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Produced by Chuck Greif, Michigan University Library and
the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
http://www.pgdp.net









[Illustration: SPAIN

Edwd Weller]

London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington.]




SPAIN

BY THE
REV. WENTWORTH WEBSTER, M.A. OXON.

WITH A CHAPTER BY AN ASSOCIATE OF THE SCHOOL OF MINES.

_WITH ILLUSTRATIONS._

London:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON,
CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET.
1882.

[_All rights reserved._]

LONDON:
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED,
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE.


[etext transcriber's note:
No attempt has been made to correct, normalize or de-anglicize
the spelling of Spanish names or words.
For example: Calayatud/Calatayud, Alfonso/Alfonzo,
Cacéres/Caceres/Cáceres, Cardénas/Cárdenas, Guipúzcoa/Guipuzcoa all
appear]




PREFACE.


There is a difficulty in writing a book of this character on Spain,
which does not exist, we think, to the same extent with any other
European country. In most European nations the official returns and
government reports may be accepted as trustworthy, and the compiler has
little more to do than to copy them; but in Spain this is far from being
always the case. In some instances, from nonchalance and habitual
inexactitude, in others, and especially in all matters of finance and
taxation, from designed misstatement, all such reports have to be
received with caution and scrupulously examined. The reader must
remember also that in Spain smuggling and contraband dealing in various
forms is carried on to such a vast extent as seriously to vitiate all
trade returns. Thus it is that Spanish statistics can be considered
only as approximate truths.

Another difficulty arises from the very varied character of the Spanish
provinces. Hardly any statement can be made of one province which is not
untrue of another. The ordinary descriptions of Spain present only one,
or at most two, types, the Castling and Andalusian, and utterly neglect
all the rest. The provinces of Spain have been well described as divided
into "five Irelands" whose habits and modes of thought, political
aspirations, and commercial interests and aptitudes, are often utterly
opposed to those of the capital. A brief survey of the whole of Spain is
attempted in the following pages.

In a work of this kind one other obvious difficulty is to know what to
omit. Some well-worn topics will be found to be absent from these pages.
No references are made to the great Peninsular War. This can be easily
studied in the admirable pages of Sir W. Napier in English, and of
Toreno in Spanish, or in compendiums of these, which again are filtered
down in every guide-book. For a like reason Prescott's brilliant works
are not alluded to.

For the chapter on Geology and Mining the reader is indebted to one of
the most distinguished Associates of the School of Mines, who has been
recently engaged in practical geological survey and mapping in Spain.

Much also of the present work is due to private information most kindly
furnished by Spanish friends of high position in the literary and
political world, and with whom some of the subjects treated have been
frequently discussed. To these the author offers his warmest and most
grateful thanks.




ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

THE GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN.

PAGE

Boundaries of the Peninsula 1
Area and Coast-line 2
Six divisions of Spain _ib._

_Mountain chains_:
Pyrenees 3
Cantabrian, Asturian, and Galician mountains 4
Leon _ib._
Oca, Sierra Moncayo, and Idubeda chains 5
Central Plateau and its passes _ib._
Culminating water-shed of the Peninsula 6
Guadarrama range _ib._
Toledan range 7
Sierra Morena and passes _ib._
Central ranges and river basins 8
Sierra Nevada and offshoots _ib._
Minor ranges 9

_Rivers, river basins, and rainfall_:
Five great rivers 10
Rivers of Galicia and Asturias 11
Basque Provinces 12
Ebro and its tributaries and canals 12
Catalonia, streams of 14
Douro and its tributaries 15
Tagus " " 17
Guadiana " " and lakes 19
Guadalquiver, its tributaries, islands, and marismas 22
Segura and its irrigation 24
Jucar " " 25
Guadalaviar or Turia _ib._
Lakes and Albuferas 26
Water toponymy 27
Comparative table of principal rivers 28
Mineral springs and Salinas _ib._


CHAPTER II.

CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.

Five climates of Spain 30
Temperature and rainfall of:
Galicia and the Asturias 31
Santander and the Basque Provinces 32
Aragon _ib._
Catalonia _ib._
Valencia 34
Alicante _ib._
Murcia 35
Cartagena to Almeria _ib._
Malaga, Motril, Seville, and Cordova _ib._
Granada 36
Cadiz, Gibraltar, &c _ib._
Elevation of Central Plateau _ib._
Temperature and rainfall of Madrid, Salamanca, and Soria 38
Agricultural products of:
Galicia and the Asturias 39
Basque Provinces and basin of the Ebro 40
Moorish agriculture and exotic flora of Southern Spain 41
Products of Valencia and Murcia 43
Palms at Elche 44
Aromatic mountain shrubs 45
Products and wines of Andalusia 46
Products of the Central Plateau _ib._
Estremadura and law of the Mesta 47
Locusts 48
Corn-lands of Castile and Sierras de Campos 50
Comparative Flora of Spain 52

_Fauna_:
Monkeys of Gibraltar _ib._
Beasts and birds of prey _ib._
Game birds and African visitants _ib._
Noxious and useful insects _ib._
Merino sheep 54
Horses, cattle, and beasts of burden 55
Fisheries 56
Estimated total production of Spain 57


CHAPTER III.

GEOLOGY AND MINES.

Peculiar interest of Spanish geology 58
Granite and Silurian rocks _ib._
Carboniferous formation 59
Secondary formations _ib._
Upper Cretaceous _ib._
Eocene tertiary 60
Miocene fresh-water _ib._
Pliocene _ib._
Influence of geology on populations _ib._
Statistics of Spanish geology 61
Volcanoes, recent _ib._

_Minerals of_:
Gneiss and crystalline schists 62
Metamorphic rocks _ib._
Cambrian formation _ib._
Silurian slates _ib._
Devonian sandstones _ib._
Carboniferous series _ib._
Permian 63
Triassic conglomerates _ib._
Jurassic limestones and marl _ib._
Cretaceous formation _ib._
Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene _ib._
Production and export of six chief minerals _ib._
Of argentiferous ore, cobalt, silver _ib._
Coal 65
Iron of the Bilbao district _ib._
Locality of principal mines 66
Mining laws 67


CHAPTER IV.

ETHNOLOGY, LANGUAGE, AND POPULATION.

Pyrenees, no true boundary of 69
Population of Spain, mixed 70
Iberi, Kelt-Iberi, Basques, and Kelts _ib._
Foreign races in Spain 73
Visigoths, Arabs, and Moors 75
Toponymy of Spain 76
Language of Spanish Jews 77
Existing dialects _ib._
Statistics of the Spanish language 78
Characteristics of " " 79
Population of Spain 80
Density of _ib._
Occupations of 81
Manufacturing and mining Provinces 82
Clergy _ib._
Distribution of property, great changes in 83
Abolition of Mesta and of feudal privileges _ib._
Sale of Crown and Church property 84
Actual distribution _ib._
Characteristics of the various populations 85
Galicians, Asturians, Basques, and Aragonese 86
Catalans, Valencians, and Murcians 86, 87
Andalusians 87
Manchegans, and Castilians 89
Gipsies, Maragatos, Passiegos, Hurdes, Sayagos, &c. 90
Contrabandistas _ib._


CHAPTER V.

DESCRIPTION OF PROVINCES.

Division of Kingdoms and Provinces 91
Galicia and its provinces, Corunna, Lugo, Pontevedra,
and Orense 92
Asturias 94
Santander _ib._
Basque Provinces, Biscay, Guipuzcoa, Alava 95
Navarre 96
Aragon and its provinces, Huesca, Saragossa, Teruel 97
Catalonia " Gerona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lerida 100
Valencia " Castellon de la Plana, Valencia,
Alicante 103
Murcia " Murcia and Albacete 107
Andalusia, Mediterranean Provinces, Almeria, Granada,
Malaga 109
Atlantic: Cadiz, Huelva 117, 122
Inland: Seville, Cordova, Jaen 120, 123, 125
Estremadura, Badajoz, Cacéres _ib._
New Castile and La Mancha, Provinces - Ciud ad Real,
Toledo, Madrid, Cuenca, Guadalajara 127
Old Castile - Avila, Segovia, Soria, Logrono, Burgos 133
Leon - Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Palencia, Leon 137
Balearic Isles 141


CHAPTER VI.

HISTORY AND POLITICAL CONSTITUTION.

Early liberties, _behetria_, _fueros_ 145
Capitulations of Moors and Jews 147
Conquest of the South and its results 149
The _Santa Hermandad_ _ib._
The Austrian Dynasty 151
The Bourbon Dynasty 152
Modern Constitutional Spain 153
Cortés of Cadiz _ib._
Reign of Ferdinand VII., and loss of American colonies_ib._
" Isabella II. 154
First Carlist War _ib._
Ministry of Narvaez 156
" O'Donnell 157
Expulsion of Isabella II., and provisional government _ib._
Amadeo I. 158
Republic _ib._
Second Carlist War 159
Cantonalist insurrection _ib._
Alphonso XII. 160
Ministry of Cánovas del Castillo 161

_Present Constitution and Administration of Spain_ 162
Cortés, Senate, Congress 163
Provincial administration 164
Municipal " _ib._
Religion 165
Rights of persons, natives and foreigners _ib._

_Military Administration_ 166
Army 167
Quality of Spanish soldiery, _pronunciamientos_,
&c. 168

_Naval Administration_ 169
Royal Navy _ib._
Mercantile Navy _ib._

_Judicial Administration_ 169
Legal Procedure 170
Prisons _ib._
Hospitals and lunatic asylums 171
Railways 172
Telegraphs _ib._
Letters and post _ib._

_Finances of Spain._

Public debt 174
Increase of, since 1868 175
Deficit of budgets _ib._
Sources of revenue 176
Expenditure _ib._
Imports and exports 177
Foreign tariffs _ib._
Protection and free trade 178
Empleomania and its results 179


CHAPTER VII.

EDUCATION AND RELIGION.

Universities, number of students, salaries of
professors 181
Theological seminaries 182
Course of university study 183
Provincial and special institutes _ib._
Secondary instruction, institutes and colleges 184
Number of students, and salary of masters 185
Course of instruction 186
University degrees _ib._
Primary education 187

_Church and Religion._

Early Church Councils 188
Roman and Mazarabic liturgy _ib._
Inquisition _ib._
Philip II., the Jesuits, and the Reformation 189
Expulsion of the Jesuits 191
Concordat of 1851 _ib._
Archbishops, bishops, and clergy _ib._
Mode of appointment of bishops 192
Spanish Protestants _ib._


CHAPTER VIII.

LITERATURE AND THE ARTS.

Præhistoric art and architecture 194
Roman and Visigothic _ib._
Arabic 195
Three periods of 196
Mudejar 201
Christian _ib._
Renaissance 202
Churrigueresque 203
Domestic architecture _ib._
Church furniture and minor arts 204

_Painting._

Characteristics of Spanish painting 205
Local schools 206
Murillo 208
Painters of Valencian school 209
" " Castilian " _ib._
" " Andalusian " _ib._
Modern painters 210
Industrial arts, goldsmith's work, iron, porcelain,
glass, wood, lace 212
Music _ib._

_Literature._

Early Romances 213
" Prose works 214
La Celistina and the _picaresque_ novels 215
Drama and _Autors_ 216
Lope de Vega _ib._
Calderon de la Barca 217
Cervantes _ib._
Quevedo 219
Historical writings 220
Poetry _ib._
Mystic writers 222
Classical and romantic schools _ib._
Modern writers: Poets - Espronceda, Zorilla, Becquer,
&c. 224
Novelists - Fernan Caballero, J. Valera, &c. _ib._
Dramatists - Hartzenbusch, Breton de los Herreros, &c. 225
Nunez de Arce 226
Historians - Condé Gayangos, De la Fuente, &c. _ib._
Geographers - Fernandez Guerra, Coello, Bowles _ib._
Geologists - Macpherson, &c. _ib._
Economists - Cárdenas, Colmeiro, De Azcárate 227
Theologians - Balmés, Donoso Cortez, C. Gonzalez, &c. _ib._
Philologists - F. Fita, &c. _ib._
Orators 228
Provincial literature 229


CHAPTER IX.

EPILOGUE.

Spain not a worn-out country 231
Two hindrances to development _ib._
Protection and free trade 233
Cruelty and charities of Spain 234


Appendix I. - Census of Provinces 237
" II. - Chief historical events 239
" III. - Chief books used 241




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE

Caballeros 86

Dominique, the Espada 88

Gipsies at Granada 90

Leaning Tower of Saragossa 98

General View of Granada, with the Alhambra 110

Alhambra Tower by Moonlight 114

Fountain of the Four Seasons, Madrid 130

Port of Cadiz 153

Vespers 190

Giralda of Seville 197

Moorish Ornamentation 199

[Illustration:

PHYSICAL MAP
of
SPAIN

Edwd Weller

London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington.]




SPAIN.




CHAPTER I.

THE GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN.


Spain, with the neighbouring kingdom of Portugal, constitutes the most
westerly of the three southern peninsulas of Europe, and in Cape Tarifa,
latitude 36° 1', it attains the most southerly point of the whole
continent. Separated from France and from the rest of Europe by the
chain of the Pyrenees, and surrounded on all other sides by either the
Mediterranean or the Atlantic, it presents at first sight the appearance
of an exceedingly compact and homogeneous surface. It seems strange that
this well-defined peninsula should contain two separate kingdoms, with
peoples who speak languages allied, yet so distinct as to be mutually
unintelligible to the uneducated classes.

The peninsula lies between latitude 43° 45' and 36° 1' N., and between
3° 20' E. and 9° 32' W. longitude. In shape it is thus nearly a square;
a diagonal line from the N.E. Cape Creuz to the S.W. Cape St. Vincent
measures 650 miles, while from Cape Ortegal, N.W., to Cape Gata, S.E.,
would be 525 miles. The whole area of the peninsula contains 219,200
square miles, of which 36,500 on the west belong to Portugal, and
182,700 to Spain.

The peninsular form of the country would lead us to expect that it would
partake of all the characteristics of a maritime climate; but such is
not the case. From the comparative evenness of the coast-line, unbroken
and unindented by any deep inlets except on the extreme north-west, in
Galicia, the coast-line bears a less proportion to the whole surface
than that of many lands less surrounded by the sea. It counts only 1300
miles, 700 of which are washed by the Mediterranean, and 600 by the
Atlantic; that is, 1 mile of coast-line to 134 square miles of area;
while Italy contains 1 to 75, and Greece 1 to 7. From the configuration
of the coast, and from the character of the great central plateau, a
large part of Spain has really an extreme continental climate.

For while it is distinctly separated from the rest of Europe by the line
of the Pyrenees, Spain is no less distinctly divided into different
districts in the interior - districts which differ most widely in climate
and elevation and products. Six of these are usually named: (1) The N.W.
Atlantic coast, comprising Galicia, the coast of which presents a
continuation of the Fiord system of Norway, and of the Firths of
Scotland and Ireland; (2), the northern slope of the Cantabrian
Mountains, and the narrow slip of land contained between them and the
Bay of Biscay, comprising the Asturias, Santander, and the Basque
Provinces; (3) the Valley of the Ebro, with Navarre, Aragon, and
Catalonia; (4) the great Central Plateau - Leon, Old and New Castile,
Estremadura, and La Mancha; (5) the Mediterranean Provinces, including
Valencia, Murcia, and the parts of Andalusia between the Sierra Nevada
and the Mediterranean; (6) the rest of Andalusia sloping towards the
Atlantic.

We will treat of these in order.


_Mountain Chains._

But first we must speak of the various mountain systems and river basins


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