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Sept., 1910.

. Villafrancn-VerBailles. Prof. Dr. Oitrup, GadB Danake Magasin.

Nov. 1919.

Political-Ecoiiomic Sitiiation. La Bituation politique et eoonomique de
TEorope. Frank A, Vanderlip, Revue Mondiale. Sept., 1919.

Politics. Record of political events. Supp. Pol. Sci. Quar. Sept., 1919.
Pp. 147.

. La polftioa intemacional. Auguatin Arag&n, Revista Mexioana de

Derecho Intemacional. Sept. 1919.

Porto Rico. The relations between the United States and Porto Rico. (Cont.)
Pedro Capd Rodriguez, Am. Jour. Inter. Law. July, 1919.

Prisoners of War. Agreement between the United States and Germany con-
cerning prisoners of war. Chandler P, Anderson. Am. Jour. Inter. Law. Jan.,
1919.

. The American-Oerman conference on prisoners of war. Raymond

Stone. Am. Jour. Inter. Law. July, 1919.

. Bolshevismen og Krigsfangeproblemet. E. Clausen. Gads Danske

Magasin. Sept., 1919.

Reprisals. La notion du droit de reprteailles ches les AUemands. Edouard
Clunet. Jour. Droit Inter. Jan.-Apr., 1919.

Retaliation. Retaliation and neutral rights. Heeeel Edward Yntema. Mich.
Law Rev. May, 1919.

Russia. The Russian problem: (1) Allied policy and Russia. Samuel Hoare.
(2) The view of a man fresh from Russia. Aylmer Maude. Nine. Cent. Sept.,
1919.

. Le probldme de Tintervention en Russie. O&nirdl Verraux. La

Grande Rev. July, 1919.

Schleswig. Det danske Sprog i Nordslesvigs h6jere Skoler. T. 0. Aehelie.
Tilakueren. Nov., 1919.

. Genforeningen og Valutaen. Vilk. la Cour. Gads Danske Magasin.

Nov., 1919.

South America. Deutsche Auswanderung nach Sfid-Amerika und ihre Vor-
bedingungen. Alfredo Hariwig, Deutsche Rundschau. Oct., 1919.

Syria. The Syrian problem. Anglo-Indian, Contemp. Rev. Oct., 1919.

Treaties. The ratification of treaties with reservations. Chandler P, Ander-
son, Am. Jour. Inter. Law. July, 1919.

. The obligation to ratify treaties. John Eugene Harley, Am. Jour.

Inter. Law. July, 1919.

. Nature juridique et effets g4n4raux des trait^s intemationaux. /.

PiUaui, Jour. Droit Inter. May-Aug., 1919.

Ukxaine. Die Ukraine und wir. Stefan von Velsen, Preussische Jahr-
bacher. May, 1919.

United States and the War. Porque intervinieron los Estados Unidos en la
guerre. William H, Allen, Revista Bimestre Cubana. May-June, 1919.



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202 THE AMEBICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

Vatican. The Vatican and the new states of Central Europe. M, L<nteau»
(New Europe.) Liv. Age. Nov. 8, 1910.

World Peace. Samfundsfred. /. H, Ly$hoel. Nordisk Tidsakrift. H&ft 4,
1019.

World Problems. Fremtidsfantasier. Oeorg Brandes. Tilskueren. Oct., 1919.

JURISPRUDENCE
Books

AngeliSf Edoardo, Lo sciopero nel diritto civile: appunti. Pp. 62. Milanot
SocietJt editrice libraria.

Benito, Enrique. El proceso de Giullermo II ante el derecho penal. Pp. 64.
Madrid, Imp. de Ramona Velasco.

Caru8if Evariato. II problema scientifico del diretto musulmano. Pp. 255.
Roma, AUienaeum (Selci, soc. coop. Pliniana).

Chiron, M, le lieutenarU, Elements de droit commercial frangais. Pp. 435.
Paris, librairie de la Soci6t6 du Recueil Sirey.

De Becker^ J, E, International private law of Japan. Pp. 153. London,
Butterworth.

Grant, Robert. Law and the family. Pp. 264. N. Y., Charles Scribner's
Sons.

Harrison, Frederic. Our jurisprudence and the conflict of laws. Oxford,
Clarendon Press.

May, Oaaton. Elements de droit romain. 12* Edition revue et augmentde.
Paris, librairie de la Soci^t^ du Recueil Sirey.

Mouton y OcampOt Luis^ Alier y Caeei, Lorenzo Maria, Oliver Rodriguee,
Enrique, y Torres Ballesti, Juan. Enciclopedia jurfdica espafiola. Tomo XXV.
Pp. 940. Barcelona, Francisco Seix.

Works, John D. Juridical reform. N. Y., Neale Pub. Co.

Articles

Common Law. The common law. Francis M. Finch. Cornell Law Quar*
June, 1919.

Conflict of Laws. The enforcement of American judgments abroad. Ernest
G. Lorenzen. Yale Law Jour. Dec, 1919.

. The progress of the law, 1918-1919 — The conflict of laws. Joseph

H. Beale. Harvard Law Rev. Nov., 1919.

Italian Civil Law. Le droit civil italien. M. E.-H. Perreau. Rev. Gen. du
Droit, de la Leg. et de la Juris. Mai-Juin, 1919.

Juridical Acts. Thtorie g^n^rale de Facte juridique. Lion Duguit. Rev.
Droit Pub. et Sci. Pol. July-Aug.-Sept., 1919.

Military Jurisprudence. Militser Disciplin og militser Retspleje. C, W.
Westrup. Tilskueren. Nov., 1919.

Trial of the Ex-Kaiser. The trial of the kaiser. Robert Lansing. Forum.
Dec, 1919.



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RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF POLITICAL INTEREST 203

. Examen de la responsabilit^ p^naJe de TEmpereur Guillaume II

d'Allemagne. F, Lamaude, Jour. Droit Inter. Jan.-Apr., 1919.

. The proposed trial of the former kaiser. Simeon E. Bcddvnn, Yale

Law Jour. Nov., 1919.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Books

Carman, Harry James, The street surface railway franchises of New York
City. Pp. 269. N. Y., Longmans Green & Co.

Lloyd, C, M. The reorganisation of local government. With an intlroduction
by Sidney Webb. Pp. 46. London, G. Allen & Unwin.

Maxey, Chester C, County administration. N. Y., MacmiUan.

Paini, Alberto, L'ammlnistrazione communale e pubblica del Trentino in
rapporto a quella del Regno. Pp. 276. Brescia, tip. G. Conti e C.

Rightor, Chester E., and others. City manager in Dayton; four years of com-
mission-manager govemmenti 1913-1917; and comparisons with four preceding
years under the mayor-coimcil plan, 1910-1913. Pp. 16 +271. N. Y., Mac-
miUan.

Woods, Arthur, The policeman and the public. New Haven, Yale Univ.
Press.

Articles

City Charters. Philadelphia's new charter. Home rule and other charter
revisions. F. W, Coker, Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. Nov., 1919.

City-County Consolidation. Cleveland's effort for city-county consolidation.
C. A, Dykstra, Nat. Mun. Rev. Oct., 1919.

City-Manager Charters. Letting city-manager charters grow. Lent D,
Upson. Nat. Mun. Rev. Oct., 1919.

City Planning. France's first city planning law. Frar^k Backus Williams.
Nat. Mun. Rev. Oct., 1919.

. City planning in flesh and blood. Whiting Williams. Nat. Mun.

Rev. Sept., 1919.

Blections. City elections. F. W. Coker. Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. Nov., 1919.

Housing. Mimicipal housing. Bernard Holland. Edin. Rev. Oct., 1919.

Municipal Employees. Unionisation among municipal employees. F. W.
Coker. Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. Nov., 1919.

Publications. Municipal publications. Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. Nov., 1919.

Street Railway Fares. The fate of the five-cent fare. IV. Chicago. Charles
K. Mohler. V. Toledo. Wendell F. Johnson. VI. San Francisco. M. M.
O'Shaughnessy. VII. Toronto. George H, Maitland. Nat. Mun. Rev. Sept.,
Oct., Nov., 1919.

. Will low fares help to cure high costs? Walter Jackson, Nat. Mun.

Rev. Oct., 1919.

Spanish Municipalities. Spanish colonial municipalities. Herbert Ingram
Priestley. Calif. Law Rev. Sept., 1919.

Streets Private use of streets. S. S. Field. Va. Law Rev. Nov., 1919.



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204 THE AMEBICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

POLITICAL THEORY AND MISCELLANEOUS
Books

Adams, Henry, The degradation of demoeratio dogma. N. Y., Maianillan
Co.

BartMlemy, Joseph, Le probldme de la competence dans la d^mooratie.
Paris, F61ix Alcan.

Bsrr, Henri. Le Germanisme contre Tesprit fran^ais. Pp. zyiii + 234.
Paris, La Renaissance du Livre.

Boscolo, Cleanto, La rappresentanza proporsionale. 2a ristampa. Pp. 20.
Roma, soc. ed. La Voce (Firense, A. Valleohi).

Burton, Theodore E. Modem political tendencies. Pp. 119. Princeton,
N. J., Princeton Univ. Press.

Carter, HunUey. The limits of state industrial control. N. Y., Frederick A.
Stokes Co.

Dorchester, Daniel, Jr. Bolshevism and social revolt. N. Y., Abingdon
Press.

Elliot, Arthur D. Traditions of British statesmanship. Pp. x + 231. N. Y.,
Dodd, Mead & Co.

Ford, Henry Jones. The Cleveland era; a chronicle of the new order in poli-
tics. Pp. 9 + 232. New Haven, Yale Univ. Chronicles of America Series.
60 Vols.

Hartmann, Hans Erich. Demokratie oder Diktatur? Pp. iv + 80. Zittau,
Idyll-Veriag.

Heidegger, Maria. Eine Schweiserin gegen das Frauenstimmrecht. ZOrioh,
Orell Fttssli.

Hihbard, Benjamin H. E£Fect8 of the great war upon agriculture in the
United States and Great Britain, Prelim. Econ. Studies of the War, Div. of
Econ. and Hist., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Pp. ix + 225.
N. Y., Oxford Univ. Press.

Horst, Heinrich. Ueber Staatsformen. Wartburg-Verlag, Fr. Luther, Berlin-
Sch5neberg.

Jacobi, Erwin. Einheitsstaat oder Bundesstaat. Pp. 39. Leipsig, F.
Meiner.

Jenson, Paul. Die alte und die neue Gesinnung in der Politik. Berlin,
Verlag von Hans Robert Engelmann.

Kester, Paul. Conservative democracy. N. Y., Bobbs-Merrill Co.

Kjellin, Rudolf. Der Staat als Lebensform. Pp. 235. Leipsig. S. Hirxel.
1917.

The Labour year book 1919. Pp. 463. London, Labour Party.

Latourette, Kenneth Scott. The Christian basis of world democracy. N. Y.,
Association Press.

Lazzeri, Gerolamo. II bolscevismo: com'd nato, ehe casld, resultanze. Pp.
102. Milano, casa ed. Sonzogna (Matarelli).

Lenin, N. y Zinovneff, O. El socialismo y la guerre. Traduoci6n y pr61ogo
de Valentin de Pedro. Pp. 206. Barcelona, Imp. Casanova.

Maclver, R. M. Labor in the changing world. N. Y., E. P. Dutton Co.



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BIBGSNT PUBUCATI0N8 OF POLITICAL INTEREST 205

Mangini, Oiacamo. L'ultima expressione del siBtema rappresentativo : la
rapprenentama proporsionale. Pp. 151. Genoa, tip. fratelli Pagano.

MarineUi, Filippo Tomnuuo. Demoorasia futurista: dinamiamo politico.
Pp. 253. Milano, Facchi (coop. tip. Operai). 1918.

Maury, Lucten. Lea problemes scandinaves, le nationalisme suMoia et la
guerre, 1914-1918. Pp. vii + 409. Paris, Perrin. 1918.

Maiden, Berth. Die Politik der Besiegten. Pp. v + 148. Wien, A. Edlinger.

National Civic Federation GommiBsion on Foreign Inquiry. The labor
situation in Great Britain and France. Pp. 10 + 433. N. Y., Dutton.

Oiiketmith, John, Race and nationality. An inquiry into the origin and
growth of patriotism. Pp. 320. London, Heinemann.

Parvus. Verdenrevolutionen. Breve til Arbejderne cm Socialismen og
Verdensrevolutionen. Pp. 68. KObenhavn, Forlaget Fremad.

Quin, Malcolm, The politics of the proletariat. London, Allen & Unwin.

Robertson, C. Orant. Bismarck. London, Constable. 1918.

Satyamurphy, S. Rights of citisens. Foreword by C. Rajagopalachariar.
Pp. 130. Madras, Ganesh.

Steincke, K. E. Moderat eller radikal. Pp. 88. KObenhavn, Socialdemo-
kratisk Ungdomsforbunds Forlag.

Thayer, WilliaM Bo9coe. Theodore Roosevelt; an intimate biography. Pp.
13 + 474. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.

Toupagnanine, Mxloehe. La representation proportionnelle. Th^ pour le
doctorat pr6sent<fe et soutenue devant la Faculty de droit de rUniversit^ de
Grenoble. Pp. xi + 218. Grenoble, Joseph Baratier.

Vaucher, Roberto. L'infemo bolscevico. Tradusione di G. Darsenne, unica
autoriEsata. Pp. 376. Milano, fratelli Treves.

ArticUa

Authority. Das Wesen der Autorit&t. I. Ludmg Stein. Nord und Slid.
June, 1919.

Bismarck. Bismarck reconsidered. Munroe Smith. Pol. Sci. Quar. Sept.,
1919.

Bolshevism. Die Ideologic des Bolschewismus. Erich Oitbert. Preus-
sische JahrbQcher. Apr., 1919.

Capitalism. Capitadism and Christian democracy. Anthony J. Beck. Cath-
olic World. Dec, 1919.

Chairriniam. Xathetentum imd Futuriamua im Dienste der chauvinistiachen
Agitation. J. P. Bu89. Nord und Slid. June, 1919.

CollectiTe Baxgaining. CoUectieve bedrijfaorganiaatie. D. Van Bloom. De
Economiat. Oct., 1919.

Democncy. Democracy in England. E. Strachan Morgan. Edin. Rev.
Oct., 1919.

. The baaic problem of democracy. I. What modem liberty meana.

Walter Lippmann. Atlan. M. Nov., 1919.

Federal Devolution. Federal devolution. Gerald B. Huret. Contemp. Rev.
Oct., 1919.

Freedom and Equality. Uber Freiheit, Gleichheit, BrQderlichkeit. Syndikus
BicKbaum. Nord tmd Slid. Jime, 1919.



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206 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE BEVIEW

GoTemment. Govenunent. George T. Page. Am. Bar Assoc. Jour. Oct.,
1919.

Idcftlism. Our professors of idealism in America. JuUo B, Barcoe. Inter-
America. Dec, 1919.

Internationalists. Die Maske der Intemationalisten. Herauegeber. Polit-
isch-Anthropologische Monatssohrift. Sept., 1919.

Labor. La orise du charbon et le travail des mines en France et en Angleterre.
J, Loiret. Rev. Pol. et Pari. Oct., 1919.

. Le congrds des trade-unions. Adolphe Delemer. Key. Pol. et Pari.

Oct., 1919.

Laurier. Life and letters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Oecar Douglae SkelUm.
Century. Oct., 1919.

Lawyers and Legislation. The influence of the lawyer upon the trend of modem
legislation. Oeorge J. Danforth. Central Law Jour. Nov. 28, 1919.

Political Crimes. Political crimes defined. Theodore Sehroeder, Mich. Law
Rev. Nov., 1919.

Political Psychology. National politics in its psychological aspect. Franklin
A. Beeeher. Open Court. Nov., 1919.

Political Theory. The representative contributions of sociology to political
theory: the doctrines of William Qraham Sunmer and Lester Frank Ward.
Harry Elmer Barnee. Am. Jour. Sociol. Sept., 1919.

Proletariat The dictatorship of the proletariat. Mario Ouiral Moreno.
Inter-America. Oct., 1919.

Self-Detennination. Nation self-determination. (I) Jules Andraesy. (II)
Frederick Pollock. Rev. Pol. Inter. May-June, 1919.

Socialism. The disloyalty of Socialism. Rome 0. Brown. Am. Law .Rev.
Sept.^ct., 1919.

. Des Sosialismus nach dem Weltkrieg. Wilhelm Janaaon. Die neue

Rimdschau. May, 1919.

. Ein Wort Hber die Endsiele der Sozialisierung und der Revolution.

Wilhelm Meridiee. Nord imd SQd. Jime, 1919.

. Religion und Sosialismus. H. Seipp. Nord und SUd. Jtme, 1919.

. De onmogelijkheid der Socialiseerung. /. A. Levy. Tijdschrift van

den Nederlandschen Werklooscheids-Raad. Aflevering 9, 1919.

State Classification. La classificasione degli stati. Luigi Amoroso. Politica.
June, 1919.

Syndicalism. Le droit syndical et la conciliation sociale. Bdouard Amanieux.
Rev. Mondiale. Sept., 1919.

. Bemerlminger til "Statssyndikalism." C. Black. Tilskueren.

Sept., 1919.

Town and State. The new town and the new state. /. S. Mackeneie. Con-
temp. Rev. Oct., 1919.

Trial by Juiy. Origin and development of trial by jury. Chae. T. Coleman.
Va. Law Rev. Nov., 1919.

Voluntary Tribunals. Volimtary tribunals. A democratic ideal for the
adjudication of private differences which give rise to civil actions. Percy
Werner. Jour. Am. Judicature Soc. Dec, 1919.

Washington to Wilson. Da Washington al Wilsonismo. Leonardo Vitettx.
Politica. Jime, 1919.



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BECENT PUBUCATION8 OF POLITICAL INTEREST 207

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

ROLUN A. SAWYER, JR.
Economics Diviaion, New York Public Library

AMERICAN
UNITED STATES

EduccUion bureau. Proceedings. Amerioanization conference held May 12
13,14,16,1919. Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 410 p.

Foreign reUUiona committee (JSenatej 66: 1), Data on German peace treaty.
. . . Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 43 p. (S. doc. no. 86.)

, Investigation relative to the treaty of peace, with Ger-
many. Hearing pursuant to S. Res. 64. . . . Washington: Gov. Prtg.
Off., 1919. 2 parts.

. Treaty of peace with Germany. Report. Sept. 10,

1919. n. t. p. 3 parts. (S. report no. 176.)

Interetate commerce committee {Senate, 66: i). Prevention of strikes. Hear-
ing on S. 2906. . . . Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 146 p.

Judiciary committee {SeruUe, 66: 1), Brewing and liquor interests and Ger-
man and bolshevik propaganda. Report of subcommittee pursuant to S. Res.
307 and 406. .. . Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 48 p. (S. doc.
no. 61.)

. Constitutionality of the treaty between the United

States and France. Report pursuant to S. Res. 154. Sept. 22, 1919. n. t. p.
32 p. (S. report no. 216.)

Judiciary committee (Hou^e, 66: 1), Enforcement of prohibition. June 3, 4,
5, 6, and 7, 1919. Serial 1. Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 2 parts.

President. Addresses delivered by President Wilson on his western tour,
September 4 to September 25, 1919. . . . Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off.,
1919. 370 p. (66th Congress, 1st session, S. doc. no. 120.)

. Military occupation of the territories of the Rhine. Message trans-
mitting an agreement between the United States, Belgium, the British Empire,
and France, of the one part, and Germany, of the other part, which was signed

at Versailles, June 28, 1919 Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 17 p.

(66th Congress, 1st session, S. doc. no. 81.)

. Treaty with Poland. Message transmitting an agreement between

the United States, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan on the one
hand, and Poland on the other hand, which was signed at Versailles, June 28,
1919. 25 p. (66th Congress, 1st session, S. doc. no. 82.)

State Department. Memorandum on certain aspects of the bolshevist move-
ment in Russia. October 27, 1919. Washington: Gov. Prtg. Off., 1919. 55 p.

War department. A report of the activities of the war department in the field
of industrial relations during the war. September 15, 1919. Washington: Gov.
Prtg. Off., 1919. 90 p.



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208 THB AMBRIGAN POLITICAL SCIENCB REVIEW

GEORGIA

Budget and irwestigctting cammxBnon. Report and governor's transmittal.
July 8, 1919. Atlanta: Byrd Prtg. Co., 1919. 172 p. {

Tax commi$9ian. Report of special tax commission. Atlanta: Byrd Prtg.
Co., 1919. 88 p. L

Attorney Oeneral* 8 Office, Code. Georgia laws on office of ordinary . Atlanta, f
1919. 106 pp.

ILLINOIS

Legislalive reference bwreau. Constitutional convention bulletins. Spring- .
field.

No. 1. The Prooeduie «nd Ptobkma of the CoDttitutional Convention. 1.

No. 2. The Initiative, Referendum end Recall.

No. 3. The Amending Clauae. /

No. 4. State and Looal Finance. f

No. 5. The Short Ballot.

No. 0. Municipal Home Rule.

Department of Finance, First state budget for the biennium beginning July j
1, 1919. Submitted to the 51st General Assembly. Frank O. Lowden, Gov«|
ernor. Springfield, 1919. 187 pp.

MASSACHUSETTS

Minimum Wage Commission, Wage boards and their work. A handbook <
information for wage board members. Boston, 1919. 11 pp.

NEW MEXICO

Secretary of State. The New Mexico Blue Book or state official registe]
nineteen himdred and nineteen. Sante Fe, 1919. 320 pp.

NEW YORK

Reconstruction Commission, Report on retrenchment and reorganisation i]
the state goyernment, October 10, 1919. Albany, 1919. xii -f 419 pp., diagrs.

OHIO

Council of National Defense, A history of the activities of the Ohio brand
council of national defense (1917-1919). Columbus, 1919. 206 pp.

RHODE ISLAND

Secretary of State. Manual with rules and orders for the use of the Qeneij
Assembly of the state of Rhode Island, 1919. Greenfield, Mass., 19^
xxzix + 419 pp.

VIRGINIA

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Lynching, a national mens^
The white South's protest against lynching. Hampton, 1919. 17 pp.



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The American
Political Science Review

Vol. XIV MAY, 1920 No. 2



THE FUTURE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION AS SEEN
BY RUSSIAN LIBERALS

BARON S. A. KORFF, LL.D.^

In the historical development of individual nations revolu-
tions come and go as tremendous earthquakes, upsetting the
standing order and creating new constellations and configura-
tions. After an earthquake on former plains new mountain
ranges arise and, vice versa, enormous peaks suddenly disappear;
quite so in the case of a revolution, which overturns century old
institutions and organizations. At the time when the upheaval
occiu*s, it often seems that the whole social structure is destroyed
forever and that something entirely new is being created. And
yet, everyone who has studied history knows very well that even
in revolutions we have a constant evolution, that much of the
old order remains and that the new institutions have many
attachments in the past, no matter how completely new they
may seem at the moment of their political birth.

Take the French Revolution of 1789 as a most vivid example.
It might have seemed to contemporaries that the whole former
French state and government, the social as well as the economic
structure, had disappeared and were utterly destroyed. We
know now, however, that much of the ancient French institu-

* Professor of constitutional law at the universities of Helsingfors, Finland,
and of Petrograd.

209



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210 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

tions remained and were the basis for further evolutionary
developments.

There was a time when historians were very apt to magnify
the glory of revolutions, prompted naturally by political motives;
this was the case mostly with socialists and radicals, though the
opposite method of vilUfying social upheavals is, perhaps, politi-
cally much worse. It entirely depends on the moral judgment,
the individual investigation, what light is thrown on past events.
However, human progress and the social development of nations
follow a continuous evolution, regardless of the moral estimate
of contemporaries.

One must remember that the judgment of many historians
was warped by their political ideals; their statements, in con-
sequence, were only too often biased. It is axiomatic, for
instance, that an insurrection which fails is regarded as a dis-
graceful riot of criminals and rascals, and that one which is
successful is called a revolution or war of independence by cham-
pions of liberty. In other words, nothing succeeds Uke success.
No wonder Napoleon always chose exclusively successful men
for the execution of his plans.

One must further keep in mind that any revolution means
mostly destruction; and that only after the revolution is over
does the constructive work, the building up of the new social
or political order, begin. Menou said long ago: '^En revolution
il ne faut jamais se mettre du cote des honnites gens — ils sont tou-
jour s halayis.^^ And Chateaubriand, a representative of the
conservatives, who suffered most, added: "Les honnStes gens
ont toujour s peur — c^est leur nature.^' It is perfectly true that
the majority of honest people are always terribly frightened by
revolutionary events. This is one of the many reasons why
so little creative work can be done while the revolutionary
upheaval is still in progress; fear is always coercive, repressive,
conservative and constrictive, and never can achieve or create
anything. But it is not at all true that the majority of the nation,
the honest people, come back to work, after a revolution has
taken place, without having learned anything. The fact that
some of them have not forgotten the past is never dangerous.



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THE FUTURE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION 211

as many of the new institutions created by revolutionary events
generally find themselves finnly established after the revolution
is over. Thus, one can be quite [email protected], that, no matter what
government or system will evolve in Russia from the present
state of anarchy and Bolshevik destruction, many of the new
ideas have come to stay. I have no fear whatever for the so-
called "winnings of the Revolution;" on the other hand, the
former old regime of Russia is dead forever and cannot be resur-
rected.

The future fathers of the new Russian constitution will have
a very difficult task ahead of them, much more complicated
than the work of the American statesmen of the eighteenth
century, for the conditions of modem Russia are much more
involved and perplexing. One thing, however, seems absolutely
sure: We all accept democracy as axiomatic; the present
development of Russia gives us good reasons to think that there
will be a firmly established democratic government. Russia's
social body is very homogeneous; this is the best possible guar-
anty in this respect. Then, too, her economic development
and the absence of plutocracy are sufficient safeguards for future
democratic institutions; most political parties, also, stand for
democratic ideals. The fathers of the Russian constitution will
have to keep in mind that power, as such, is not good, nor bad,
and that it is only the way it is used that makes it good or bad;
and the way it is. used depends entirely on the organization of
the state and its organs and the guaranties the citizen will have
for his personal life and freedom. We have many examples of
how the use of power, when the necessary guaranties are lacking,
poisons those who make use of it. The lessons of history, in
this respect, will be very useful.

Though much of the preparatory work has already been



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