Westel Woodbury Willoughby.

The American political science review online

. (page 36 of 77)
Online LibraryWestel Woodbury WilloughbyThe American political science review → online text (page 36 of 77)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


concern the adhesion of Rumania to the Triple Alliance, and two the
Austro-Serbian Alliance; five are Mediterranean agreements, two of
which are between Great Britain, Italy, and Austria-Hungary, and two
between Spain, Italy, and AustriarHungary, while the fifth is a naval
agreement between the powers of the Triple Alliance of as late a date
as 1913; there is an Austro-Russian Balkan agreement and a declara-
tion of mutual neutrality by these two nations (1904); and lastly the
Russo-German ''Reinsurance Treaty" is presented, the only instru-
ment that does not directly involve Austria-Hungary. If any secret
treaties were made by Austria with Bulgaria and Turkey, they do not
appear.

Professor Pribram's introduction sets forth the salient facts in the
development of the treaties of the Triple Alliance. He endeavors to
establish that Italy had the best of the bargain in this arrangement,
and Austria the worst, but he is on the whole remarkably impartial.
He indicates the divergencies between what has been guessed in regard
to the treaties, and their actual provisions.

The dociunents illuminate many events of the time. For example,
it becomes clear why Italy and Austria stood firmly together for an
autonomous Albania in 1912-13 (p. 197), and why Austria and Russia
accepted the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913, with its equilibrium between
Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece (pp. 189, 195). Among the surprising
revelations are the provisions, renewed even in 1912, by which the
Central Powers might i!n certain circumstances assist Italy to take
French territory in North Africa and even in Europe (p. 251), and by
which England was regarded as in full agreement with Austria-Hun-
gary and Italy on a policy for the Near East (p. 255).

In fact, the measure of European unity and the degree of steadiness
and faithful adherence to agreed policies that are displayed in the
entire scheme go w^ beyond ordinary cynical affirmations. The



Digitized by



Google



356 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

powers of the Triple Alliance, with support to a limited extent from
Russia, England, Spain, Serbia, and Rumania, were in agreement
toward the maintenance of the status quo in domestic and international
affairs. As far as appears in the documents, only Italy and Serbia
contemplated expansion, the former in TripbU, Tunisia, and France,
the latter southward, perhaps ''in the direction of the Vardar as far as
circumstances will permit" (p. 137). The system was inmiensely
strong as long as it was conservative, but it could not sustain the results
of the expansion of Italy and Serbia, when added to the ambitions of
Germany on the sea and in Turkey. Britain and Russia drew away
(joining with France in a rival S3rstem, the Triple Entente); and in the
end Serbia, Italy, and Rumania followed. Then in a sense the out-
ward pull of the four peoples last mentioned destroyed the Austro-
Hungarian Empire.

The editing and translating are excellent. All German and French
documents are given both in the original and in English translation.

Albert Howe Ltbter.

University of Illinois.

The Russian Pendulum. Autocracy, Democracy, Bolshevism.
By Arthur Bullard. (New York: The Macmillan Com-
pany. 1919. Pp. xiv, 256.)

This little volume is divided into three books: European Russia,
Siberia, and What's to be Done. Book I gives the backgroimd and
reviews the social, political, and economic conditions of European
Russia from the March revolution until the time of writing, about
July, 1919. Book II deals with the Siberian railway situation and the
attempt by Kolchak and his predecessors to organise a stable govern-
ment. Book III discusses whether the policy of the Allies should be
one of "Hands Offl" or of "Stand By."

Few American joiunalists are as well qualified to write on Russia as
the author. He has lived in that country and was interested in its
institutions long before the revolution of 1917. He knew many of
the Socialist leaders when they lived in exile. He heard them plot the
overthrow of governments and he listened to their schemes of social
reform. Notwithstanding that, or perhaps because of that, he has
faUed to be impressed by their idealistic phrases and has demanded
from them that their words square with their deeds. This explains
why, after watching them in Russia for two years (1917-19), he finds



Digitized by



Google



BOOK JRPVIEWS 357

so little to admire and so much to condemn in ''The Bolsheviki at
Work."

The part which treats of Siberia is instructive and throws light into
many dark comers. The author admits that Kolchak is a better man
than he thought him to be when he came into power; that he ''is a
very astute politician;" that he was trying to do the very best that he
could; and that he was more than willing to cooperate with the Allies if
they would only agree on a poUcy. But the problems are so complex,
the points of view and interests of the Allies so different, that agree-
ments among themselves are as difficult to reach as among the various
factions in Russia.

As between the policy of "Hands Off!" and "Stand By" in Russia,
Mr. Bullard argues for the latter. The book was written when the
Peace Conference was still in session and at that time he favored rec-
ognizing one of the Uberal factions and helping it organize a democratic
government for Russia. In conclusion the author makes an earnest
plea for patience with the Russians and cooperation with them, partic*
ularly along educational lines.

Though the material is not well organized and the observations not
very profoimd, yet The RiLsaian PendtUum is one of the very few good
books in English on present day Russia.

F. A. GOLDER.

Washington State College.

Public Debts in China. By Feng-Hua Huang. (Columbia
University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law.
Volume Ixxxv, No. 2. New York. 1919. Pp. 105.)

Dr. Huang classifies the loans as domestic, indemnity and war,
railway, general, and provincial (domestic and foreign), and devotes
separate chapters to each class. In the main, the work is one of com-
pilation and summarization of the terms of the loan contracts. There
is, however, a concluding chapter in which Dr. Huang states certain
conclusions and makes some suggestions. The evils arising from the
fact that so many of the loans have been complicated with interna-
tional politics; that old loans are not paid from current revenues, but
taken care of by new loans; that money has been borrowed for meeting
ordinary operating expenses of government; that foreign loans have
been made by administrative subdivisions, and without authority
from the central government; that the terms of the loans have often



Digitized by



Google



358 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

been too long and too rigid, and have carried with them options for
additional loans that are necessarily disadvantageous to China; that
railway loans have in so many cases provided for foreign operating
control of the lines concerned; all of these evils, of which every student
of Chinese affairs is aware, are pointed out.

As regards constructive criticism, Dr. Huang recommends that every
possible opportunity be seized by the Chinese government to consolidate
its public loans, to simplify and moderate thdr terms, and to take steps
looking towards their payment from taxes or other ordinary sources of rev-
enue. In his concluding paragraph the fact is recognized, that these re-
sults cannot be reached until parliamentary control over public finance is
more complete, and a more honest and efficient body of public servants
is secured. The monograph closes with thes entence: "Perhaps for the
time being it may be necessary to supplement the civil service system
with a voluntary and non-political emplo3mient of foreign technical
experts for assistance, as China can reform and reorganize the whole
country more expeditiously by relying on expert guidance." The
reviewer would make this statement still stronger. There must, in
his opinion, be not only guidance but a certain amount of overhead
control. The foreign experts must be authorized not only to advise,
but, in many matters, to dictate.



W. W. WiLLOUQHBT.



Johns Hopkins University.



The Conflict of Laws Relating to Bills and Notes. By Ernest
G. LoRENZEN. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1919.
Pp. 337.)

In these days when so much commercial intercourse hurdles state
and national boundaries, it is little less than a disgrace that the rights
flowing from commercial paper should be so often dependent upon the
choice of a forum by the unsatisfied creditor. Yet the jurisdictions of
the world vary not only in their law of bills and notes but in their law
of conflict of laws applicable to bills and notes. This sad state of
affairs has prompted Professor Lorenzen to make an exhaustive study
of the divergencies that exist, to outline the practical and theoretical
considerations for and against each particular rule, and to suggest
which should be adopted in a uniform code so that the evils of the
present chaos may be abolished.



Digitized by



Google



BOOK REVIEWS 359

The matters dealt with are highly technical, and the work offers a
diet that can be digested only by specialists. It affords a valuable
model for similar studies in many other fields and serves to remind us
that many important problems of government remain for consideration
after the last college course in political science has been completed.
Professor Lorenzen shows some signs of enjoying more faith in the
possibility of attaining uniformity of law than the present state of the
world justifies. People do not lightly give up the rules with which they
are familiar, even when convinced that both theoretical and practical
considerations are against them. But such studies as this are neces-
sary first steps in any effort to improve the edtuation.

Thomas Reed Powell.

Columbia University.

MINOR NOTICES

Lvdendorffs Own Story (N. Y. and London. Harper & Bros., 2.
vols., 477, 473 pp.), like other personal narratives of the world war
already published, is of interest, not only for the record of military
events by one of the most prominent military leaders, but also for the
light it throws on the mental attitude and processes of the author.
Students of government and political science will find in it information
on the administration of occupied territory in the East, difficulties
due to the absence of a imified command in the Eastern theater,
conflicts between the military and political authorities in the German
government, and the increasing activity of the army general head-
quarters in political and diplomatic affairs. After an introductory
chapter on "My Thoughts and Actions," and one on "Lifege," the main
body of the work falls into two large divisions, dealing with the author's
service as chief of the general staff on the Eastern front (from August
22, 1914, to August 28, 1916), and as first quartermaster-general (from
August 29, 1916, to October 26, 1918).

An interesting account of the way in which the work of the com-
mittee on public information was carried on during the war is con-
tained in Vira B. Whitehouse's A Year as a Government Agent (Harper
& Bros., 316 pp.). The author was in charge of the committee's affairs
in Switzerland and her account of her difficulties and achievements, the
former particularly, is both readable and illuminating. Of especial



Digitized by



Google



360 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

significance is the story of this strenuous woman's encounter with the
American diplomatic representatives at the Swiss capital. It indicates
that the liaison between our state department and Mr. Creel's com-
mittee was not always of the most intimate character. Doubtless
there is another side to the whole narration, but the reader will find in
this book some surprising evidence of the defective team play which
marked our propaganda efforts during the days of the great emergency.

Under the title Man or the State (N. Y., Huebsch, 141 pp.) Waldo
R. Browne has put together a group of essays by several of the leading
individualist and philosophical anarchist writers of the nineteenth
century, namely вАФ Kropotkin, Buckle, Emerson, Thoreau, Spencer,
Tolstoy, and Wilde. The editor's purpose is to make more available
to the present generation typical specimens of a way of thinking about
politics long since grown unfashionable. He might well have included
illustrations of the thought of certain other writers akin to the above,
notably Nietsche, whose message, such as it is, is no less inaccessible
to the modem reader.

Francis Neilson's new book on The Old Freedom (N. Y., Huebsch,
176 pp.) is a plea for "giving community values to the community,"
thus restoring ''natural rights and economic freedom." There are
chapters on such topics as "Democracies of the Past," and "Munici-
palization versus Nationalization." The author writes in an effective
and interesting way although the arrangement of his material would
stand improvement.

As an antidote for Mr. Neilson's title, perhaps, Randolph Bourne's
Untimely Papers (N. Y., Huebsch, 230 pp.) leads off with a chapter
on "The Old Tyrannies." Other essajrs in this book, such as "The
Collapse of American Strategy" set forth the philosophy of the con-
scientious objector.

Mr. James Brown Scott has added to the two volumes on the Judt-
cial Settlement of Controversies between States of the American Unions
which were reviewed in our last issue, an additional volume containing
an analysis of the decisions (Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 548 pp.).
This volume, like the others, is issued under the auspices of the Car-
negie Endowment for International Peace.



Digitized by



Google



BOOK BEVIBWS 361

A number of official and other publications on the reconstruction or
reorganization of state government have been published within recent
months. The Report of the Reconstruction Commission of New York
State, issued in October, 1919, is a comprehensive dociunent of 413
pages, analyzing the present administrative organization of the state,
and presenting a definite plan for a more consolidated S3rstem. Brief
reports have been made by the Michigan state reconstruction com-
mission (26 pp.) and by a special legislative committee in Wiscon-
sin (30 pp.). The North Carolina Club has issued a pamphlet on
State Reconstruction Studies (57 pp.), outlining the plans of the state
reconstruction commission, and for a series of cooperative studies being
undertaken by club committees. The Mississippi Historical Society
has published, as volume 3 of its centennial series, a study of PxMic
Administration in Mississippi (278 pp.), by Professor A. B. Butts of
the state agricultural and mechanical college.

The legislative reference bureau of Illinois, under the superin^
tendence of Dr. W. F. Dodd, has prepared and published for the Illinois
constitutional convention a series of fifteen bulletins, aggregating
about 1200 pages, on the problems to come before the convention,
with a consolidated index. These include studies on the organization
and procedure of the convention, the various articles of the constitu-
tion, and newer social, industrial and political problems. Another
pamphlet gives the texts of the several Illinois constitutions, with the
corresponding sections of each constitution arranged together for pur-
poses of comparison. A larger pamphlet of 300 pages presents the
present constitution, with somewhat detailed annotations under each
section, based on judicial decisions, forming in effect a substantial
volume on the constitutional law of the state.

Teachers' Pension Systems in the United States, by Paul Studensky,
is the latest volume in the pubUcations issued by the Institute of Gov-
ernment Research (Appleton, 460 pp.). Those who are interested in
the problems of state and municipal school administration will find a
great deal of useful ioformation in the various chapters which deal with
the pension S3^stems of today. The author points out that many of
our state and local pension systems are unscientific and that the re-
serves behind them are altogether inadequate. Likewise he presents
an analysis of those pension plans (particularly in New Jersey, Ohio
and Vermont), which have now been placed upon a proper basis. The



Digitized by



Google



362 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

whole study is a notable contribution to the literature of a complicated
but important phase of public administration.

The third volume in a series of books dealing with the history of the
English laboring classes, by J. L. and Barbara Hammond, has been
published by Longmans, Green & Co., imder the title The SkiUed
Laborer, 1760-1882. Previous volumes have dealt with the town
laborer and with the village laborer during the same period. In this
book, as might be expected, attention is particularly devoted to the
factory workman during the era of the industrial revolution. Unfor-
tunately there is not much information concerning the relation of labor
to the development of English politics during the period prior to the
great reform statute, although this aspect of things is not wholly
neglected.

Currency and Credit^ by R. G. Hawtrey (Longmans, Green & Co.,
393 pp.), adds another to the legion of available books which deal with
the ramifications of money. The author's apology, which may be
readily accepted, is that he deals with the subject in the light of the
transcendent changes which have taken plaoB within the last few
years. There are interesting chapters on *'War Finance" and "War
Inflation," two topics which may be logically within the circle of the
economist, but which the student of contemporary politics can hardly
afford to disregard.

A new book by the well-known economist, Professor Irving Fisher of
Yale University, is entitled, Stabilizing the Dollar (Macmillan, 305 pp.).
The initial postulate of the volume is that the purchasing power of the
dollar remains uncertain and variable. The chief aim of the volume
is to demonstrate that permanent stability can be secured by methods
which the author sets forth in detail. The close association between
economic and political problems at the present day warrants for this
book the attention of political scientists.

The Macmillan Company has published for Professor F. W. Taussig
of Harvard a volume on Free Trade, The Tariff and ReciprocUy (219
pp.). The opening chapter deals with the present position of the doc-
trine of free trade, with the conclusion that however widely this doc-
trine may have been rejected in the world of politics, it still holds its
own in the sphere of the intellect. Then follows an interesting essay



Digitized by



Google



BOOK REVIEWS 363

on ''Abraham Lincoln on the Tariff/' with an exposure of a popular
myth concerning Lincohi's tariff views. Other chapters deal with
various economic aspects of the tariff and the book concludes with a
discussion of tariff problems after the war.

F. J. C. Heamshaw's Europe in the Nineteenth Century (MacmiUan,
180 pp.) gives a bird's-eye view of the subject, including a preliminary
chapter on democracy and the French Revolution. The volume is an
abridgment in substance of the author's Main Currents of European
History, published a few years ago, but it has not been extracted from
the latter book by scissors-and-paste-pot methods. Mr. Heamshaw
teUs his story with skill and vitality.

Messrs. Fleming H. Revell Company have brought out recently a
volume by Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis on Rebuilding Europe in the Face
of WorldrWide Bolshevism (256 pp.). The arrangement of the book is
by countries, the contemporary problems of reconstruction in Ger-
many, France, Great Britain, the United States and "the little nations"
being discussed in successive chapters.

Kevork Asian's little book on Armenia and the Armenians (Mac-
millan, 138 pp.) contains a sketch of this unhappy country's history
from earliest times to the outbreak of the great war. It is a concise
and readable outline, giving not only the main currents of political
development but also some information concerning economic and social
organization.

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace has issued in its
series of Preliminary Economic Studies of the War a volume on British
Labor Conditions and Legislation during the War, by Professor M. B,
Hammond of Ohio State University.

Students of the cooperative movement will find some useful infor-
mation, lucidly set forth, in Albert Sonnichsen's Consumers^ Co-operor
tion (Macmillan, 223 pp.). The book outlines the origin and develop-
ment of retail cooperation both in Great Britain and on the Continent;
it also devotes attention to the cooperative movement as a factor in the
social revolution. One rather brief chapter is devoted to codperative
undertakings in the United States.



Digitized by



Google



364 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

The Scientific Spirit and Social Work, by Arthur James Todd, (Mac-
millan, 212 pp.) deals with the philosophical and psychological prin-*
ciples upon which the author believes sound social work to be based.
Some chapters on the trend of social movements and their relation to
other branches of reform are included in order to give social workers
their orientation.

In a small volume on The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice (John
Lane Co., 152 pp.) Professor Stephen Leacock advocates a progressiye
movement of social control, based upon the general principle of equal-
ity of opportunity. The chief immediate direction of social effort
should be to secure adequate food, clothing, education and an oppor-
tunity in life for the children.

Bertram Pickard's booklet on A Reasonable RevdtUion (Macmillan,
78 pp.) is a discussion of the state bonus scheme, and a proposal for a
national minimum wage.

The Weil Lectures, delivered at the University of North Carolina in
1919 by Professor Jacob H. Hollander of Johns Hopkins University,
have been published under the title of American Citizenship and Eco^
namic Welfare (Johns Hopkins Press, 122 pp.).

The Opivm Monopoly, by Ellen N. La Motte (Macmillan, 84 pp.),
contains a discussion of the oriental opium monopolies together with
a history of the trade in China.

A short history of Taxation in Nevada (199 pp.) by Professor Ro-
manzo Adams of the University of Nevada has been published by the
Nevada Historical Society.

The Railroad Problem, A Suggestion, by Walter W. Davis, is pub-
lished by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons (128 pp.) . It is a plan for an
undivided administration of the railroads.

The University Extension Division of the University of Kansas is
sponsor for an interesting study of Armourdale: A City within a City,
by Manuel C. Elmer (Bulletin of the University of Kansas, Vol. 20,
No. 12).



Digitized by



Google



BOOK REVIEWS 365

Fundamental Legal Conceptions and Other Legal Essays, by the late
Wesley Newoomb Hchfeld, has been reprinted from the Yale Review
by the Yale University Press (114 pp.).

Professor P. Orman Ray's article on "The World-Wide Woman
Suffrage Movement" has been reprinted in pamphlet form from the
Journal of Comparative Legislation.

A History of the Bankruptcy Law, by F. Rogers Noel (Washington,
Potter and Co., 209 pp.), presents a historical account of the bankruptcy
provision in the United States Constitution and of congressional legis-
lation thereunder.

Two essays by Professor George Burton Adams, on "The British
Empire and a League of Peace" and on "Federal Government: its
Function and Method," have been published together in a small volume
(Putnam's, 115 pp.).



Digitized by



Google



RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF POLITICAL INTEREST
BOOKS AND PERIODICALS

BEATRICE O. ASHTON AND CLARENCE A. BERDAHL
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC LAW

Books

Babson, Roger W. W. B. Wilson, first secretary of labor in the United
States, and the department of labor. Pp. 266. N. Y., Brentano's.

Bond, B. W. The quit rent system in the American colonies. London,
Oicford Press.

Clarky Champ. My quarter century of American politics. 2 vols. N. Y.,
Harper & Bros.

Educational legislation and administration in the state of New York from
1777 to 1850. Supplementary Educational Monographs, vol. 3, no. 1. Chicago,
Univ. of Chicago Press.

Hohhsy William Herbert, Leonard Wood, administrator, soldier, and citisen.
Pp. 272. N. Y., Putnam's.

Hollander y Jacob H. American citizenship and economic welfare. Balti-
more, Johns Hopkins Press. 1919.

Howey M. T, De Wolfe, George von Lengerke Meyer; his life and public



Online LibraryWestel Woodbury WilloughbyThe American political science review → online text (page 36 of 77)