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Fire clay 2

Coal, gas 2

Fire clay 1

Coal, hard 1

Fire clay 1

Coal, medium, hard ...0 3

Fire clay 5

Coal, hard, block 5

Fire clay 2

Coal, splint 2

Fire clay 1 3

Coal, gas 3

Fire clay 8

Coal, hard

Slate and coal



Ft. In.



2
4
Coal, splint, 670' A. T. B...0 8



In Wa3nie county very little development has been made
in the Winifrede, and the seam shows thin layers of coal anJ



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.



267



slate and very little coal of commercial value. In Lincoln
district croppings of this bed were found at different points
along Tug fork and its tributaries south of Glenhayes; but
no openings were found faced up so a good section of the
coal could be measured.

THE WINIFREDE COAL IN LAUREL HILL DISTRICT.

Very little development has been made in the Winifrede
coal in Laurel Hill district, and from the openings observed,
it is evident that this bed is impure and of little commercial
value.

Opening No. 254 (a) is located on the land of Albert
Gartner, along the waters of Fourteen Mile creek, about two
miles south of Ranger, where the coal is mined for local use,
and the following section was measured :

Section of Albert Gartner's Coal Opening.



Shale

Fire clay

Coal 0' 7

Slate .0 6

Coal 2

Slate and fire clay 1 8

Coal, block 11

Slate I

Coal, block

Slate and fire clay 1

Coal, impure

Coal, bony

Coal, impure

Slate

Coal, soft

Fire clay

Coal, medium hard

Slate

Coal, block

Slate 2

Coal, Impure

Slate

Coal, block 10

Slate floor, 700' A. T. B

Butts run N 43*»W; faces, N 47 *»



Ft. In.
3



9
8
2
2
1
1

8
1
1
2
6
0%



E.



The foregoing section shows the coal so interstratified
with slate and fire clay that it is of very little present com-



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268 POTTSVILLE SERIES.

mercial value, although, of course, in the remote future it will
probably furnish much good coal through washing and other
operations by which the impurities can be separated from the
coal.

In Wayne county very little development has been made
on the Winifrede coal, since the bed contains thin layers of
coal and slate and very little coal of commercial value. In
Lincoln district, croppings of this bed were found at several
points along Tug fork and its tributaries south of Glenhayes.

Opening No. 254 (a) is located in Lincoln district on the
property of the Glenhayes Land Company, one mile north
of Glenhayes, where Mr. C. C. McKubin, the Manager of said
Company, has prospected for this coal, and the following
section was measured:

Section of Glenhayes Land Company's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

(1) Sandstone roof

(2) Fire clay 1

(3) Coal, Imimre 0' 8" 7 «

(4) Coal, block 1 4 C ^

(5) Slate floor, 715' A. T. B

Sample for analysis was taken from Nos. 3 and 4.







The Winifrede coal has also been opened along Twelve-
pole and its tributaries.

Opening No. 254 (b) is located in Grant district, on the
land of R. W. Nelson, along East fork of Twelvepole, one
mile south of Eloise P. O., where the following section was
measured:

Section of R. W. Nelson's Coal Opening.

Pt. In.

Sandstone roof

Coal, gas 0' 4W^

Slate 8

Coal, splint 1 1 \ 4 3%

Slate 9

Coal, impure 1 5 J

Fire clay floor, 750' A. T. B



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 269

The Lower Winifrede Sandstone.

Underneath the Winifrede coal from 2 to 5 feet, there
occurs a bed of massive, gray sandstone, which has been
named by Dr. I. C. White, the Lower Winifrede. This bed is
often split up into several members of shale and sandstone,
and is from 20 to 50 feet thick. This sandstone appears to be
different in texture and lithographical aspect from the sand-
stone overlying the coal, and marks the lower portion of the
Upper Kanawha series. This stratum rises above the beds
of the streams in the southern part of Wayne and Lincoln
counties, and is generally massive, forming cliffs along its out-
crop.

The Chilton Coal.

Underlying the Lower Winifrede sandstone occurs a thin
multiple bedded seam of coal that Dr. L C. White has named
the Chilton coal from its occurrence at a small mining village
of that name on Davis creek, Kanawha county. The bed is
impure and frequently splits into several layers of coal
separated by fire clay and sandy shales.

The following section was measured at Chilton by Dr. I.
C. White, and published in Volume II (A), page 430, of the
West Virginia Geological Survey:

Section of Chilton Coal.

Ft. In.

Black band coal, (Winifrede)

Concealed and massive sandstone 70

Coal 5

Fire clay 2

Coal and clay 1

In Lincoln county, the Chilton coal comes above the sur-
face near the southern boundary line in the hills along Guy-
andot river and its tributaries. It is impure and split with
layers of slate and fire clay.



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270 POTTSVILLE SERIES.

THE CHILTON COAL IN HARTS CREEK DISTRICT.

Opening No. 255 is located at Leet on Big Ugly creek and
v;here the coal crops at edge of the stream, the following sec-
tion was measured:

Section of Big Ugly Creek Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Sandstone, current bedded

Coal, hard..... 0' 6"^

Slate 3

Coal, hard 9

Slate 2

Sandstone bottom, 612' A. T. L. .'

Another opening, No. 256, Yi mile above the mouth of
Laurel creek on Big Ugly, just below an old mill, exhibits the
following section:

Section of Big Ugly Creek Coal Opening.

Ft. In.



Sandstone

Coal 0' 8"

Slate 10

Coal 10

Slate, 615' A. T. B



Opening No. 256 (a) is located on property of the Guy-
andotte Land Association along Guyandot river, one-fourth
mile west of Atenville, where the following section was meas-
ured :

Section of Guyandotte Land Association's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.



Sandstone

Coal 0' 1"

Slate %

Coal, block 1 7

Slate floor, 620' A. T. B

Butts run N 40° W; faces, N 50** E.



8%



Opening No. 257 is located on the land of Albert Toney
along Big Ugly creek, S 8° E, 2y2 miles from Leet, where the
coal is mined for local fuel, and the following section was
measured :



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 2,^\

Section of Albert Toney's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.



(1) Sandstone roof

(2) Coal, good 0' 6"

(3) Slate 1

(4) Coal, splint 1

(5) Slate 1 \ 3

(6) Coal, block 4

(7) Slate 2

(8) Coal, block 11

(9) Slate, bottom, 710' A. T. B.'

Butts run S 42° W; faces, N 48° E. Sample for analysis taken

from Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 8, for results of which see table pages 404-405.

Opening No. 258 is located on the land of W. E. Fry along
Nine Mile creek, J/^ mile east of Midkiflf, where the coal is
mined for local fuel, and the following section was measured:

Section of W. E. Fry's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Sandstone

Coal, Impure 0' 8" ]

Coal, cannel, bony 1 8 I 4 10

Fire clay 2 [

Coal, visible, 600' A. T. B..0 6 J

CHILTON COAL IN LAUREL HILL DISTRICT.

Only one opening of coal (No. 259) on this seam was
measured in Laurel Hill district, and it is located on the
property of the Guyandotte Land Association along Guyandot
river, J4 "^I'e west of Atenville, where the following section
was measured:

Section of Guyandotte Land Association's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

(1) Sandstone, massive, roof

(2) Coal, block 1' 1"1

(3) Slate % \ 1 8%

(4) Coal, block 7 J

(5) Slate, bottom, 630' A. T. B

Butts run N 40° W; faces, N 50 ** E. Sample for analysis taken
from Nos. 2 and 4, for results of which see table pages 404-406.

The preceding sections illustrate the character and
structure of the Chilton coal in the Cabell-Wavne-Lincoln



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272 POTTSVILLE SERIES.

, area and indicate that there is not much coal of commercial
value in this bed. The analyses of the samples taken will be
given in a subsequent chapter in this volume.

The Maiden Sandstone.

The great sandstone mass between the Chilton and the
Cedar Grove coal has been named by Dr. I. C. White, the
Maiden sandstone, since it forms a conspicuous landmark in
the topography on both sides of the Kanawha river in the
vicinity of Maiden, Kanawha county.

Possibly this sandstone horizon can be subdivided by
further study in Kanawha and adjoining counties. This hori-
zon is split into shales and fire clays together with thin sand-
stone ledges in the area under discussion.

The Cedar Grove Coal.

This coal, usually found in the Kanawha series, was not
exposed in the area studied.

The Campbells Creek Limestone.

At an interval from 10 to 30 feet above the Peerless coal
there is often found an impure, earthy limestone that Dr. I. C.
White has named the Campbells Creek Limestone from its
occurrence at the mouth of a creek of that name in Kanawha
county, 5 miles southeast of Charleston. This limestone
occurs near Big creek on Limestone branch of Guyandot river,
where it is about two feet thick, dark gray, and non-
fossiliferous.

The Peerless Coal.

From 50 to 60 feet under the Cedar Grove coal horizon is
found a small, hard block coal that was named the Peerless
on Kanawha river, where it was first mined for commercial
use. This bed is exposed in a cut of the Norfolk and Western
Railroad, just south of Crumm, where the following section
was measured:



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 273

Section of Crumm Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Slate 1

Sandstone, fine grained, micaceous 8

Slate and shale , 3

Coal, hard, block 1 6

Fire clay 1

This bed occurs 8<^to 115 feet above the Warfield, or No.
2 Gas coal, and is possibly identical with the Alma seam that
is mined along Tug river, near Williamson.

No. 2 Gas Coal (Warfield).

The next coal seam under the Peerless is probably one of
the most important coal beds in West Virginia. It is variously
known as the "Campbells Creek", "Holden", ''Warfield" and
"No. 2 Gas." In the market it is widely known as the "No. 2
Gas" or simply as "No. 2 Coal." This seam is more exten-
sively mined in the Kanawha field than any other bed in the
Kanawha Measures, and furnishes a greater tonnag;e than any
other of the Kanawha seams. It contains enough hard or
splint coal ta make an excellent shipping fuel, while the softer
and more friable layers make an excellent coke and are also
valuable for gas making purposes.

In Lincoln county, the "No. 2 Gas" rises out of Guyandot
river between Fry and Big Creek stations. It is mined at
Big Creek in Logan county, by the Block Coal Company, suc-
cessors to the Prudential Coal and Mining Company, where
the following section was measured :

Section of Block Coal Company's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Slate roof

Coal, hard splint 3' 8" 1

Slate % I

Coal 2

Slate 4 j- 6 10%

Coal n

Slate 1 4

Coal 10

Fire clay, 660' A. T. B .' 5 2

Butts nin S 20" E; faces, N 70° E; greatest rise, S 40° E; capac-
ity, 100 tons daily.



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2/4 POTTSVILLE SERIES.

This seam is mined at mouth of Tantrough branch on
land of Brad Toney for local fuel, where the following section
was measured:

Section of Brad Taney's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Slate and shale roof .*;

Coal, Impure V 3" )

Coal, block, good 1 7 ) 2 10

Fire clay bottom, 620' A. T. L

In Wayne county the No. 2 Gas seam (Warfield) rises
above Tug fork just north of the Wayne-Mingo line. It is
mined for local fuel at Kermit, in Mingo county. It is also
mined for local fuel on the land of M. H. Walden on Marrow-
bone creek, where the following section was measured :

Section of W. H. Walden's Coal Opening.

Ft. In.

Sandstone roof

Coal and slate 0' 2" ) "

Coal, hard, block 3 J ^ ^

Slate bottom, 605' A. T. B

Butts run N 40^* W; faces, N 50° E; greatest rise, northwest.

The No. 2 Gas seam was encountered in the Thomas
Stepp well No. 2, drilled by the Meteor Carbon Company,
one mile south of Stonecoal Station, at a depth of 65 feet, and
at an elevation of 635 feet A. T. B. This coal was also en-
countered in the gas well at Dunlow at 300 feet below the sur-
face and at an elevation of 380' A. T. B.

Just what area of Wayne and Lincoln counties is under-
laid with this coal bed in commercial thickness is difficult to
determine, and before an accurate calculation can be made it
will be necessary to exploit the coal more fully with the core
drill. It is probable that a portion of the southern parts of
both Lincoln and Wayne carries this coal in commercial thick-
ness, but the question can only be determined definitely by
sinking numerous drill holes, since the horizon of the bed is
several hundred feet below water level.



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CHAPTER IX.



GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE.

Methods of Representing Structure.



There are two methods that can be used in representing
geologic structure. One of these is by cross sections at right
angles to the line of strike. These sections show how the
strata would appear if a deep ditch were dug perpendicular to
the line of strike entirely across the area under discussion.
This method can be used where the dip of the rocks is very
heavy and is easily perceptible to the eye. In the Cabell-
Wayne-Lincoln area the folds are so slight that it would not
be practicable or satisfactory to use this method without
gradually exaggerating the vertical scale of the cross section
in comparison to the horizontal scale. This method would
give only an idea of the structure'along certain lines and would
not give the slope of the arches or the basins, which latter
feature is of very great importance in the three counties as re-
gards the future development of its mineral resources,
especially the exploitation of its oil and gas fields and the
mining of its coal beds. •

The second method of representing geologic structure that
meets the latter conditions, consists in the representation by
contour lines that indicate the elevation above tide of some
particular stratum. This stratum should be one that is gen-
erally known throughout a wide exposure in outcrop, its ex-
ploitation by mines, or its general use as a key rock by the
drillers for oil and gas in the region to be mapped.

In the Cabell-Wayne-Lincoln area, the writer has taken
the top of the Pittsburgh ooal bed as the stratum to be used
as the key rock. This bed is the most widely known through-



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276 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE.

out the area, and where it outcrops can be easily identified,
as it is mined for local fuel in a great many places. Its out-
crop extends over more than one-half of the area under dis-
cussion.

The altitude of the top of the Pittsburgh coal bed cfver a
large portion of the area was determined by levels on the out-
crop, but south of the center of Lincoln and Wayne counties,
its horizon has passed into the air over the summits of the
highest hills; hence its elevation in these portions of the area
had to be determined by adding its interval in feet above some
known stratum to the tidal elevation of the latter. The base
of the Upper Freeport coal was used for the levels as far south
as its outcrop extended, and after this stratum had passed into
the air over the summits of the highest hills, the base of No. 5
Block coal was used for the levels. However, in using these
several strata for the datum, a difficulty was encountered in
the gradual thickening of the strata to the southeast, so that
it was necessary gradually to increase this interval in the
southeastward direction.

In general, these structure contours are only approxi-
mately correct, from the fact that it is assumed that over small
areas the rocks maintain a uniform thickness, when it has been
well established that two easily determined strata will often
vary many feet in interval in a very short distance.

Another cause of error is the method of getting the eleva-
tion of the key rock. These altitudes were determined in
many cases with the spirit level, but the great majority were
obtained with the aneroid barometer. The aneroid was
checked frequently on the spirit levels of the U. S. Geological
Survey left at conspicuous points along the public highways
in their preparation of the accurate map of the Cabell-Wayne-
Lincoln area in the co-operation with the State of West Vir-
ginia. By this method errors were avoided as far as possible
and over most of the area their sum is less than one contour
interval ; that is, less than 25 feet.



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 277

Detailed Geologic Structure.

The Cabell-Wayne-Lincoln area is situated in the central
part of the deepest portion of the Appalachian basin or the
geo-syncline which enters West Virginia near the southwest
corner of Pennsylvania. The following description of this
syncline or trough is given by Dr. I. C. White in Volume II,
West Virginia Geological Survey, pages 84 and 85, 1903 :

"The central or deepest portion of the Appalachian basin or geo-
syncline enters West Virginia from Greene county, Penna., at the
southwest comer of the latter State, and crossing western Monongalia
and eastern Wetzel counties, continues on through the State in a
general southwest course across Tyler, western Doddridge, central
Ritchie, Wirt and Jackson, cutting eastern Mason and western Put-
nam and central Cabell to enter Kentucky from northern Wayne, ten
miles from the mouth of Big Sandy river. Where the axis of this
great basin enters the State and on to the southwest as far as Dod-
dridge county at least, the Pittsburgh coal is burled to a depth of 1,300
to 1,500 feet under the highest summits, or say 100 to 150 feet above
tide, but from Doddridge county on southwestward the basin begins
to rise and at the Kentucky line the Pittsburgh coal overlooks the
Big Sandy waters from an elevation of 800 feet above tide in the deep-
est portion of the trough."

The Parkcrsburg Syncline.

This great trough, or Parkersburg syncline, enters Cabell
county from Mason and runs S 40° W, passing through Teays
Valley about three miles west of Milton and crosses the Guy-
andot river about two miles south of Martha and the Cabell-
Wayne line about one-half mile northwest of Bowen, from
whence it takes a course S 83° W, crossing Twelvepole about
three-fourths mile south of Dickson, entering Kentucky be-
tween the mouth of Gragston and Whites creeks, about nine
miles south of Kenova. The elevation of the Pittsburgh coal
bed in the eastern part of the syncline, where it crosses the
Mason-Cabell line, is about 615 feet above tide, and where the
syncline crosses Big Sandy river into Kentucky, the elevation
of the sapie bed is 890 feet above tide.

There are several small but well marked folds in the
Cabell-Wayne-Lincoln area between the Parkersburg syncline



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278 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE.

and the Warfield anticline running nearly north and south,
among which are the following :

Anticlines. Synclines.

Doane. Queens Ridge.

Branchland. Ferrellsburg.

Byrnside. Griffithsville.

Doane Anticline.

This anticline enters the area from the south, crossing
the Mingo-Wayne line two miles west of East fork of Twelve-
pole, and the main Twelvepole at Doane, trending in a
northern direction and passing just west of Doane Station on
the N. & W. R. R. from which it was named. It passes just
east of Wells Branch Station; east of Hooker Knob; west of
Porter Knob; about one mile west of Kiahville P. O. ; about
one mile east of Cove Creek P. O., and dies out about two or
three miles east of East Lynn. This anticline passes through
Lincoln and Grant districts and extends well into Stonewall
district, Wayne county. The Pittsburgh coal horizon would
be about 1,810 feet above tide, where the crest of this arch
enters the area and about 1,325 feet where it dies out at the
north.

Queens Ridge Syncline.

This syncline crosses the Wayne-Mingo county line one
mile and a quarter east of West fork of Twelvepole, or about
half way between the East and West forks of Twelvepole, and
runs in a northerly direction for about three miles, where it
veers northeastwardly near Eloise P. O.. and runs in this
course for about three miles, crossing the East fork of Twelve-
pole one mile northeast of Eloise P. O., to a point near Queen
Ridge P. O., from which it takes its name ; thence it passes to
a point near Cove Gap P. O., where it again turns to the north-
east for about four miles, where it gradually dies out. It ex-
tends through Grant district and enters Stonewall district,
Wayne county.



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WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 279

Branchland Anticline.

This anticline crosses the Logan-Lincohi county line
about seven miles southwest of Big Creek P. O. and runs in a
general northern direction along the Guyandot river, crossing
that stream twice near Eden Park and again just west of
Bolin Station, and continuing on the east side of the river to
Midkiff, where it follows the general course of the river for
some distance and passes just east of Branchland, extending to
a point near Sheridan where it dies out. It passes through
Harts Creek, Laurel Hill and Sheridan districts in Lincoln
county.

Ferrellsburg Syncline.

This syncline crosses the Logan and Lincoln county line,
entering the Cabell-Wayne-Lincoln area about three miles
west of Big Creek Station, and runs in a general northern
direction, crossing the Guyandot river just east of Ferrells-
burg, from which it was named, and passes west of Leet,
crossing Big Ugly creek two miles east of Gill Station, and
gradually dies out at a point near Myra P. O. It passes
through Harts creek, Jefferson and Carroll districts, Lincoln
county.

Griffithsville Syncline.

This syncline sets in gradually about 3J4 miles south of
Griffithsville and runs in a northeastern direction, crossing
Sugartree fork of Middle fork of Mud river about two miles
south of Griffithsville, and Straight fork of Middle fork of Mud
river just east of Griffithsville. It passes about three-fourths
mile east of Griffithsville, from which it takes its name, and
gradually dies out about two miles northeast of that village.
It passes through Union and Duval districts.

Byrnside Anticline.

This anticline enters the Cabell-Wayrie-Lincoln area from
the north at the corner of the three counties, Kanawha, Lin-



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28o GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE.

coin and Putnam, and runs in a southern direction, crossing
1 race fork of Mud river about one mile northwest of Garretts
Bend P. O., passing through Garretts Bend P. O. and gradually
dies out about one or two miles south of Garretts Bend. It
passes through Duval district, Lincoln county.



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PART III.

The Mineral Resources of the Cabell-
Wayne-Lincoln Area.



CHAPTER X.



PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS.



The exploitation of West Virginia for oil and gas began
more than 50 years ago, with the opening of the Burning
Spring field in Wirt county, yet very little work was done in
the area under discussion until 1903 when the Milton pool was
opened by drilling the E. W. Beckett Well No. i, located on
the Beckett farm, two miles and a half southeast of Milton.
This field is located on Mud river between Charley creek and
Little Two Mile creek. The Beckett well was drilled by the
Cabell Oil & Gas Company. The field has never developed a
large area, but is very rich in oil and gas.

The Griffithsville oil field in Lincoln county was first
opened in 1907,' when oil was found in the Serepta Workman
well, drilled by the Big Creek Development Company.

The Branchland oil and gas field was opened in 1908 by
the drilling in of several gas wells at Branchland. A few years
previous, gas had been found at Dunlow in Wayne county.

All the oil and gas that has thus far been discovered in
VVe3t Virginia has been produced from sandstone beds called
"sands" by the drillers. These sands have been given various
names by the oil and gas operators, which have gradually



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282



PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS



come into use in describing the beds. The following table
shows the position of the different sands in the geologic
column :

The Oil and Gas Horizons of West Virginia.
Monongahela Series CarroU sand (Uniontown).



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O



Conemaugh Series.



Allegheny Series.



Pottsville Series.



Minshall (Connellsyille).
Murphy (Morgantown).
Moundsville ( Saltsburg) .
First Cow Run (Little Dunkard)

sand (Buffalo).
Big Dunkard sand (Mahoning).

f Burning Springs (Upper Free-

-j port) sand.



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