hotte, as said.

Hodge-podge ; see Hotohpot.

Hoe ; see Hew.

Hog. (E.) M.E. hogge, 'maialis,estenim
porcus carens testiculis'; Cathol. Anglic,
p. 1 87. From the verb hack { Scotch hag), to
cut. Cf. hog-sheep, one clipped the first year.

Hogshead. (O. Du.) More correctly,
ox head. An adaptation of O. Du. okshoo/d,
oxhoofd, a hogshead ; of which, however,
the lit. sense is ox-head. So also Dan.
oxhoved, O. Swed. oxhufwud, an ox-head,
also a hogshead. No doubt the cask was
at first named from the device or brand of
an ' ox-head ' upon it.

Hoiden, Hoyden ; see Heath.

Hoist, to heave. (O. Du.) The final *
is due to the pp. hoist, used for hoised.
The verb is really hoise. (Cf. graft for
graff.) -» O. Du. hyssen, Du. hij'sschen, to
hoise (y sounded as E. long i). + Dan.
heise, hisse ; Swed. hissa, to hoist (whence
F. hisser). ^ Not aliied to F * hausser, to

Hold (1), to keep. (E.) A. S. healdan.
+ Du. houden, Icel. halda, Swed. halla,
Dan. holde, Goth, haldan, G. hallen. Der.
hold, sb.; also be hold, with prefix be- (E.
by) ; uphold.

upholsterer. (E.) Lengthened from,
upholster, put for uphold-ster, another form
of upholder, which was formerly used of a
dealer in furniture, lit. one who holds up to

Hold (2), the 'hold* of a ship; see

Hole. (E.> M. E. hole, hoi. A.S. hoi,
a cave. «f ^ u - h°U I^l. hoi, Dan. hul,
Swed. hal, G. hohl Cf. Goth, us-hulon,
to hollow out. p. Prob. A.S. hoi is from

Digitized by CjOOQ IC



hol-en, pp. of str. vb. helan, to cover ; see
Hell. Not allied to Gk. xotkos, hollow.

hold (2), the cavity of a ship. (Du.)
Put for hole, with excrescent d, due to
confusion with the verb to hold, — Du.
hoi, a bole, cave, esp. used of the hold of a
ship (Sewel).

hollow. (E.) M. E. holwe, adj. A. S.
holh, sb. a hollow place, also spelt holg.
Extended from A. S. hoi, a hole, cave.

Holibut, Holiday ; see Hale (i).

Holla, Hallo, stop! wait! (F.) Not
the same word as halloo, to shout; but
differently used in old authors. See Oth.
i. 2. 56; As You Like It, iii. 2. 257.— F.
hofa, * an interjection, hoe there ; ' Cot. — F.
ho, interj. ; and fa, there ( =*L. iliac), % The
form hallo is due to a confusion with halloo,

Holland, Dutch linen. (Du.) From
Holland, the name of the country. So also
Hollands, spirits from Holland.

Hollow; see Hole.

Holly. (E.) M. E. holin ; so that an n
has been dropped. A.S. holm, holegn,
holly. + W. celyn, Com. celin, Bret kelen,
Gael cuilionn, Irish cuileann, holly. Cf.
also Du. hulst, G. hulse, holly, O. H. G.
htiliz (whence F. houx).

holm-oak, the evergreen oak. (E.)
Here holm is a contraction of M. E. holin,
a holly. ' Holme, or holy [holly] ;' Prompt.
Parv. ; and see Way's note. The Quercus
ilex is a most variable plant ; the leaves are
sometimes as prickly as a holly.

Hollyhock ; see Hale (1).

Holm, an islet in a river, flat land by a
river. (E.) M. E. holm. A. S. holm, orig.
a • mound.'+Icel. hdlmr, hSlmi, holmr, an
islet, flat meadow ; Dan. holm, Swed. holme,
G. holm, hill, island, Russ. kholm\ a hill,
L. eulmen, hill-top. Allied to Culminate.

Holm-oak; see Holly.

Holocaust ; see Caustic.

Holster, a leathern case for a pistol.
(Du.) Du. holster\ lit. a cover. Allied to
A. S. heolstor, a case, covering, Icel. hulstr,
sheath, Goth, hulistr, a veil The verb is
Du. hullen, Icel. hylja, Goth, huljan, to
cover; from the strong verb seen m A.S.
helan (pp. holen), to cover. (^KAL,
KAR.) f" The suffix -ster= -s-ter, a double
suffix; see Spinster.

holt, a wood. (E.) M.E. and A.S.
holt. + Du. hout, O. Du. holt; Icel. holt,
G. holz; so also W. celt, a covert, from
celu, to hide. Orig. 'covert;' from the
same root as the above.


housings, trappings of a horse. (F.—
Teut.) The old form was houss ; ~ings has
been added. — F. housse, a coverlet, ' a foot-
cloth for a horse ;* Cot. Low L. hucia,
husia, hussia, the same ; also hulcia, hul-
citum.—Du. hulse, a husk, shell (hence, a
cover, as in Du. hulsel, a woman's head-
attire). From the veib seen in O. II. G.
and Du. hullen, to cover; see Holster

hull (1), husk. (E.) M. E. hule, A. S.
hulu, a husk, lit. ' covering ;' from the same
root as Holster.

hull (2), body of a ship. (E.) Lit.
' the shell ' of a ship, and the same word
as the above. Or prob. Dutch ; from Du.
hoi, hold. 'Het hoi van een schip, the
ship's hold or hull ' ; Sewel. See Hold (2).
husk, shell. (E.) M. E. huske. This
word has lost an /, preserved in the cognate
languages. The A.S. has only the allied
word hulc, a hut. + Du- hulse, a husk ;
Swed. hylsa\ M. H. G. hulsche, G. hulse.
From the verb seen in Du. hullen, Goth.
huljan, to cover ; see Holster.

Holy; see Hale (1).

Homage ; see Human.

Home. (E.) M. E. hoom, A. S. Mm,
4. Du. heim ; Icel. heimr, a village ; Dan.
hiem, Swed. hem, G. heim ; Goth, haims,
a village; Lithuan. kimas, a village, Gk.
K&firj, a village. (^KI.)

hamlet. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. hame-
let, dimin. of O. F. hamel (F. hameau), a
hamlet. Formed, with dimin. suffix -el,
from O. Fries, ham, a- home, dwelling.

Homer, a large measure. (Heb.) Heb.
chdmer, a homer, also a mound iwith initial
cheth). — Heb. root chdmar, to undulate,
surge up.

Homicide ; see Human.

Homily ; see Homogeneous.

Hominy, maize prepared for food. (W.
Indian.) W. Indian auhiiminea, parched

Hommock ; see Hump.

Homoeopathy ; see Homogeneous.

Homogeneous, of the same kind
throughout. (Gk.) Englished from Gk.
dfxoyfyrjs, of the same race.— Gk. 6fio~i,
same (cognate with E. Same), and ytros,
a race (cognate with E. Kin). So also
homo-logous, corresponding, from \6yos, a
saying, \4yeiv, to say ; hom-onymous, like
in sound, from ovvpa, a name.

homily. (L.-Gk.) L. homilia.-QY.
din\ia, a living together; also converse,

Digitized by CjOOQ IC





■J instruction, homily. — Gk. vfuXos, a throng,
-| concourse. — Gk. 6/jr6s, like, same, together,
, cognate with £. Same; and i\rj, ttKrj, a
| crowd, from elKciv, to compress, shut in.

homoeopathy. (Gk.) Englished from
Gk. dfxoioiraOeia, likeness in feeling or con-
dition. — Gk. B/uho-s, like ; rra$tiv, aorist
infiii. of wdaxuv, to suffer. See Same and
Pathos. And see Homily.
Hone. (E.) A.S. hdn, a hone, (with
change from d to long o, as in bdn, bone).
+ IceL hein, Swed. hen; Skt. cdna, a
grind-stone, from co, to sharpen ; Gk. kwos,
a cone, peak. See Cone.
Honest; see Honour.
Honey. (E.) M.E. hunt. A.S.hunig.
+ Du. honig, Icel. hunang, Dan. honning,
Swed. honing, G. honig. Perhaps orig.
• grain-like,' or like broken rice; cf. Skt.
hma, grain, broken rice.

honeycomb. (E.) A. S. hunigcamb,
a honey-comb ; where comb is the usual E.
word, though the likeness to a comb is
lather fanciful.

honeysuckle. (E.) Lye gives A. S.
kunigsucle, unauthorised ; but we find A. S.
hunigsilge, privet, similarly named. From
A. S. sugan, to suck.

Honour. (F.-L.) O. F. honur.-L.
honorem, ace. of honor, better hones,

honest. (F.-L.) O. F. honeste (F.
honntte). — L. honestus, honourable ; put for
honas-tus*, from honas*, orig. form of
honos, honour.

Hood, covering. (E.) AS-M/.+Du.
hoed, G. hut, O. H. G. huat, hdt, a hat
Cf. Gk. KorvKrj, a hollow vessel. (</KAT.)
Allied to Cotyledon.

hoodwink. (E.) To make one wink or
close his eyes, by covering him with a hood.

-hood, -head, suffix. (E.) A. S. hdd f
state, quality; cognate with Goth, haidus,
manner, way.
Hoo£ (E.) M. E. hoof, huf; pi. hoves.
A. S. hoy. + Du. hoef, Icel. hdfr, Dan. hov,
Swed. hof, G. huf, Russ kopuito, Skt. capha.
Hook. (E.) M. E. hok. A. S. h6c. +
Du. haah, Icel. haki, Dan. hage, Swed.
hake, G. haken. Allied to Gk. kvk\os,
a circle, Skt. kuch, to bend. And see
Hatch (1).

hackle (2), any flimsy substance unspun,
as raw silk. (Du.) So named from its
appearance, as if it has been hackled; see
heckle (below).

hake, a fish. (Scand.) Norw. hdkefisk,
lit. • hook-fish;* from the hooked under-

heckle, hackle, hatchel, an instru-
ment for dressing flax or hemp. (Du.)
Du. hekel, a heckle; dimin. of haak, a
hook (above). + Dan. hegle, from hage ;
Swed. hackla, from hake; G. hechel, the
same as hake/, a little hook, dimin. of
haken, a hook.

hockey, a game. (E.) Also called
hookey, because played with a hooked stick.
huckle-bone, the hip-bone. (E.)
Huckle is the dimin. of prov. E. huck,
a hook. A huckle is a • small joint' Cf.
Skt kuch. to bend.

Hookah, Hooka. (Arab.) Arab, huq*
qa, a casket ; also, a pipe for smoking.

Hoop (1), a pliant strip of wood bent
into a band. (E.) M.E. hoop, hope. AS.
hdp. + Du. hoep. Cf. also Icel. h6p, a bay,
from its circular form, prov. E. hope, (1) a
hollow, (2) a mound, according as the cur-
vature is concave or convex. Cf. Skt. chdpa,
a bow, Gk.* K&ixirT€ty, to bend. Allied to
Hop (1), Hump.

Hoop (2), Whoop, to call out, shout
(F.-Teut) M. E. houpen, to shout -
O.F. houper, 'to hoop unto;' Cot. Of
Teut. origin ; cf. Goth, hwopjan, to boast.
hooping-cough, a cough accompanied
by a hoop or convulsive noisy catch in the
breath. (Formerly called chincough.)

Hoopoe, the name of a bird. (L.) L.
upupa t a hoopoe ; the initial h is due to
the F. huppe, also derived from upupa.+
Gk. ivcuf/, a hoopoe. Of imitative origin.
% The F. huppe, a tuft of feathers, is from
huppe t a hoopoe (from its tufted head);
not vice vers&.

Hoot. (Scand.) M. E. houten. - O.
Swed. huta, to hoot. -Swed. hut I interj.
begone I of onomatopoetic origin. So also
W. hwtl Irish utl expressions of dislike.

hue (2), clamour, outcry. (F. - Scand.)
In the phr. ' hue and cry.' M.E. hue, a
loud cry. - O. F. huer, to hoot - O. Scand.
huta, to hoot (above).

Hop (1), to leap on one leg. (E.) M. E.
hoppen, huppen. A.S. hoppian, to leap,
dance. + Du. hoppen, IceL hoppa, Swed.
hoppa, Dan. hoppe, G. hup/en. The orig.
sense is 4 to go up and down.' (V KUP.)
Der. hopper (of a mill) ; hopple, a fetter
for ; hop-scotch, a game in which
children hop over scotches t i.e. lines scored
on the ground.

Digitized by CjOOQ 1C



hobble, to limp. (E.) M. E. hobehn.
Really for hopple ; frequentative of hop.+
Du. hobbelen, prov. G. hoppeln.

hobby (i), hobby-horse, a toy like a
horse, ambling nag, a favourite pursuit. (F.

— O. Low G.) Corruption of M. E. hobin, a
nag. — O. F. hobin, 4 a hobby ;* Got. — O. F.
hober, * to stirre, remove from place to
place ;' Cot. — O. Du. hobben, to toss,
move up and down ; weak form of hoppen,
to hop. Cf. Dan. hoppe, a mare ; N. Fries.
hoppe, a horse (in children's language).

hobby (2), a small falcon. (F. — O.
Low G.) Obsolete. M. E. hobi, hoby.
Closely allied to O. F. hobreau (=hob~er-el),
'the hawke tearmed a hobby;' Cot— O.F.
hober, to stir, move about (see above).

Hop (2), a plant. (Du.) Introduced
from the Netherlands ab. 1524. — Du. hop,
hop. + G. hopfen, hop. We also find Icel.
humall, Swed. Dan. humle, O. Du. hommel
(whence late L. humulus) ; prob. allied

Hope (1), expectation. (E.) M. E. hope.
A. S. hopa, hope ; whence hopiUn, to hope.
+Du. hoop, Dan. haab, Swed. hopp, M.H.G.
hoffe, sb. ; whence Du. hopen, Dan. haabe,
Swed. hoppas, G. Jtoffen, to hope. Perhaps
allied to L. cupere, to desire.

Hope (2), a troop ; see Heap.

Horde, a wandering tribe. (F.— Turk.—
Tatar.) F. horde. — Turk, ordti, a camp. —
Tatar Urdii, a royal camp, horde of Tatars
(Tartars) ; see Pavet de Courteille, p. 54.

Horehound ; see Hoar.

Horizon. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. horizon.

— L. horizon (stem horizon*-). — Gk.
dpifav, the bounding or limiting circle;
orig. pres. pt of dpifav, to limit. — Gk.
Zpos, a boundary. Der. horizontal.

aphorism, a definition. (Gk.) Gk.
&tpoptc/ji6s, a definition. — Gk. &<popi£uv> to
define, limit — Gk. <fy-, for &v6 t off; ipifav,
to limit.

Horn. (E.) A. S. horn. + Icel. Dan.
Swed. G. horn ; Du. horen, Goth, haurn,
W. Gael. Irish corn, L. cornu. Allied to
Gk. xip-as, a horn. (-/ KAR.)

hornet, a kind of large wasp. (E.) So
called from its resounding hum. A. S.
hyrnet, a hornet. — A. S. horn (with the
usual vowel-change from toy).

Horologe, Horoscope ; see Hour.

Horrible ; see Horrid.

Horrid. (L.) Spenser has it in the
sense of 'rough;' F. Q. i. 7. 31.— L. hor-
ridus, rough, bristly. - X*. horrere, to bristle;


also to dread, with reference to the bristling
of the hair through terror. Cf. Skt hrish,
to bristle, esp. as a token of fear or of
pleasure. O/GHARS.)

abhor. (L.) L. ab-horrere, to shrink
from through terror.

hirsute. (L.) L. hirsutus, bristly,
rough. Allied to L. horrere (Skt. hrish), to
bristle (above).

horrible. (F. - L.) O.F. horrible.

— L. horribilis, dreadful. — L. horrere, to
dread (above).

horrify. (L.) Coined, by analogy
with F. words in -fy, from L. horrificare,
to cause terror. — L. horri-, for horrere, to
dread ; -jicare, forfacere, to make.

horror, dread. (L.) L. horror. ^ L.
horrere, to dread (above).

ordure, excrement. (F.— L.) F. ordure.

— O.F. ord (fem. orde), filthy, foul, ugly,
frightful.— L. horridus, rough, frightful.

Horse. (E.) M. E. hors.-A. S. hors,
pi. hors, it being a neut. sb.+Icel. hross,
hors, Du. ros, G. ross, O. H. G. hros. Lit.
' a runner ;' cf. L. currere, to run.

Hortatory, full of encouragement (L.)
As if from L. hortatorius*, coined from
hortator, an encourager. — L. horiari, to
encourage; prob. allied to L. horior, I

exhort. (F.-L.) O. F. extorter. -L*
ex-hortari, to encourage greatly.

Horticulture, gardening. (L.) Coined
from L. horti, gen. case of hortus, a garden ;
cultura, cultivation; see Culture. L.
hortus is allied to E. yard (1).

Hosanna, an expression of praise. (Gk.

— Heb.) Gk. waawa. — Heb. hdshl dh nnJ t
save, we pray. — Heb. hdshfa, to save (from
ydslia*) ; and nd, a particle signifying en-

Hose. (E.) M. E. hose, pi. hosen. A. S.
hosa, pi. hosan, hose, stockings. +Du. hoos,
Icel. hosa, Dan. hose, G. hose. Cf. Russ.
koshulia, a fur jacket. Der. hos-i-er (cf.
bow-yer, law-yer).

Hospice, Hospitable, Hospital ; see
Host (1).

Host (1), one who entertains guests.
(F.-L.) M.E. host, hoste.-O. F. hosle.
Cf. Port, hospede, a host, guest. — L.
hospitem, ace. of hospes, (1) a host,
(2) a guest. The base hospiu is short
for hosti-pit-, where hosli- is the crude
form of hostis, a guest, an enemy, see
Host (2) ; and pit- means ' lord,* being
allied to L. potens, powerful ; cf. Skt. pott.

Digitized by CjOOQ IC


a master, governor, lord ; sec Possible.
Thus hospes = hostiptts *, guest-master, a
master of a house who receives guests. Cf.
Kuss. gospode, the Lord, gospodare, a
governor, prince, from goste, a guest, and
-pode ( = Skt. pati), lord. Der. hostess,
from O. F. hosiesse, 'an hostesse ;* Cot.

hospice. (F. - L.) F. hospice. - L.
hospitium, a house for guests. — L. hospiti-,
erode form of hospes (above).

hospitable. (F. - L.) F. hospitable.
From Low L. hospitare, to receive as
a guest. — L. hospit-, stem of hospes

hospital (F.-L.) M.E. hospital. -
O.F. hospital. — Low L. hospit ale, a large
house, a sing, formed from L. pi. hospitalia,
apartments for strangers. — L. hospit- , stem
of Atfj^es- (above).

hostel, an inn. (F.-L.) O. F. hostel. -
Low L. hospitale ; see hospital above..

hostler, ostler. (F.-L.) Orig. the
innkeeper himself, and named from his
hostel (above).

hotel, an inn. (F.-L.) Mod. F. hdtel,
the same as O. F. hostel; see hostel above.

spittle (2), a hospital. (F.-L.) M. E.
spitel, — O. F. ospital, hospital; see hos-
pital (above).

Host (2), an army. (F.-L.) The orig.
sense is ' enemy ' or * foreigner.' M. E.
host, ost.— O. F. host, a host, army.— L.
hostem, ace. of host is, an enemy (orig. a
stranger, a guest) ; hence, a hostile army,
a host.+Russ. goste, a guest, stranger;
A. S. gast ; see Guest. Doublet, guest.
Host (3), the consecrated bread of the
eucharist. (L.) L. hostia, a victim in a
sacrifice ; O. Lat. fostia, lit. ' that which
is slain.'— L. hostire, O. Lat fostire, to
strike. (VGHAS.)
Hostage ; see Sedentary.
Hostel, Hostler ; see Host (1).
Hot. (E.) M.E. hoot (with long o).
A.S. hdt, hot.+Du. heet, Icel. heitr, Swed.
het, Dan. hed, G. heiss. Allied to Icel.
hitiy heat, Goth, hais, a torch, Lithuan.
kaitra, heat (V KI ?) .

heat. (E.) M. E. hete. A. S. hcetu,
h&to; formed from hdt, hot, by the usual
vowel-change. + Dan. hede % Swed. hetta.
We also find A. S. hcetan, verb, to heat.
Hotch-pot, Hodgepodge. (F.-Du.)
Hodgepodge is a corruption of hotchpot, a
confused medley. — F. hochepot, a medley.
— O. Du. hutspot (lit. shake-pot), hodge-
podge, beef or mutton cut into small



pieces.— O. Du. hutsen, hotsen, to shake;
pot, a pot. See Hustle and Pot.

Hotel; see Host (1).

Hottentot, a native of the Cape of
Good Hope. (Du.) A name given them
by the Dutch, in derision of tlieir speech,
which sounded like stammering, or a repe-
tition of the syllables hot and tot. En is
Dutch for ' and ; * hence Du. hot en tot =

Online LibraryWalter William SkeatA concise etymological dictionary of the English language → online text (page 37 of 111)