Warren King Moorehead.

A narrative of explorations in New Mexico, Arizona, Indiana, etc. : Together with a brief history of the department online

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Huntington Free Library

Native American



3 1924 097 696 508




A Narrative of Explorations in New
Mexico, Arizona, Indiana, Etc.




AjfDovBR, Mass.



Cornell University

The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.




A Narrative of Explorations in New
Mexico, Arizona, Indiana, Etc.




Andovbb, Mass.



The Trustees of Phillips Academy:

Gentlemen :

I herewith hand you my report upon the origin and
development of this Department. During Mr. Peahody's life-
time the explorations and collections were made under his
direction. Since 1902 the work has been done under and with
the approval of the Honorary Director, Dr. Charles Peabody.
I wish to thank the Honorable Trustees of Phillips Academy,
Principal Alfred E. Stearns, and Dr. Peabody for cordial sup-
port rendered me.

Waeeen K. Mooeehead.
NOVEMBEE 10th, 1906.



a histoky of the department . . . . 17

Sketch of Me. Robert Singleton Peabody . . 26

Explorations in New Mexico 33

Explorations at the Mouth op the Wabash . 54

Field Work in Arizona 89

The Kalpus Ruins 98

Collecting at. Flint Ridge 107

Explorations at Hopkinsyillb, Kentucky . . 115

A Flint Quarry in Tennessee . . . .126

Certain Unknown Stone Objects in the Andover

Museum 135

Two EaIrthworks Near Andover .... 150

The PictogrAphs on a Fragment op Birch Bark 159

Synopsis of Specimens (according to numbers) in

the Phillips Academy Museum . . . 167

List of Accessions to the Museum from May 1,

1901, TO November 1, 1906 . . .170

The Preservation of Archaeological Specimens 179

A Brief Description of Flint Ridge . . . 181


Bulletin No. Ill is not confined to descriptions of explora-
tions. It was suggested by Mr. Alfred E. Stearns, Principal of
the Academy, and Mr. James C. Sawyer, treasurer, that a
Bulletin suitable for distribution among the Alumni and
friends of the school should be published. It must be remem-
bered that Phillips Academy, Andover, is the only preparatory
school in the world that possesses a fine museum and Departs
ment of Archaeology. The instruction given the students by
the Department is not confined to archaeology, but embraces
anthropology and kindred subjects : psychology, sociology,
criminology, evolution, etc., all of which are treated as elemen-
tary courses.

While this report is not confined to the technicalities of ex-
plorations as explamed above, yet it describes the work done
for Mr. Peabody and also the explorations conducted by the
Department since 1901 and as yet unpublished.



1 Front view of the Archaeology Building.

2 One of the Exhibition Halls in the Archaeology Building.

3 A view of the detail on the exterior of the Archaeology Building.

4 Western End of Pueblo Bonito. Room 36 in the foreground.

5 Inlaid Scrapers and other Ceremonial Objects in situ.

6 Scraper prepared for inlaying.

7 Bone Scraper showing remnant of mosaic.

8 Turquoise Pendants (slightly reduced).

9 Turquoise Birds (natural size).

10 Double Jar from the Chaco.

11 Three Chaco Bowls.

12 Three Chaco Bowls.

13 Four typical Chaco Pitchers.

14 A large Bow'l from ruins along the San Juan River.

15 A Pitcher and Double-jar from the Chaco.

16 A Sandal Last, a " Post Base ", and a Stone Sword from the Chaco.

17 Clay Sandal Last, Butler Canon, Utah.

18 Showing how the Sandal was plaited over the Last.

19 Plan of Village and Cemetery at the mouth of the Wabash river,


20 Group of Pottery from the Cemetery at the mouth of the Wabash.

21 Three Effigy Bowls from the Wabash Cemttery.

22 Peculiar Pipes from the Wabash Cemetery.

23 Copper and Stone Pendants from the Wabash Cemetery.

24 Large Ruin at Mesa, Arizona.

25 Bowl from the3Iesa Verde ruins, Arizona.

26 Skeleton and Bowls from the Kalfus ruins near Phoenix, Arizona.

27 Group of objects from the Salado valley ruins.

28 Slate Tablet from the Kalfus ruins.

29 Perforated Stone Disc, ruin near Mesa.

30 Perforated Pottery Disc, ruin south of Phoenix.


31 Effigy of an Owl from large ruin near Mesa.

32 Effigy of Armadillo (?) Salado valley.

33 Effigy of a Bear (?) Salado \ alley.

34 Effigy of an unknown animal. Salado valley.

35 Effigy Mortar (?) Salado valley.

36 Unknown object. Salado valley.

37 Unknown object. Salado valley.

38 Unknown object. Salado valley.

39 Shell Bracelet, Pendants and Decorated Pottery Discs from ruin near


40 A Double Grooved Hammer from ruin south of Phoenix.

41 Typical Axe of the Salado region. Ruin south of Phoenix.

42 Effigy Mortar (?) Salado valley.

43 Effigy Owl (?) Salado valley.

44 Clay Effigy of an Animal. Salado valley.

45 Shell Pendants, King and Effigy. Salado valley.

46 Two finely worked Effigies in Black Onyx and two minute Arrow-

points of Obsidian. Ruins near Mesa, Arizona.

47 Group of various Shell Effigies from the Salado valley ruins.

48 Pictographs copied from the cliffs six miles south of Phoenix.

49 Pictographs copied from the cliffs six miles south of Phoenix.

50 Pictographs copied from the cliffs six miles south of Phoenix.

51 Shell Frog, two Shell Effigies, Onyx Bead and Effigy Fish (jade?) from

ruins near Mesa.

52 Engraved Shell, Tennessee.

53 The "Willis Field at Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Site of Cemetery.

54 Engraved Shell, grave on Willis Farm.

55 Human Pipe, Hopkinsville, Kentucky.

56 Effigy from South CarroUton, Kentucky.

57 Ravine at Johnson's Farm, near Herndon, Tennessee.

58 Nodules in position, ravine near Herndon, Tennessee.

59 Pottery from Florida mounds. C. B. Moore collection.

60 Pottery from Florida mounds. C. B. Moore collection.

61 Case containing Mr. C. B. Moore's Florida collection.

62 McElhaney's Cavern, Arkansas.

63 Group of Pipes from various localities in the Mississippi valley.


64 Group of Pipes from various localities in the Mississippi valley.

65 The Frog Pipe from the mouth of Brush Creek, Adams County, Ohio.

66 Bar amulet, Tennessee.

67 Peculiar Ceremonial, Ohio.

68 Cannel Coal Ceremonial, Mercer County, Ohio.

69 Unfinished Ceremonial Stones from the Ohio valley.

70 Unfinished Ceremonial Stones from the Ohio valley.

71 Ceremonial Stones, nearly finished. Ohio valley.

72 Finished Ceremonials. Ohio valley.

73 Three peculiar Ceremonials from Ohio.

74 Arrow-points from the Pacific Coast.

75 Arrow-points from the Pacific Coast.

76 Flint Discs and Turtlebacks. Ohio.

77 Leaf-shaped and Unfinished Implements. Flint Ridge, Ohio.

78 Blades and Spear, Practically Complete. Flint Ridge, Ohio.

79 Flint Cores and Flakes. Flint Ridge, Ohio.

80 Effigy of Whale. New England.

81 Log in which Birch Bark was found. Iowa.

82 Fragment of Birch Bark, Iowa.


Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.

From a photograph by Mr. Guy Lowell.


In November, 1895, a short article on " Mound Exploration "
appeared in the Philadelphia Press. The article did not differ
essentially in character from others upon this subject. How-
ever, it attracted the attention of Mr. Robert Singleton Pea-
body, a gentleman residing in Germantown, Philadelphia, and
he wrote to the editor for information, and the editor forwarded
the letter to the author. Thus began a correspondence and ac-
quaintance which culminated in the founding of the Depart-
ment of Archaeology at Phillips Academy.

During the year, 1896, the author of this Bulletin purchased
a number of collections for Mr. Peabody. In the spring of 1897
he went to Farmington, New Mexico, in order to regain health
and made collections at the Chaco Group and m the San Juan
Valley. In November the same year he left Ohio and estab-
lished himself in Phoenix, Arizona, and gave his time thereafter
in Mr. Peabody's interests. From November until the first of
June, 1898, he employed a number of men and dug in the adobe
ruins in the Salado valley and collected from the surface of
various sites. On returning to Ohio he visited the large village
sites along the Ohio river, between the mouths of the Great
Miami and the Wabash, exploring at Aurora, Lawrenceburg,

In the fall he went to the Adirondacks and resided there
three winters, and during this time occasionally visited Mr.
Peabody and was in constant communication with him. Being
unable to collect in person, he employed several competent col-
lectors, notably Mr. Clifford Anderson, who excavated the cem-
etery at the mouth of the Wabash, collected at Flint Ridge, and
in Tennessee, Arkansas, and elsewhere.

In March, 1901, Mr. Peabody and his wife, Margaret A.
Peabody, founded the Department of Archaeology at Phillips.
The foundation was sufficient for future maintenance, and to
erect a beautiful building suitable for museum purposes, con-
taining a large lecture hall, a library, and offices.


Mr. Peabody wished to improve the social condition of the
students of the Academy. He dwelt upon his own boyhood at
Phillips, laying particular stress upon the lack of a reading-
room and meeting place for the boys, and upon the inadequate
provision for the various societies and clubs. Mr. Guy Lowell,
the distinguished architect of Boston, was asked to design a
building that should contain adequate space for museum pur-
poses, and at the same time combine the social features Mr.
Peabody had in mind. The result is that after three years of
occupation the building is entirely satisfactory. The two sepa-
rate and distinct interests do not in any way conflict or mcon-
venience each other.

The building which is the home of the Department of Arch-
aeology, while it was built but four years ago, seems a very part
of the Academy. Surrounded by fine old elms, constructed of
dark red bricks, with granite base and entrance motive, it is a.
building of great simplicity and dignity. It has all the charm
of the old Colonial structures, with the added attractiveness of
well designed modern work. It stands on the site of the
original Philhps Academy.

The exterior has but little ornament, the interest being given
by the triple arch motive on either side of the main entrance,
which repeats on the ends, with the decoration being concen-
trated about the central feature. This portion is constructed of
granite. Just beneath the pediment at the center, the Coat of
Arms of the Academy is beautifully carved in Tennessee mar-
ble. At either side is a cartouche of the same material, the one
on the left bearing the date 1778, the one on the right 1901.

The building is entered by broad granite steps flanked by
large buttresses. The generous entrance hall, with its Doric
columns, opens directly into the exhibition rooms, one on either
side. These are well lighted and admirably' arranged for the-
interesting and valuable collections they contain. There are
eighteen large cases, but only a small proportion* of the speci-
mens are shown ; the rest f being stored in the lower part of
the cases and in the attic.

The whole first floor gives one an impression of spaciousness,.

* 11,150 t 44,778




quiet and charm, having the distinct character of a museum
where one expects to find rare and unusual groups of objects.
This floor also contains the Director's office, the Curator's
office, and the cataloguing room.

In the exhibition room at the left is a handsome and massive
fireplace, with mantel finished in Mexican onyx. The room to
the right has a circular iron staircase extending to the story
above. A broad staircase, set off by a graceful ornamental iron
raU, leads to the second floor. Here again a generous hall
opens, with the lecture hall on one side and the library on the
other. The lecture hall has a small platform and is well
adapted to day and evening use. It will accommodate 175 per-
sons and belongs exclusively to the students after four o'clock,
constituting a convenient meeting place for the various musical
clubs, societies, etc.

The library serves to make the building whole and complete.
It is not as large as might be desired, but it presents sufficient
books for research along almost any line. Naturally, in a pre-
paratory school, one would not expect as comprehensive a
library as is found in colleges. It is finished in oak with a
handsome fireplace. Including the room at the rear, the library
has a capacity of 4000 volumes. It is furnished with all im-
portant magazines and with files of newspapers from the leading
cities of the United States subscribed for by the students.

In the basement there is a fine dark room and developing
room equipped with necessary chemicals for work in photog-
raphy; various club rooms jfor athletics, school periodicals,
chess, and golf clubs. All these rooms are furnished with
desks and tables for use of the students.

The building is so designed that wings may be added if nec-
essary. It is heated from the central plant and the whole
structure is fire-proof. It cost 150,000.00 and the specimens
are valued at $50,000.00 more.

Mr. Peabody's entire collection numbered some 38,000 speci-
mens, and on the appointment of his son, Dr. Charles Peabody,
as Director and the writer as Curator of the Department, the
latter went to Germantown and expressed the collection to An-
dover. While the building was under construction, the exhibits
were numbered, catalogued, and arranged in another building,


and were moved info their present quarters in March, 1903.
At the present writing, October 10th, 1906, there are 65,928
specimens* in the museum. Most of these specimens were col-
lected by or under the direction of the writer, although many
persons have contributed to make the Andover collection what
it is since the foundation of the Department. Next to Mr. Pea-
body's gifts, the largest accessions have been received from Mr.
Clarence B. Moore of Philadelphia. Mr. Moore has carried on
explorations in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia for the past ten
or twelve years, and has made extensive collections and pub-
lished a number of reports descriptive of his work. Mr. Moore
very kindly presented the Department some thirteen hundred
specimens of pottery, beads, stone implements, clay effigies, etc.,
covering almost the entire range of art among the Florida
tribes. These are mounted in a case seven meters long, two
and one-third meters high, and one and three-fourths meters
wide. The drawing of the case and contents is reproduced in
fig. 61. Mr. Moore's donation enabled the Department to
present for the benefit of students a comprehensive idea of
prehistoric times in Florida. It is the best single exhibit
in the entire museum.

While a list of donors f and the various objects they have
kindly presented the Department is appended to this report (see
p. 170), several persons should be especially mentioned in this
place. Mr. J. L. B. Taylor of Pineville, Missouri, sent the De-
partment some five hundred stone and bone objects from village
sites and caverns of southwest Missouri. Mr. J. W. VanKirk of
Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania, gave us a thousand specimens, being
pestles, axes, celts, projectile points, ornaments, hoes, etc., from
the village sites along the Susquehanna river, Pennsylvania.
Mr. Gilham of Hopland, California, formerly of San Francisco,
presented a collection of one hundred obsidian implements from
Cahfornia. Miss MoUie Hall of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, sent
three hundred and fifty archaeological objects from Tennessee.
Messrs. E. R. Steinbrueck and Rev. A. T. Gesner sent a collection

* In round numbers. The last number in the catalogue is 41,763, but in
many instances five to twenty specimens are entered under one number.

t Requests similar to the one presented on page 179 of this Bulletin
were sent to owners of archaeologlo collections.



of a hundred and fifty implements from the Mandaii sites, North
Dakota. These are especially interesting at this time, as Har-
vard University made a detailed study of the Mandan sites in
the summer of 1905. It was suggested as a result of the inves-
tigations that the Mandaus may have come from the Ohio
valley. The writer of this report advanced the same theory in
1889*, and based it on a different line of argument.

Other collections of consequence were received from Mr. H.
K. Deisher of Kutztown, Pennsylvania, who gave us certain
pestles, obsidian implements, crania, etc., from California; Dr.
Charles Peabody, material from Bushey Cavern, Maryland;
Albert L. Addis of Albion, Indiana, unfinished ornaments and
ceremonials, and through Mr. Addis' donation some new infor-
mation was secured, and this has been of value in the study of
" The So-Called ' Gorgets ' " f , and the process of manufacture
of Mr. Addis' specimens will be set forth in more detail in a
future Bulletin devoted to the " ceremonial " or " problem-
atical" class.

The Department wishes to also thank several persons to
whom it is indebted for past favors : Miss Mollie Hall, for infor-
mation regarding the prehistoric remains in the vicinity of Hop-
kinsville, Kentucky ; Dr. W. N. Wallace of Farmington, New
Mexico, who accompanied the expedition to the Chaco Group
as interpreter and rendered valuable assistance; jNIr. William
Foster made several hundred drawings of the specimens in the
PhilKps Andover Museum, and some of his sketches are repro-
duced in this Bulletin. Thanks are tendered Dr. George H.
Pepper of the American JMuseum of Natural History, New
York ; and Dr. F. W. Hodge, editor of the " American Anthro-
pologist ", for the loan of six illustrations and for information.

*Fort Ancient, p. 11.5.

f Bulletin II, The So-Called '^ G07-gets'\ Department nf Archaeology.
Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. C. Peabody and W. K,
Moorehead, 1906.



Mr. Robert Singleton Peabody was born in Muskingum
County, Ohio, in 1837, and entered Phillips Academy April 20,
1854, at the age' of sixteen years. He graduated the first man
in the Class of 1857 with the Valedictory address at the close of
an English oration on the subject " Roman Literature and Arts
as affected by Foreign Conquest". His uncle was Mr. George
Peabody, the noted philanthropist. Mr. George Peabody was
interested in his nephew and attended the Commencement exer-
cises of 1857. Recognizing the worth of Phillips Academy, he
established, in 1866, a Chair of Natural Sciences and the
Trustees appointed Professor William B. Graves as hoad of
that Department. After Mr. K. S. Peabody had graduated
from Harvard, in the Class of '62, he practiced law in Vermont
and subsequently took up his residence in Germantown where
he afterwards resided.

Among his classmates were Mr. Convers, the founder of the
Mathematical prizes in the school. Professor Allen C. Barrows
of the Ohio State University at Columbus, Dr. John H. Denison
of Williamstown, James B. Hammond of Hanxmond Typewriter
fame, the eminent physician James N. Hyde of Chicago, Ex-
Congressraan Joseph A. Scranton, and the patriot Frazar A.
Stearns who fell at Newbeni.

Mr. Peabody spent his boyhood in the valley of the Muskin-
gum and as in that region there are numerous mound-builder
and Indian remains, he became interested in archaeology. With
his own hands he collected some one or two hundred specimens
on his father's farm. When the collection at Phillips was
numbered the records properly began with Mr. Peabody's per-
sonal finds and No. 1 is an interesting hematite celt.

In 1889 and 1900 Mr. Peabody consulted with Dr. Cecil F.
P. Bancroft, Principal of Phillips Academy, and Dr. Thomas
Wilson, Curator of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institu-
tion, and the three projected the scheme for the Department.
Mr. Peabody died October 1st, 1904. The last four or five
years of Mr. Peabody's life he was an invalid and suffered more
than falls to the lot of the average man. Yet he bore it all very


patiently, although frequently suffering intense pain. He had a
]dnd word for every one and men who came in personal contact
with him wore charmed by his delightful manner. He was a
fine Latin scholar and because of his legal knowledge he was
frequentljr sought by men of great affairs. In an unostentatious
way he did a great deal of good, and the sum and substance of
his liberalities will never be known. Modesty was his character-
istic trait and he was prompted to keep the splendid donation to
PhiUips out of the newspapers. Indeed, so far as it was possi-
ble, he desired, that no one refer to himself and Mrs. Peabody
as the founders of the Department.

He was a nature student and for more than twenty-five years
spent his summers in the Adirondacks, where he had a
cabin at Saranac Inn. Aside from his desire to teach the young
something regarduig the primitive conditions in America, he
vdshed that the boys in Phillips might have better facilities
than those he enjoyed fifty years ago when on the Hill. The
present building accomplishes this end, and will always stand as
a monument to him

During the years 1896 and 1898 Mr. Peabody took active in-
terest in the collecting of specimens and although frequently
confined to his room, he had the boxes as they came opened,
and inspected their contents. He was particularly interested in
the "gorgets", "ceremonials", and other "problematical"
forms and it was his wish that the Director and the Curator de-
vote their spare time during several years to the study of these
unknown artifacts.

Mr. Peabody had no desire to found a great museum. He
rather-had it in mind to establish a " working department " and
so expressed himself on numerous occasions. He held that the
greater museums emphasized the necessity for explorations of
sites, and investigation of living tribes almost to the exclusion
of the serious study of material on hand. He thought
that there were now sufficient specimens in the museums and
private collections of the United States to furnish data for
reasonable conclusions.

In the summer of 1890 the Curator was invited to spend some
weeks with Mr. Peabody at his cabin (Saranac Inn on Upper
Saranac Lake, Adirondacks). During several long conferences


]\Ir. Peabody outlined with particular detail just what he de-
sired to accomplish when he should establish the Andover

Although Mr. Peabody made no pretensions to archaeological
knowledge, yet he was quite well versed in scientific mat-
ters. He explained at length why he had instructed the writer
to make extensive collections of surface material in Ohio and
Kentucky in the previous year and during the winter of 1896-
'97. His Department, he said, might or might not carry on ex-
plorations in the future. If not, there were always available the
results of extensive explorations on the part of other museums.
He wished the writer to procure all the local collections possi-
ble. That is, of collections well recorded and gathered in a
specific area — collections that should illustrate the art of the
region. These being surface collections from the village sites
and fields, might be found to present differences more or less
marked when contrasted with similar specimens from mounds
and graves. He believed that the Ohio valley was inhabited
for a great length of tune. The presence of Flint Ridge mater-
ial in one locality, of Tennessee nodular flint in another and
local chert in a third, might indicate separate tribes or a consid-
erable length of occupation. Furthermore, that the gravel
burials might be found to represent a different culture from
that of the mounds. He took no stock in the old theory of
" general mound builder culture " so far as it related to " high

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Online LibraryWarren King MooreheadA narrative of explorations in New Mexico, Arizona, Indiana, etc. : Together with a brief history of the department → online text (page 1 of 8)