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not prove impracticable when tried for the first time on the national
scale, nor did it tax too severely the intellectual energies of the voters
or the officials."

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Errors and delays were few, and in the city of Dublin especially,
where there were 150 candidates for 80 seats, the town clerk and his
staff did their work with noteworthy expeditionsness and accuracy.
Although no special steps were taken to instruct the voters, and not-
withstanding the heavy proportion of newly enfranchised women in the
electorate, few difficidties or uncertamties arose at the polls. Sinn
Fein came off with the largest nimiber of victories. Yet its triumph
was not so great as had been expected, and the new form of election
brought to light in an interesting and useful way the intermixture
of political faiths in all portions of the island. Minorities obtained
representation, including Unionists in the south, Sinn Feiners in
Ulster, and also Nationalist, Labor and Municipal Reform candidates.^

1 See The Speciatarf January 24 and February 7, 1920.

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Personal and M iscbllaneotts

edited bt frbdebic a. ooo

University of Wisconsin

By vote of the executive council, the next annual meeting of the
American Political Science Association will be held at Washington
during the last week of December. The president of the association
has appointed a conmiittee on program as follows: A. N. Holcombe,
of Harvard University, chairman; S. E. Hombeck, of the United States
Tariff Commission; and J. S. Young, of the University of Minnesota.

A standing committee on instruction in political science was auth-
orized by the executive coimcil in December, 1916. Wartime con-
ditions caused the project to be held in abeyance; but, acting under
authority conferred by the executive council in November, 1919, the
president of the association has now appointed the committee, as fol-
lows: for the term 1920-21, C. A. Beard, of the New York Bureau of
Municipal Research, and Isidor Loeb, of the Umversity of Missouri;
for the term 1920-22, W. B. Munro, of Harvard University, chair-
man, and J. L. Barnard, of the Philadelphia School of Pedagogy; for
the term 1920-23, Edgar Dawson, of Hunter College, and S. P. Orth,
of Cornell University.

A joint executive committee is being organized by the Sulgrave
Institution and associated societies for the purpose of arranging a
program for the celebration during the coming year of the three hun-
dredth anniversary of the beginnings of free institutions in America.
President Reinsch has named John G. Agar, of New York City, and
George B. McClellan, of Hoboken, to represent the American Political
Science Association on this committee.

Acting under authority conferred by the American Political Science
Association at Cleveland last December, the executive council has
voted to ratify, in the name of the association, the constitution of the
American Council of Learned Societies devoted to Humanistic Studies.
The president of the association has named Professor Henry Jones
Ford and Professor J. P. Chamberlain as the society's first representa-


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lives in the American Council. An account of the council's first meet-
ing and of the organization's purposes and plans will appear in the
August issue of this Review.

Professor W. W. Willoughby, of the Johns Hopkins University, will
soon publish through the Johns Hopkins Press a volume entitled
Foreign Rights and Interests in China. Professor Willoughby expects
to sail early in June for the Far East, and will spend most of the sum-
mer in the Philippines and Dutch East Indies. He will return to the
United States in the fall to resume his academic work at the Johns
Hopkins University.

Dr. Paul S. Reinsch, former American minister to China, and presi-
dent of the American Political Science Association, delivered a course
of lectures on the Schouler Foundation at the Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity in April on the development of nationalism and representative
government in China.

Professor Willard Barbour, of the Yale Law School, one of the few
men in the English-speaking world whose work gave evidence of mature
and creative scholarsdiip in the field of legal history, died in New Haven,
Connecticut, on March 2, 1920. His best known publication is The
History of Contract in Early English Equity. He had, in February,
begun his lectures on legal history at Columbia University on the
Carpentier Foundation. In his death, legal scholarship has suffered
a heavy loss.

Dorsey W. Hyde, Jr., has resigned as librarian of the New York
Municipal Reference Library to accept a position as chief of a motor
truck research bureau at Detroit, Mich., for the collection and classifi-
cation of data pertaining to transportation problems and their solution.
Mr. Hyde will be succeeded at the Municipal Reference Library by
Miss Rebecca B. Rankin who has served as assistant librarian during
the past year. Miss Rankin is a graduate of the University of Mich-
igan and of Simmons College, and has served as librarian of the
Washington State Normal School and as assistant to the director of
the New York Public Library.

Professor James Q. Dealey, of Brown University, has recently pub-
lished a series of twenty articles in the Providence Journal making con-

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structive suggestions for improvement in state government. He is
also lecturing on American political policy at the Naval War College
at Newport, R. I.

Professor Harold S. Bucklin, of Brown University, is chairman of a
committee on Americanization recently appointed by the governor
of Rhode Island.

Mr. L. D. White, of Dartmouth College, has been appointed assist-
ant professor of political science at the University of Chicago.

Dr. Graham H. Stuart has been appointed instructor in political
science at the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Stuart studied at the
ficole Libre in Paris and recently completed his work for the doctor's
degree at Wisconsin.

Mr. Allen F. Saunders, assistant in political science at the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin in 1919-20, has been appointed to an instructorship
at the University of Pennsylvania.

Dr. A. N. Holcombe has been advanced to a full professorship of
government at Harvard University.

Professor C. D. Allin, of the University of Minnesota, is spending
the spring and summer months in England. During this period a
portion of his work at Minnesota is in charge of Professor Harold S.
Quigley, of Hamline University. Dr. Quigley has been appointed to
an assistant professorship at Minnesota, from next September.

Dr. H. W. Dodds, of Western Reserve University, and formerly of
the University of Pennsylvania, has been appointed secretary of the
National Municipal League. The other officers of the league are:
president, Charles E. Hughes; treasurer, Frank A. Vanderlip; assistant
secretary, Russell Ramsay. Mr. Clinton R. Woodruff, who recently
resigned the secretaryship after a long period of service, has been made
honorary secretary.

Dr. E. C. Maxey has been appointed acting head of the department,
of political science at Western Reserve University.

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Mr. Stephen J. Patten, secretary of the Yonkers Bureau of Munic-
ipal Research, died suddenly on February 20. Mr. Patten was an
alumnus of Brown University and was for one year a graduate student
at the University of Wisconsin. At the time of his death he had com-
pleted the residence requirements for the doctorate in political science
at Columbia University and had almost finished a valuable disserta-
tion on nonpartisan elections in American municipalities. It is hoped
that the thesis may be posthumously published.

Miss Edith Rockwood, formerly of the Minneapolis Bureau of
Municipal Research, is now civic director of the Woman's City Club
of Chicago.

Col. James Riley Weaver, emeritus professor of political science at
DePauw University, died at his home in Greencastle, Indiana, on
January 28.

Dr. Stanley K. Hombeck, formerly of the University of Wisoonsiny
is working with the United States Tariff Conmiission at Washington.

Mr. Harry W. Marsh was recently elected to the secretaryship of
the National Civil Service Reform League, succeeding George T. Meyes,
who has entered private business. Mr. Sedley H. Phinney succeeds
Mr. Marsh in the assistant secretaryship. H^ was formerly with the
Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research, the New York State
Reconstruction Commission, and the New York Bureau of Municipal

The thirty-ninth annual meeting of the National Civil Service
Reform League was held February 26 at Springfield, Mass. Among
the topics discussed were employees' councils in the federal service,
centralization in the United States Civil Service Commission of employ-
ment authority over the federal service, the reorganization of the
diplomatic and consular service of the United States, and opposition to
the demand for veteran preference in the civil service.

A special committee appointed last June by the Canadian senate
has submitted its Report on the Machinery of Government (Ottawa,
1919, pp. 39). The report urges the establishment of some agency
which can ''collect, collate, and keep available for inquirers informa-

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tion now dispersed and only to be found by prolonged search." That
portion of the report of the British machinery of government com-
mittee which places ''research and information" among the ten main
functions of government recommended for adoption in the United
Kingdom is prmted as an appendix.

It is reported from Columbus that the Ohio legislative committee on
reorganization of the state government will recommend, among other
thingSi the consolidation of the forty-nine boards, bureaus, commis-
sions and departments of state government into seventeen, and the
extension of the term of the governor from two years to four.

Mrs. Thomas J, Preston, Jr., formerly Mrs. Grover Cleveland, has
entrusted to Professor Robert M. McElroy, of Princeton University,
the preparation of an authorized life and letters of President Cleve-
land. All of Mr. Cleveland's papers, personal as well as public,
including the collection in the Library of Congress, the letters to Com-
modore Benedict, Mrs. Preston's own collection, and a large assort-
ment of letters from personal friends and political associates, have
been placed in Professor McElroy's hands. He wishes it annoimced,
however, that he will especially welcome copies of letters that can be
supplied by persons who had correspondence with Mr. Cleveland.
It appears that the former president wrote most of his letters in long-
hand and kept no copies^ The biography will be published by Harper
and Brothers, and portions of it will first appear serially in Harper's

Among subjects which the New York Bureau of Municipal Research
has under investigation are: piurchasing methods and systems of states;
local government consolidation of metropolitan areas; New York City
charter revision; school budgets in American cities; tax limits of cities;
public health administration; history of the Massachusetts budget;
budget making and financial administration of states; accounting,
reporting, and auditing; and financing of governmental needs and

The Ohio Institute for Government Efl5ciency has published a
pamphlet outlining a budget system for the state.

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A Southwestern Political Science Association has been established,
with headquarters at the University of Texas, with a view to "cultivat-
ing and promoting political science, and its application to the solution
of governmental and social problems, with particular reference to the
Southwestern states.'' Temporary officers chosen at a preliminary
meeting are Professor H. G. James, president, and Professor C. P.
Patterson, secretary-treasurer. Provision is made for an editor of
publications, and it is planned to issue by early summer the first num-
ber of a SoiUhwestem Political Science Quarterly. A general meeting,
with Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard University, as prin-
cipal speaker, was held at the University of Texas in April. By the
terms of the constitution, all annual meetings are to be held at Austin.
Public response to the announcement of the project has been gratify-
ing. Annual dues for active members are one dollar a year; for sus-
taining members, five dollars; for contributing members, ten dollars;
for life members, one hundred dollars.

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Harvard University

History of Labour in the United States, By John R. Commons,
David J. Saposs, Helen L. Sumner, Edward B. Mittelman,
Henry E. Hoagland, John B, Andrews, Selig Perlman.
(New York: The Macmillan Company. Two volumes. Pp.
623, 587.)

The labor problem in the United States is one upon which it has been
much easier to feel strongly than to think clearly. It is a problem
upon which the partisan and the propagandist has had much to say,
the scholar relatively little. The citizen or the student who has de-
sired to approach it scientifically and dispassionately has found it no
easy task to secure the facts upon which to base an intelligent judgment.
Detailed studies upon special topics have not been lacking and will,
it is to be hoped, continue to appear, but comprehensive and accm*ate
data regarding the labor movement as a whole has been conspicuously
absent. By supplying this great need Professor Commons and his
associates have placed under a heavy obligation to themselves not
only every thoughtful student of the social sciences but every other
thoughtful person who wishes to have facts to serve as a backgroimd
upon which to form opinions on the critical issues arising out of the
present day relations of labor to capital.

The opening sentence of the first chapter accurately explains the pur-
pose and scope of the work. It is there stated that these voliunes
''deal mainly with the history of labour conditions, of labour philos-
ophies and of laboiur movements вАФ not primarily with the structure
or poUcies of labour imions, nor with the history of individual unions,
nor with the legislative results of movements, nor with current prob-
lems. Their field is rather the background which explains structure,
poUcies, results and problems." In accordance with this plan the
authors have not dealt with such topics as child labor, the protection
of women in industry, factory laws, the constitutionality of labor


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legislation, nor any of the other questions relating to the formulation
of governmental poUcies in respect to labor; they have dealt with the
emergence of labor as a class conscious group in this country and with
the efforts of that group to make itself coherent and effective for the
purpose of promoting its own class interests.

These volumes are the product of cooperative scholarship. Six
scholars, working together, have covered the entire field of the study,
each assuming primary responsibility for a particular part thereof, but
each working in cooperation with his associates as well as under the
supervising direction of Professor Commons who writes the intro-
ductory chapter. This method made possible a comprehensive, uni-
fied, and painstaking study in a field of research so broad in scope as
to have been in all probability beyond the capacity of a single scholar.

Professor Commons' introduction of seventeen pages gives the
reader in broad lines a penetrating survey of the conditions which have
influenced the labor movement, the fluctuating philosophies which
have dominated it, and the features which have chi^^tcterissed it in the
chief stages of its development. It affords the perspective and back-
ground from which to approach the closely detailed historical studies
which follow.

The first section of the book, written by Mr. Saposs, is entitled
''Colonial and Federal Beginnings." It occupies 140 pages and carries
the history of labor to the year 1827. It is only in the latt^ part of
this period, however, that labor begins to emerge as a distinct group
in industrial society and to exhibit a semblance of class consciousness.
With the development of the merchant capitalist competing vigorously
in markets which had become national came heavy pressure upon the
wage earner, in the form of wage reductions and the introduction of
sweatshop methods of production. Here was the origin of the modem
struggle between labor and capital and here also was the beginning of
the efforts of the American workingman to organize for the protection
of his economic interests. These early trade unions sought to main-
tain the standard of life of the wage earner by securing for him a mini-
mum wage, reasonable hours, and adequate apprenticeship rules.
Their methods were the strike, aided by the payment of strike benefits,
coupled with insistence upon the principle of the closed shop. It was
in this early period also that there occurs the first demonstration of
the blighting effects of economic depression upon the life and efforts of
labor organizations.

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Miss Sumner deals with the period from 1827-^3 under the caption,
** Citizenship." This contains 163 pages, devoted to the history of
the first plunge of the American workingman into politics. If the
development of class consciousness during the late twenties made the
wage earner aware of the legal and economic disadvantages under which
he labored, the newly acquired franchise placed in his hands a means
of reform. Workingmen's parties sprang up in most of the more
populous centers, and those in Philadelphia and New York seemed for
the moment to threaten the integrity of the older political parties.
The demands of the wage earner were much the same everywhere.
He demanded a ten hour day, so that he might have adequate leisure
to enable him to assume intelligently the responsibilities of citizenship.
He demanded free and adequate schools for his children, so that they
might not fall prey to the political demagogue. He demanded me-
chanics' lien legislation, the reform of the compulsory militia service
S3rstem, the abolition of imprisonment for debt, the simplification and
publication of the laws, and the abatement of the evils of wild-cat
banking. Some of these demands he succeeded in securing while the
agitation for certain others did not bear fruit till later. The work-
ingmen's parties themselves, however, did not survive, and the student
of politics will examine with interest the causes of their failure. The
change from industrial depression to prosperity turned the eyes of the
wage earner once more to the allurements of collective bargaining.
The parties were rent by dissensions, due partly to the conflicting aims
and ideals of their own members and partly to the malicious encourage-
ment of the professional politician from the outside. They suffered
from their inexperience and lack of discretion in the selection of candi-
dates, and finally they found the strength of their appeal to the voter
diminished by the fact that the older parties proceeded to appropriate
and support some of the more important and popular planks in their

The third epoch in the history of the labor movement extends from
1833-39 and is covered by Mr. Mittelman. This section is called
''Trade Unionism" and comprises 135 pages. This period marks the
transition from the old trade societies which had stressed mainly
various benefit features to trade unions organized and equipped to
engage actively in collective bargaining. They began as local or
shop unions, but soon expanded into city central unions. They kept
rigidly out of politics and confined their demands in the main to wages
and hours. They undertook to prevent hasty and ill-advised strikes.

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but supported financially the strikes which were sanctioned. The
trade* union movement during this period culminated in the formation
of national trades unions the functions of which never passed beyond
the stage of propaganda and advice. At least five national unions
t prang up in individual trades, but this encouraging progress came
abruptly and disastrously to an end with the economic and financial
catastrophe of 1837.

Mr. Hoagland treats the period from 1840-60 under the title
^'Humanitarianism/' and devotes 136 pages to the task. The panic
of 1837 and the years of depression which followed destroyed the labor
organizations and rendered hopeless any attempts in the direction of
collective bargaining. It was easy, therefore, to lure the wage earner
into schemes of speculative reform and to arouse his interest in various
panaceas. The early part of this period is accordingly marked by
experiments in association and cooperation. Plans of land reform were
projected by agrarian reformers, and the movement for a shorter work
day was pushed as a means of '^ making work." These humanitarian
projects never succeeded in enlisting the whole-hearted support of
labor, and the ventures in cooperation failed because of lack of capital
and business ability as well as hostile competition from the outside.
In the early fifties the skilled trades began to organize and to make
attempts at collective bargaining. But the unions thus formed shortly
suffered disintegration as a result of the severe economic depression.
This disintegration, however, was not so complete as formerly and
the nucleus for future resuscitation and development remained.

The period of ''Nationalization" extended from 1860-77. Mr.
Andrews is the author of this section, which is 188 pages in length.
With the return of business prosperity during the Civil War trade
unions began to revive. The nationalization of markets through
effective means of transportation made necessary national trade unions,
which brought in their wake the national organizations of employers,
violent and disastrous strikes and a strengthening of the laws against
conspiracy and intimidation. The trade unionism of the period was,
however, weak. It aimed merely at the loose federation of autonomous
unions; it lacked a national benefit system; the low dues required from
members prevented the accumulation of strike fimds; and finally the
leaders who were capable of guiding it wisely were unable to resist the
temptation to go into politics. During this period also occurs the
first national labor party in the form of the National Labor Union.
Working for two primary ends, the eight hour day and greenbackism.

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it followed the policy of pledging the candidates of the older parties
to these principles rather than putting its own candidates in the field.
With the abatement of pubUc interest in the greenback issue trade
union action came once more to supplant political action in the minds
of labor leaders and the National Labor Union disintegrated.

By far the longest section of the book is that covering the period since
1876, to which Mr. Perlman has given the title '* Upheaval and Reorgan-
ization." To this study 342 pages are devoted. Here is to be found
an accurate analysis of the beginnings of American socialism and the
influence of that movement upon the principles and progress of Ameri-
can labor. Here also is traced the development of the rivahy which
at last became so bitter between the Knights of Labor, seeking both
through strikes and through political activity to further the interests
of the unorganized and unskilled worker, and the American Federation
of Labor, a cohesive organization of the skilled trades, relying almost
exclusively upon collective bargaining and concerning itself with poli-
tics only when necessary to protect itself from legislative infringement
of its freedom of economic action.

The success of the American Federation and the disintegration of
the Knights aflford the key to the present alignment of groups in the
laboring class. The unskilled workman remains largely unorganized
and is inclined to turn a sympathetic ear to the argmnents and pro-
grams of the socialist, the syndicalist, the anarchist and the Industrial
Workers of the World. The federated trade unions comprising in the
main the skilled workers have achieved a distinct consciousness of

Online LibraryWestel Woodbury WilloughbyThe American political science review → online text (page 33 of 77)