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build beautifully.

Mrs. Albion Fellows Bacon.

EvansviUey Indiana.

The Housing of the Unskilled Wage-earner. By Edith Elmer
Wood. (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1919.
Pp. 321. Index.)

In the title of this book Mrs. Wood sets herself a problem which she
fails to solve — and which no one else as yet has solved. There are
intimations in various parts of the volume that building at cost with
money furnished by the government is the solution. Yet toward the
end the author herself says that it would be impossible for the govern-
ment "to supply all the houses needed by wage-earners." There is no
intimation as to how far short it might be expected to fall except in
the immediately succeeding sentence: "Unless prevented in the inter-
est of public health there would always be a residuum of people — the
unfortunate, the ignorant, the shiftless, the miserly, the physically,
mentally or morally subnormal — ^who would be willing to live in cellars
or dark rooms, in filth and dilapidation, to save a few dollars a month
of rent."

As this quotation indicates, the author has not gone into her problem
deeply enough to present it clearly and logically. There is a lack of
definitions and of standards — curious in a book dealing so largely with
housing legislation — ^which not only weakens the argument but indi-



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530 . THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

cates that the author herself has not a clear conception of relative
values. Those who will be most irritated by this lack will be those
who believe in government aid.

But if the argument is not so strong as it might be, there are chap-
ters in the book telling of the extent of bad housing in the United
States, giving a r^sum^ of the history of American housing reform,
describing housing legislation and the work of ''modeP' housing com-
panies, summarizing the housing experience of other countries —
especially in the matter of government aid in financing — that are of
real value by putting at the service of the reader in compact form a
mass of information which heretofore has been available only in scat-
tered pamphlets and reports.

John Ihlder.

Philadelphia.

Workin{imen's Standard of Living in Philadelphia. A report of
the Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia. By
William C. Beyer, Rebekah P. Davis and Myra Thwing.
(New York: The Macmillan Company. 1919. Pp. x, 125.)

The purpose of this study is to find out what annual income is needed
under prices prevailing in the autumn of 1918 to give a fair standard
of living to a family of five. The sum is found to be $1636. The
equivalent of the Chapin figures of 1907 imder prices prevailing in 1918
would be 11751.

The elements entering into the standard living costs of this standard
family have been given in sufficient detail so that it may be possible at
any time to ascertain the current cost of each item therein, and thus to
find the cost of this standard of living at any price level. The volume
represents a creditable bit of research work.

Inasmuch as the immediate object of the book is to find out what
would constitute a fair minimum wage for unskilled pubUc employees,
the authors make the following recommendations:

1. That the city government of Philadelphia, acting through the
finance committee of council or through the civil service commission,
adopt the standard of Uving herein outlined as a basis for ascertaining
currently the amount of a living wage for manual workers.

2. That the cost of this standard be ascertained at least once a year
by the city government, preferably just before budget-making time.



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BOOK REVIEWS 531

3. That in fixing the wages of manual workers above apprentice
grade no wage be made lower than the ascertained cost of this standard.

4. That at least once in five years a new investigation be made with
a view of modifying the standard so that it will conform to any changes
which may have taken place in the living standards of workingmen's
families.

5. That standards of living similar in general outline to the one
herein suggested for manual workers be devised for other occupational
groups to serve as a basis for adjusting the rates of compensation apply-
ing to these groups.

These recommendations differ from the usual method of measuring
a fair wage in that complete recognition is given to changing living
standards.

Clyde L. King.

University of Pennsylvania.

The Anatomy of Society, By Gilbert Cannan. (New York:
E. P. Button and Company. 1919. Pp. 216.)

"Humanity has a will backed by the creative will which animates
the universe" — this sentence gives the clue to the author's social phi-
losophy and scheme for social reorganization, and reminds us strongly
of Comte and Ward, though without the logic of either. The first
chapter on ''Definitions" would have been stronger if he had stopped
to define some terms and phrases which he uses later in the book.
This would have made clearer his meaning when he contrasts work
with drudgery, vision with law, nature with human life, organization
with structure, the democracy of patriarchalism and economic power
with the democracy of humanity. It might, too, have made unneces-
sary the statement that "an excess of goodness is as enervating to
human life as a monotony of simlight."

Authority, he holds, "lies in the social contract by which the indi-
vidual acknowledges his social relationship in return for the advantages
that can be won for humanity." Marriage is looked upon as essen-
tially a contract to be dissolved as any other contract — especially when
it fails to be creative of spiritual values. Women are considered to be
especially qualified for citizenship in this reconstruction period as they
are nearer to the spirit of humanity and less bound by customs, tradi-
tions and the "structure of finance" — the curse of modern European
civilization.



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632 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

The chapter on "Social Structure" seems to have given the title to
the book, but the "structure" is not set forth clearly. The key to the
chapter seems to be this sentence: "In the social structure the pendu-
lum is public opinion, which, when the authority of the democracy of
the artists and scientists is established — as it can be done by educa-
tion — should swing so freely and with such momentum as to defy
manipulation." One cannot get far in social science by building on
figures of speech.

The author is a radical idealist, a humanitarian, an artist-novelist,
but he is neither a sociologist, a psychologist nor a logician. The book,
therefore, which is ostensibly a sociological treatise, is a keen disap-
pointment.

L. M. Bristol.

University of West Virginia.

The Ethics of Cooperation. By James H. Tufts. (Baston:
Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918. Pp. 73.)

The term "cooperation" in this monograph is used in its general
derivative sense to connote associated action. Cooperation in this
sense is contrasted with social organization characterized by dominance
or by competition. "Dominance implies inequality, direction and
obedience, cooperation implies some sort of equality, some mutual
relation." Cooperation involves "contacts of mutual sympathy
rather than of pride-humility, condescension-servility." The three
above types of social organization are contrasted with reference to
their provision for liberty, power and justice. Cooperation is stated to
have as working principles "common purpose and common good," but
the looseness of this definition is felt when the author describes as
"cooperation" the relations of producer and consumer, employer and
laborer.

The essay is deductive throughout except for a very brief historical
statement. Though it is well written and at times epigrammatic, one
feels that a more valuable contribution could have been made by a
more specific use of the term "cooperation" and by analysis of the
values of existing cooperative practices in the industrial field. No
mention is made of the movement for economic cooperation among
consumers or producers, or of the moral values of the diffused responsi-
bility, the habits of mutual service and the philosophy of self-help
through service which this movement cultivates.

James Ford.

Harvard University.



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BOOK BEVIEWS 533

MINOR NOTICES

The series of War Volumes published by the New York Times con-
stitute the most comprehensive war history yet published. These
twenty volumes make up a veritable war encyclopedia and cover every
phase of the great conflict. The military aspects of the struggle form
the main theme, of course; but the political and economic problems of
these dramatic years also receive adequate attention. No individual
author or group of authors could have acquired the faciUties which the
New York Tim^s possessed in the gathering of this material. From the
very outset of the struggle The Times had its correspondents at every
belUgerent capital and its representatives as close to every front as it
was possible for any noncombatant to go. Its observers were sta-
tioned in every zone, and what it could not learn through members of
its own staff, the New York Times managed to acquire through co-
operative arrangements with some of the leading European journals.
In this way a great mass of official data was gathered and the best of it
has been incorporated in the War Volumes, The work is not a mere
narrative, but also includes reprints of a great many important docu-
ments which are nowhere else accessible. Diplomatic correspondence,
for example, miUtary reports, the speeches of diplomats and states-
men, official communiques, and so forth are all inserted at their proper
chronological places where they can be easily found. For this reason,
among others, the series is as valuable to the student of public affairs
and international politics as to the general reader. A set of useful
maps acconipanies the series and the final volume is devoted to an
index.

Two recent volumes of interest to students of international affairs
are Elizabeth York's Leagues of Nations, Ancient , Mediaeval and Mod-
em (London, The Swarthmore Press, 337 pp.), and Carles Sarolea's
Europe and the League of Nations (Macmillan 317 pp.). The former
contains a survey of ten actual or proposed leagues of nations from
the time of the Greek confederation to the Holy Alliance. Of especial
interest are the chapters on Henry the Fourth's "Grand Design"
and Rousseau's "European Federations." The book is well written
throughout and contains an excellent list of references. Mr. Sarolea's
volimie is a collection of essays dealing with the interest of the various
nations in the project of world federation. The most striking chapter
of the book is one entitled "Abraham Lincoln versus Clemenceau."



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534 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE BEVIEW

Major General E. H. Crowder has set forth in his volume on The
Spirit of Selective Service (Century Co., 367 pp.) a somewhat detailed
but altogether interesting account of how the national army was raised
to an imprecedented strength during the late emergency. He de-
scribes the entire machinery of registration, classification and calling
to the colors. It is General Crowder's belief that this machinery, or
something akin to it, could be profitably used for carrying through
great national enterprises in time of peace.

Several volumes in the historical series known as the Chronicles of
America^ edited by Professor Allen Johnson and issued by the Yale
University Press are of great interest to students of political science.
Conspicuous among these is Professor Samuel P. Orth's The Boss and
the Machine (203 pp.). This book deals in most illuminating fashion
with such topics as the rise of the machine, the poUtician and the
city, Tammany Hall, the lesser oligarchies, and the reform of party
organization. The author wields a trenchant pen and deUneat«s his
portraitures with skill and vividness.

Among recent manuals of Americanization mention may be made of
The New American Citizen: A Reader for Foreigners, by Frances S.
Mintz, which is published by the Macmillan Company. It contains
suitable material for the instruction of adult foreign pupils in evening
schools. Social Problems, by E. T. Towne, published also by Mac-
millan, is a textbook for beginners in the field of social studies. Les-
sons in Democracy, by Raymond Moley and Huldah F. Cook, is a
manual for adult immigration classes, which the same publishers have
brought out.

The Atlantic Monthly Press of Boston has issued Joseph Husband's
Americans by Adoption (153 pp.), which contains biographical sketches
of nine foreign-born Americans, among them Carl Schurz and Jacob
A. Riis.

Among miscellaneous volumes which will be of interest to many
students of poUtical science, mention may be made of the following:
Carleton H. Parker, The Casual Laborer and Other Essays (Harcourt,
Brace and Howe, 199 pp.) which contains an illuminating chapter on
"The I. W. W.;" Wilham J. Robinson's Forging the Sword (172 pp.)
which gives a graphic story of the life and training of the 76th and 12th



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BOOK REVIEWS 535

Divisions at Camp Devens; Homer B. Vanderblue's Railroad Valuation
by the Interstate Commerce Commission (Harvard University Press,
■ 119 pp.) which is a reprint of various articles from the Quarterly Jour-
nal of Economics; O. F. Boucke's Limits of Socialism (Macmillan Co.,
259 pp.); Ralph Albertson's Fighting without a War (Harcourt, Brace
and Howe, 138 pp.), which is an account of military intervention in
North Russia; and Col. C. L. Malone's Russian Republic (pp. 153) by
the same publishers.

The Neale Publishing Company has issued a small volume on Juri-
dical Reform, by the Hon. John D. Works of California (199 pp.).
The book contains a critical comparison of pleading and practice under
the common law and equity systems of practice, the English judicature
acts, and the codes of the various American states.

International Commerce and Reconstruction by Elisha M. Friedman
is issued from the press of Messrs. E. P. Button & Co. The book
deals with those economic changes which have been going on beneath
the spectacular military campaigns of the past half dozen years. It is
a sequel to the author's Labor and Reconstruction in Europe but,
unlike this volume it takes a definite stand on the issues presented.
The book contains a great deal of useful and timely information,
statistical and otherwise.

Messrs. Boni and Liveright have published Current Social and
Industrial Forces by Professor Lionel D. Edie of Colgate University.
The substance of the book is made up of selections from the writings
of many authors, including Walter E. Weyl, J. A. Hobson, Thorstein
Veblen, Herbert Croly, Graham Wallas and many others. For uni-
versity students the volume is intended as a rallying-point from which
further inquiry into current social and industrial forces may be made.
It integrates and organizes some of the best contemporary thought.

Under the title: The Constitutions of the States at War, 1914-1918, the
Government Printing Office has issued a compilation of considerable
value to students of political science. In all, the constitutions of
thirty-three countries are printed under the editorship of Herbert F.
Wright. A brief historical note precedes each constitution.



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536 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW

General von Falkenhayn's book on The German General Staff and
Its Decisions, 1914-1916 (Dodd, Mead & Co.,) sets forth the operative
ideas by which the German headquarters were guided during a critical'
period of the war. The narrative is confined strictly to military topics
with little stress on political developments.

The Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, for 1919, contains
the usual quota of excellent articles on all phases of Canadian govern-
ment, economics and local affairs. It is issued by the Canadian Annual
Review, Ltd., Toronto.

Messrs. Harcourt, Brace and Howe are sponsors for a volume on
The New Germany, by George Young (333 pp.). The book contains
chapters on the revolution, the reaction, the era of council government,
and the new constitution. An English translation of the new con-
stitution is printed in the appendix.

The same publishers have brought out Herbert E. Gaston's book on
The Nonpartisan League (325 pp.) The author has been employed on
the publications controlled by the league and this has kept him in
close touch with the policy and achievements of the organization. He
writes in no nonpartisan spirit, however , although he assures us that
he has made a conscientious endeavor to be a faithful reporter of the
facts and on the whole his book is a great deal more than special plead-
ing. The style is interesting and the author's sketch of an extremely
significant movement will well repay the time any student of con-
temporary American politics may spend in reading it.

Social Theory, by G. D. H. Cole of Magdalen College, Oxford, is
one of the newer books on the list of Messrs, Frederick A. Stokes Com-
pany (220 pp.). It contains chapters on such topics as "The Forms
and Motives of Association," "Government and Legislation," and
"The Atrophy of Institutions."

A small volume entitled: A More Christian Indiistrial Order, by the
Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, has been published by the Macmillan
Company (86 pp.).

Professor F. T. Carlton of De Pauw University has brought out,
through Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., a short history of the American
labor movement under the title of Organized Labor in American History.



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RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF POLITICAL INTEREST
BOOKS AND PERIODICALS

BEATRICE O. ASHTON AND CLARENCE A. BERDAHL

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC LAW

Book9

Adams, Brooks, The emancipation of Massachusetts. Revised and enlarged
edition. Pp. vi+534. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co.

American Year Book, 1919. N. Y., D. Appleton A Co.

Basseti, John Spencer, Our war with Gennany. A history. N. Y., Alfred
A. Knopf.

Bogart, E, L,, and Maihewa, J. M, The modem commonwealth. (Centen-
nial History of Illinois, vol. V.) Springfield, 111. , Illinois Centennial Conmiission.

Bridges, Horace J. On becoming an American. Pp. xiv4-186. Boston,
Marshall Jones Co.

Buck, S, J, The agrarian crusade; a chronicle of the farmer in politics.
(Chronicles of America series, vol. 45.) Pp. xi+215. New Haven, Yale Univ.
Press.

Cleveland, Frederick A,, and Buck, Arthur Eugene. The budget and respon-
sible government. N. Y., Macmillan.

Cole, A, C, ed. The constitutional debates of 1847. (Illinois Historical Col-
lections, vol. XIV.) Pp. xxx+1018. Springfield, 111., State Historical Library.

Dodd, William E, Woodrow Wilson and his work. Pp. xiv-f 369. Garden
City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Co.

Dunn, Arthur Wallace. How presidents are made. N. Y., Funk & Wagnalls
Co.

Oaston, Herbert E. The non-partisan league. N. Y., Harcourt, Brace &
Howe.

Gresham, Matilda. Life of Walter QuintinGresham. 2 vols. Chicago, Rand,
McNally & Co.

Ovlick, Luther H. Evolution of the budget in Massachusetts. Pp. xiii+
243. N. Y., Macmillan.

Haynes, Fred Emory. James Baird Weaver. Pp. 494. Iowa City, State
Historical Society of Iowa.

Howe, F. C. The land and the soldier. Pp. xi+196. N. Y., Charles Scrib-
ner's Sons.

McGrane, Reginald C, ed. The correspondence of Nicholas Biddle dealing
with national affairs, 1807-1844. Pp. xxix+366. Boston & N. Y., Houghton
Mifflin Co.

537



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538 THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE BEVIEW

Meigs, William M, The relation of the judiciary to the constitution. N. Y.
Neale Pub. Co.

Orth, Samuel P. The boss and the machine: a chronicle of the politicians
and party organifation. (Chronicles of America series, vol. 43.) Pp. ix + 203.
New Haven, Yale Univ. Press.

R088, Earle Dudley, The liberal republican movement. (Cornell Studies in
Hist, and Pol. Sci.) Pp. xi+267. N. Y., Henry Holt.

Ruaaell, Charles Edward. The story of the nonpartisan league. N. Y., Har-
per & Bros.

Schneider, George A. The decisions and dicta of the supreme court of Illinois
as applied to the workmen's compensation act in force 1912-1919: with notes,
rules, forms, and procedure. Pp. 633. Chicago, George A. Schneider.

Schoanmaker, Nancy M, The actual government of Connecticut. Pp. 122.
N. Y., National Woman Suffrage Pub. Co.

Thompson, Robert Means, and Waintt^ght, Richard, eds. Confidential corre-
spondence of Gustavus Vasa Fox. N. Y., De Vinne Press.

Waldman, Louis. Albany :'the crisis in government. N. Y. , Boni & Liveright.

Wanlass, William L. The United States department of agriculture. A study
in administration. (Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Hist, and Pol. Sci.) Pp.
vii+131. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press.

Articles

Administrative Legislation. Administrative legislation. John A. Fairlie.
Mich. Law Rev. Jan., 1920.

Amending the Constitution. Amending the Constitution of the United States.
William L. Frierson. Harvard Law Rev. Mch., 1920.

Americanization. ''Bunk'' in Americanization. Sarka B. Hrhkova. Forum.
Apr.-May, 1920.

. Americanization : its meaning and function. Carol Aronovici, Am.

Jour. Sociol. May, 1920.

Anti-syndicalist Legislation. Anti-syndicalist legislation. F. G. Franklin.
Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. May, 1920.

Blue Sky Law. The Illinois blue sky law. James Waterhouse Angell, Jour.
Pol. Econ. Apr., 1920.

Budget. The Good versus the McCormick budget bill. W. F, Willoughby,
Gaylord C. Cummin and Charles A. Beard. Nat. Mun. Rev. Apr., 1920.

. The first Virginia budget. A. E. Buck. Nat. Mun. Rev. Apr.,

1920.

. Behind the scenes with five state budgets. B. E. Arthur. Nat.

Mun. Rev. May, 1920.

. Two plans for a national budget. Ralston Hayden. The Review.

May 15, 1920.

. The Massachusetts budget procedure begins to work. Luther H.

Gulick. Nat.. Mun. Rev. June, 1920.

Civil Service. Some phases of the federal personnel problem. Lewis Mayers.
Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. May, 1920.

. Employment standardization in the public service. William C.

Beyer. Supplement, Nat. Mun. Rev. June, 1920.



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RECENT PUBLICATIONS OP POLITICAL INTEREST 639

Congress. Cabinet members on the floor of Congress. William C. Redfield.
World's Work. May, 1920.

. What's the matter with Congress? Lynn Haines. Searchlight.

May, 1920.

. The power of Congress to declare peace. Edward S, Corwin. Mich.

Law Rev. May, 1920.

Constittttion. Our charter of law and liberty. Datfid Jayne Hill. Const.
Rev. Apr., 1920.

. Facts and fiction about the constitution. Noel Sargent. Central

Law Jour. June 4, 1920.

Federal Grants. A system of federal grants-in-aid. I. Paul H. Douglas.
Pol. Sci. Quar. June, 1920.

Freedom of Speech. A contemporary state trial. The United States versus
Jacob Abrams et al. Zechariah Chafee, Jr. Harvard Law Rev. Apr., 1920.

. Freedom of speech and the press in the Federalist period ; the sedi-
tion act. Thomas F. Carroll. Mich. Law Rev. May, 1920.

Government Control. Government control of business. II. John B. Cheadle.
Columbia Law Rev. May, 1920.

. Regulating franchise rates. Charles K. Burdick. Yale Law Rev.

Apr., 1920.

Income Tax. The sixteenth amendment. Harry Hubbard. Harvard Law
Rev. Apr., 1920.

. Stock dividends, direct taxes, and the sixteenth amendment. Thomas

Reed Powell. Columbia Law Rev. May, 1920.

. Eisner v. Macomber and some income tax problems. Charles E.

Clark. Yale Law Jour. May, 1920.

. The judicial debate on the taxability of stock dividends as income.

Thomas Reed Powell. Bull. Nat. Tax Assoc. May, 1920.

. Fiscal aspects of state income taxes. Alzada Comstock. Am. Econ.

Rev. June, 1920.

. Reflections on the income tax. Bernhard Knollenberg. Atlan. M.

July, 1920.

Industrial Problem. Causes of and antidote for industrial unrest. Hbrace B.
Drury. Jour. Pol. Econ. Mch., 1920.

*— . A conciliation law for Iowa. Herbert F. Goodrich. la. Law Bull.

. Mch., 1920.

. The Kansas court of industrial relations. Willard B. Atkins. Jour.

Pol. Econ. Apr., 1920.

. Liberty and law in Kansas. Henry J. Allen. Rev. of Revs. June.

. Henry Allen's industrial court. Frank P. Walsh. Nation. June 6.

. The President's industrial conference. Felix Frankfurter. New Re-
pub. Apr. 7, 1920.

. The industrial conference. Willard E. Atkins. Jour. Pol. Econ.

May, 1920.

Initiative, Referendum and Recall. Initiative, referendum and recall, votes
of 1919. Russell Ramsey. Nat. Mun. Rev. Mch., 1920.



Online LibraryWestel Woodbury WilloughbyThe American political science review → online text (page 53 of 77)