Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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977 ^*

G62p

V.4

1949954



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL
GENEALOGY COLLECTION



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY



3 1833 01715 3617



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center



http://www.archive.org/details/provincestateshi04good



^3 7S



THK



Provin ce aifd tl^e States



A HISTORY OF THE PROVINCE OF LOUISIANA UNDER

FRANCE AND SPAIN, AND OF THE TERRITORIES

AND STATES OF THE UNITED STATES

FORMED THEREFROM



IN SEVEN VOLUMES

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMKROUS MAPS AND PORTRAITS

Ptihli'. Librarg

AUG(> 1964

Weston ArthuK<i>{i6dspee^fe-M^^B.

Editor-iii-Cliicf



VOL. IV



V. ^



Madison, Wis.

The Western Histokical Association

1904.






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1949954



Copyright, 1904,

BY THE

Western Historical Association
Madison, Wis.



Preea of the Dcniocrut I'llntliig Co., MiuIIhoii, Wis.



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Table of Contents



Mis!



CHAPTER I.

PACES

District of Louisiana— Territory of Loii!.-,iana— First Territorial
Officers— Territory of Missouri— lis Extent- Stali.-,ties of
Growth— Indian Hostilities— Threatened hy Hritihii— Later
Territorial Olticers — PrL).-.j)erity 17-26



CHAPTER H.

Statehood — The Slavery Question — Jettersun's Alarm — Struggle
in Congress— Balance of Power— Cunstitutional Considera-
tion s— Con -re... Divided— Clay's CDuipr. .laise— The Thomas
Proviso — Slaveiy in the Terrilorie:, — Strict Cunstnietionibts —
Individual \'ie\vs 27-33



CPL-VPTER in.

State of Missouri— First Oflicers— Statistics of Development-
First Legislature — Distinguished Men — Benton — St. Louis
Incorporated — Founders of the State — St. Louis Directory,
1821 — Fur Companies — Politics— Elections 34*41



CHAPTER IV.

Political Beginning — Mis.souri's Congressional Delegates — La-
fayette — Bates — Jefferson City — Partisan Affairs — Jack.son's
Strength -Tile Cholera— Statistics of Progress— Steam Navi-
gation—Population and Wealth 42-50



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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CllAPTl'R V.

I'AGES

MiSSoUKi's WiuSiKKN 1 N I'Li ) i: N tic — IJciiUui's Saiila Vv Ro;Kl - 'riic
State's Location — The Trappers — Fur Couipaiiies — Missouri a
Western Gateway — Santa Fe Trade — Caravans and Expedi-
tions—Battles with tlie Indians Indians— The Trails— Oregon
— Statistics 51-60



., .^,-V', . i ■(,"->■ .7', CHAPTER VI. '"' ' ,'/''■■■.

Mormon Troubles— Gentry's Regiment— Bogg's Election— Joseph
Smith — Mormons at Independence — They Are Opposed — Tar
and Feathers — Far West — Danitcs— Bogg's Exterminating
Order — Blood-shed — The Mormons Driven Out 61-70



P<n -,1. V, ... .i < , :.. CUAl'TI'K Vll. - ^ •■

Permanent Boundakies Fixed— Indian Treaties— Black Hawk
War— Other Indian Trouhles — Heatherly War— Gentry's
Campaign — Platte Purchase — Iowa Boundary Dispute — Panic
of 1837 — Banking — State University — Jefferson City Burned —
Webster 71-79



CHAPTER VHI.

From 1840 to 1846— Campaign of 1840— Imprisonment for Debt
Abolished— Eulogy on Linn— I'lood of 1844— Campaign of
1844 — Texas Question — Oregon— Slavery — New Constitution
Defeated 80-87



CHAPTER IX.

Texas Annexation — Mexican War — The Austins — Missouri
Interested— Troops Raised — Doniphan's Expedition — Army
of the West— Daugherty's Regiment— Doniphan's Conquest-
Sterling Price— End of the War 88-95



CHAPTER X.

Slavery in Missouri— Wilmot Proviso— Popular Sovereignty-
Steps 10 Aljolish Slavery— Negro Equality Feared— Anti-Sla-
very Movements— Altitude of Benlcjn- Sentiment Through-
out the Slate 96-102



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T^JBLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XI.



Break in the Democracy— Jackson's Resolutions— They Are
Opposed — Benton's Slogan — Split in the Democratic Ranks — •
Benton Defeated— Clay's Compromise of 1850— Pro-Slavery
Influence in Missouri— Its Triumph— Meaning of Benton's
Defeat— Election Results— Railroads— Development 103-III

CHAPTER XII.

Missouri Compromise Repealed — Efifect of Jackson's Resolu-
tions — Prominent Men of That Period — Territory of Platte— ^ii ■:
Richardson's Bill— Success of Douglas— The North Star-
tled — Pro-Slavery Missourians Assist— StringfeJlous — Ben-
ton's Views— Atchison 112-I19

CHAPTER XIII.

]\hssoiKi's STuiUi.a.ic \o\< Ka.n-sas— Moaning of Hic Struggle—
Pro-Slavery Men Organize— iMee Stale Movements- Atchi-
son's Appeal — Pro-Slavery Partisans Leave Missouri — Elcc- ,
tion Frauds— Missouri Against the North— Cyclonic Politics ,
—Benton Again— Republicans Organize— The Jayhawkers—



Brown's Raid



CHAPTER XIV

Economic Situation in i860 — Wealth of Missouri — The Rail- •

I ways — Agriculture — The Schools —State Institutions- The -I-'

Newspapers— Population—The Cermaiis— Results of the Cam- ' ''■

j ■ ■ iKugn of iSoo 131-139

CllAPTRR XV.

Missouri in 1S61 — The State Hopelessly Divided — Secessionists
— Unionists — Jackson's Views Asserted — Convention Called —
Minute Men — Blair's Influence— Pie Check-mates Jackson —
Unionists Rally — Convention Strongly Loyal— Committee of
Safety— General Lyon — Jackson Refuses Lincoln's Call for
i Troops— Mililia Mustered in— Lyon's Strategy— He Captures
.[ Camp Jackson 140-154

1

t CHAPTER XVI.

Missouri in the Civil War — The Fight for IMissouri — Secession
I Legislature — Lyon in Command — His Ultimatum — Battle of
i Wilson's Creek — Lyon's Death — Operations of Sterling Price
i —Rum]) Legislatine— Fremont— Curtis- Pea Ridge— Test
j Oath of iSdj-lunancipation— Price's Raid— Guerrillas— iilec-
j tion of iS(. I - War Ends 155-168



■''■ '-• TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XVII.



Reconstruction— Convention of 1865— Slavery Abolished— New
Constitution — Test Oaths of 1865 — Registry Exactions —
Vagrant Laws— Carpet Bag Rule— Split in Missouri— Bhiir—
Election of 1868 — Negro Suffrage — Re-enfranchisement —

The Radicals— The Liberals— democrats Win 169-179

I
CHAPTER XVIII.

Democracy Again in Power— Economic Condition— Railroad
Bonds Voted— Schurz— Election Results— Panic oi 1873—
The Grangers— State Institutions— Constitutional Convention
of 1875— Important Changes— The WhisUy Frauds— Grant's
Injunction 180-188



CHAPTER XIX.

From Phelps to Francis— Carlylc's Aphorism— Ahmy Reforms *
Instituted— Prosperity— Gain in Wealtli— Important Acts of
Legislation — Train Robbers Overthrown — Liquor Traffic-
Bald Knobbers— Francis— Australian Ballot- Statistics 189-198



CHAPTER XX.



I
I

I

Silver Movement— The Greenback Idea— Is Taken Into Politics j

—Demonetization of Silver— island— Imco Coinage Bill— The |

Bland Propaganda- I'anners' Alliance-Tlie Sherman l,aw— j
Panic of )S(),i— island (^|mk.m> CIcn eland Perlle Siuings

Convention \'ielory of I'r.niei. ISLind 1 1 nnored - Sixteen to '

One- I'.leelion ol iSoO-1'oliiieal Kelorm- 199-211 I

CHAPTER XXI. !

Missouri of Today and To.moukow— The St. Louis Boodling Dis-
closures — Grand Jury's Report— Mr. Folk — Extent of Cor- i
ruption— Punishment— World's Fair— Its Ofliccrs and Man- "
agement— Wealth of the State— Public Institutions— Schools
—Isthmian Canal— Statistics 212-222



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TABLE OP CONTENTS.



Kansas



CHAPTER I.



Early Explorations— Lewis and Clark— Pike's Expedition-
Major Long— Doctor Say— Santa Ee Trail— Eort Lcaven-
worth— Indian Country— Reservations— Fort Scott- Atkinson
and Riley— Indian Cessions— First Election— The Hall Bill-
Douglas' Subhlitute— Repeal of the Missouri Compromise—
Sumner's Speech— The Kansas-Nebraska Bill Becomes a Law
—Kansas Organised a Territorj — Squatter ^Meetings-Reso-
lutions— Slavery Introduced— Emigrant Aid Societies— Meth-
ods of Pro- Slavery Men— Town Sites— Newsijupers— Terri-
torial Ornccrs 223-J38

CHAPTER II.

Kansas Tkuritorv— Governor Reeder Takes Charge— lilleciion of a
Delegate— General Atchison— Fraudulent Votes- Legislature
Meets-Disagrcement with the Governor— Code of Laws—
Free-State Men Organize — Topeka Convention— First Consti-
tution—Governor Shamion— "Border Rufliaus"— Aid Socie-
ti^^^s— Outrages Conuuitted— Lawrence Threatened— Treaty of
Peace— State Officers of the Topeka Government— Indict-
ments for Treason— Reeder Escapes iu Disguise— Robinson
Arrole.l -Sheriff Juues-Sack of Lawrence— The "norder
War"- •■t)KI Jnhn I'.rowu"- -rollawal..iuie Ma-sacie - Haltlc
of J'.lack Jaek-Allacks ..11 hiaukliu - ( ).awalomie Burned—
The Topeka Legislature Dispersed— Governor Geary— Proc-
lamations^Arrest of Harvey's Men — Governor's Orders
Ignored— Attack on Lawrence— Troops Disbanded— Free ■
State hnnugrants Arrested— Arrest of Legislators— Second
Legislature -Geary Resigns 239-260

CHAPTER HI.

Kansas Tkuritorv— Governor Walker— Lecompton Convention-
Vote on the Constitution— Topeka Legislatui. Again— Free
State Conventions— "Big Springs Platform"— Fair Elections
Guaranteed- Free-State Men Win— Walker Rc.-.ign.'^- Stan-
ton Rem. ned— Lecompton Constitution Repudiated— Leavea-
worth Convention- English Bill — Lecom|)toi. Constitution
Again Rejected— Montgomery— "Stpuiller Court"— Balloi-lx ^:
Destroyed— Fight with U. S.- Dragoons— Marais des C)gnes



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10 ; TAULE OF CONTUNTS.

I Massacre-Attack on Fort Scott-Mc.la.y's Administralio,,- '"''''^^

* ^ I''^"'-'!' I-cgisIature-New Coiu.tics-\Vyancl.,ttc Cunvcnti..n

-;-'''^ Aiuhorizcd-Ropul.lican Parly Organixc.l-Dclcgatcs tu

'■ Wyandotte Convention— The Constitution— Slavery Proliib-

T ited— Unconstitutional— The Fight in Congress- Admitted—

I '" I^'rst Flection for State Officers-State Governnienl Insti-

'. tuted






261-277



CHAPTFR IV.



The State From 1861 to 1868— Governor Robinson — The First
State Legislature— Civil War— First United States Senators-
Kansas Regiments— The First Political Campaign— Vote for
the Ca|,ital-The Second Legislalure-The State Officers Are
Impeached— Slate Instilulions— Ciiernlla Raids— Ouantrell at
Lawrence— Monument— Baxter Springs— Legislature of 1864
—Campaign of 1864— Price Raid-Kansas Militia— Patties in
Kansas— Fifth Legislature— Governor Crawford— Lane Re-
elected Senator— Railroads— Indian 'J'realies— Bonds— Death
of General Lane— Soldiers' Reunion— Camijaign of 1866—
Crawford Re-electe.l-Indian Outbreaks-Legislature of 18G7
— iMore Indian Troubles— Constitutional Anieiidments—
Eighth Legislature— Campaign of 1868— Governor Crawford
Resigns— Ninetecnlh Kansas— Governor Green 278-306



CHAPTER V.

The Statk ikom 11\k\i:v a. lli'MniKKv-Governor Ilarvey-
Thc Ninth Legi.slaturc-The Neutral Land War— The Tenth
Legislature— The Campaign of 1870— Vigilance Committee-
Eleventh Legislature-Campaign of iS72-Sensaiion in the
Legislature of 1873-Ingalls Elected Senator-Governor
Osborn-Harvey's Election-Cong.-essional Districts— Cam-
paign of 1874— Indian Outrages- Fifteenth Legislature-
Forged School Bonds— Centennial Exposition— Campaign of
1876-Plumb Elected Senator— Acts of Legislature-Cam-
paign of 1878-Governor St. John-Negro Exodus-Prohibi-
tion— Second Biennial Legislature— Seven Congressmen-
Districts — Railroad Commission — Re-submission Asked —
Special^ Session— N. w Orleans Exposition— Legislature of
188s— Soldiers' Home— County Seat Troubles— Strike (-n
Mis-^ouri Pacific— Special Session— Stevens County War—
Abilene Convenlion— Prosijerity 307-332



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



l:;,-.- ^! ;;;:„ r: CHAPTER VI. , , , . ; ^,

PAGES

From Humphuey to Stanley — Governor Humphrey — The Sixth
Biennial Legislature— Women Mayors— A Large Corn Crop—
The Farmers' Alliance — The "Original Package" Muddle— '■

The Seventh Legislature — Another Congressman— The Uealli
of Senator Plumh — Governor Lcwelling— Trouble in the
Legislature — Compromise — The Columbian Exposition — Cam-
paign of 1894— Railroad Strike— Oil and Gas— Legislature of
1805 — Governor Morrill — Campaign of 1896 — The Gas Field-
Legislature of i8g7 — Governor Leedy — Kansas in the ^Span-
ish-American War— Campaign of i8y8— Omaha Exposition-
Special Session — Gmernur Stanley — Eleventh Biennial Legis-
lature — Capitol — Mob Law — Kansas Exposition Association-
Campaign of 1900— Pike Monument— Acts of 1901— Mutinies
Among Convicts— "Mother Bickerdyke"— Campaign of 1902—
End of a Century 333-354

CHAPTER VH.

Statistical and Desckiptive — Area — Elevation — Occupations —
Soil — Climate — Population — Counties— Progress in Agricul-
ture and Mining — List of Officials — Progress — Education —
Finances— Reflections 355-366



Colorado



CHAPTER L

Early Spanish and Other Expeditions, Etc. — Coronado — Dc
Onate — Rivera — Serra — The Louisiana Pnrchase — Lieutenant
Pike — Glenn's Expedition — Fowler's Journal — Bent's Fort —
Early Trading Posts — Discovery of Gold — First Settlements —
Denver — Anraria — Jackson's Diggings^Gregory Gulch— F irst
Newspaper — The Provisional Government — Peoples' Courts —
Early Elections — Private Coinage— Organized a Territory ... . 367-

CH AFTER H.

The Terkitoky — Governor Gilpin — Indian Treaties— Election of
Deleg.ites- First Legislature— Civil War — New Mexico Cam-
l)aign — Second Legislative Session— l'"irsl Telegraph Message —
Third Legislature— Constitutional Convention — Indian Trou-



.IV >I?JTHAH:>



12 '■■'■ TAli/.li OF CO\'TU.\'TS.

PAGES

bles — Militia Organized — Sand Creek — Guerrillas — More In-
dian Troubles— Change in Territorial Oflicers — Fir^t Attempt
to Secure Admission — Legislative Action — Seventh Legislature
'^' —Treaty with the Utes— Last Indian Invasion 387-4"

CHAPTER III.

The State — Governor McCook — Elections — Fir;t Railroad — Ninth
Legislature — Penitentiary — Political Campaign of 1874 — Patter-
son Delegate — Act of Congress for State Government — Second
Constitutional Convention — Synopsis of the Constitution — First
State Olh^ers Elected— First State Lcgi^lature— United States
Senators — Grasshoppers— Cliff Dwellers— Carbuuate Discover-
ies— Leadville— Campaign of 1878- Ute War of 1879— The
Brunot Agreement— Massacre at the White River Agency —
Thornburgh Killed— Siege of Red Canon— I\Ierritt to the
Rescue— Removal of the lUes— I\liner>' Strike —CampaiiiU of
l8Sa-'rhe Anli-Cliiuesc Riot -l.ieuienant (iovenior R..i,inM.n
Killed _ -1I3-4J8

CHAPTER IV.

Other St.\te Admimstrations— Location of the Capital— The
Campaign of 1882— Teller in the Cabinet— Fourth State Leg-
islature — Mining Expositions at Denver— The Campaign of
1884 — Fifth Legislature — Strike on the Denver and Rio
Grande R. R. — Campaign of 1886 — Sixth Legislature — Indian
Troubles— The Campaign of 1888— Seventh Legislature— New
Counties — Large Appropriali.ms — Corruption in Office —
Farmers' Alliance Movenienl— Campaign of i8c)0^Eighth
Legislature— New Legislative Dihlricts- Australian Ballot
Introduced— Trans-Mississippi Congres^— Pike's Peak Rail-
road — The Silver Question — Campaign of 1892 — Fusionists
Siicccsstul 139-459

CHAPTER V.

From Waite to Peaisodv- Governor Waite— Ninth Legislature-
Railroad Legislation — Woman Suffrage — Columbian Commis-
sion— ICxlra Si sion of the Legislature— Miners' Strike— Cam-
paign of 1894— Tenth Legislature— Campaign of 1896 — Party
Lines Shattered — Fusion Ticket Elected — Strike at Leadville —
Elcvenlli Legislature — Spanish-American War — Omaha Expo-
sition — Campaign of 1898 — Tax Reform — Milit.iry Academy —
Capilol l'"ini->hed — Mobs-Campaign ot njoo — Governor Or-
nian — A Game Warden's Mistake — Cam[)aign of 1902— Gov-
ernor Peabody 460-482






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TABLE OP CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER VI.

PAGES

Statistical and Descriptive— Source of Dominion— Boundaries
— Area — Resources — Soil — Irrigation — Fruit Growing — Coun-
ties and Population — List of Officials — Educational Sybtcni —
Growth and Development— Cities and Towns— Conclusion. .. . 483-490



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State of Missouri

From Its Territorial Days to 1904



Hon. Dcivid R. Francis

Associate Editor

Prksiijknt of thk Louisiana Pukchask Exposition Company,
1m)rmi:ki,y (iovKKNOK 01-' Missouri, and Kokmickly

SKCKIiTARY OV THE INTICKIOII



Charles M. Harvey

Author



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Missouri •

>r^'^ CHAPTER I r"'-'^'.:':.-/'.'^:''':

' The Territory of Missouri '^- '■'" '• '



WHEN, by the act of congress signed by President Madison ''"'
on June 4, 1812, all of the Louisiana province outside ■"""
of the newly created state of Louisiana was called the ''*'^'
Territory of Missouri, the latter name made its first appearance ;'^'
as the title of a political community. '•?"-

The Louisiana province had been divided by congress on
March J.\. iSdj, two weeks after the transfer, in St. Louis, of '*•
Upper Lcmisiana to the Ihiited States. The province's lower ''"'
Section, with boundaries almost identical with those of the pres-
ent state of Louisiana, was named the Territory of Orleans, and
all the rest of it was called the District of Louisiana, and was
placed under the control of the officials of Indiana Territory.
The name of the District of Louisiana was changed to the Ter-
ritory of Louisiana by an act of congress signed March 3, 1805,
and it was taken out of the jurisdiction of the officials of Indiana
Territory, and was given a governor, a secretary, and three
judges, all appointed by the president, with the consent of the
senate, the legislative power, as in all territories of the lower
class, to be vested in the governor and the judges, or a majority
of them, the laws to be subject to congress' api)roval.

Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson the first governor
of Louisiana Territory; Dr. Jo.seph l'.rowne, a brother-in-law of
IV— 2



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0, j8 the province and the states.

Aaron r.urr, was made secretary, and Jolin B. C. Lucas was
apixiinUd chief justice. Wilkinson was disliked and distrusted
by most of the residents of llie Territory antl was deep at this
lime in the conspiracy, or supposed conspiracy, by which Burr
was believed to be aiming to separate Kentuck)', Tennessee and
the Territory of Orleans from the Union and add them to Mex-
ico, which Burr hoped to wrest from Sjtain, and thus to set up
a southwestern emi)ire, with himself at the head. Wilkinson
soon got into trouble with some of the Kading ])ersonages of the
territory, was removed from office, and Capt. }vlerri wether Lewis
was put in his place in 1807, the year after \\v returned from the
" exploring expedition tc; the Pacific in comi>any with Clark.
Lewis held the post of governor of Louisiana Territory until
■ his mysterious death by murder or suicide, i)rol)ably the latter,
near Nashville, in 1800, when he was succeeded by I'.enjamin
' Howard, who remained in that office until after the territory's

name and status were changed in 1812.
'^ The admission of the Territory of (Orleans as the State of

Louisiana on April 8, 181 2, and the rapid increase of jjopulation
in the upper province necessitated the dropping of the naiue
Louisiana in it and its advancement to a higher status. For these
reasons the name of Louisiana Territory was changed by the act
of June 4, 1812, to the Territory of Missouri, and that community
was given a measure of local self government, St. Louis being
made its cajMtal.

Missouri Territory was a land of magnificent distances. It
stretched westw.ird from the Mississippi to the Rocky mountains,
which were the eastern boundary of the don.iain of Fertlinand VIL
of Spain, wdiose possessions extended as far north as the north-
ern line of the i)resent states of California, Nevada and Utah,
and who laid claims to the region farther to the northward. The
same mountain barrier was the eastern line of that No Man's
Land, then in dispute between Spain, Russia, England and the
United States, comprising the present states of Oregon, Wash-
ington and Idaho. The northerly line of Missouri Territory was
George III.'s province of Canada.

By the national census of 1810, the region comprised in the
Territory of Missouri was found to have 20,845 inhabitants
(doubling since the transfer of Upper Louisiana to the United
States in 1804), 17,227 of whom were whites and 3, 618 were
negroes. All but about 1,500 of this total (which were in the
present Arkansas) were in the present state of Missouri. The



] . )



Tim TliRKlTORY OP MISSOURI. , ■•,.v 19

Indians of the Territory, of course, were not enumerated. Most
of the settlers were from the shive states — Kentucky, Tennessee.
Louisiana, Virginia and the CaroHnas. This accounts for the
larq-e proportion of net^n'oes, most of tliem slaves, amoni; the
inhahitants. N(;t until after the completion of DeWitt Clinton's
Erie Canal in 1825, which opened a path hy way of the north-
ern lakes, did any considerahle numher of emigrants from New
England and New York begin to reach Missouri.

The population of that part of the Territ(jry of Missouri com-
prised in the present state of that name nujre than tripled between
1810 and 1820. Its oldest j)ermanent settlement was Ste. Cene-
vieve, founded about 1735; its next oldest town of imi)ortance
was St. Louis, jilanted by Laclede Liguest and Auguste Chou-
teau in 1764; and the third most important settlement of those
days was St. Charles, established in 1769, at first called Les
i'etites Cotes (Little Hills), which name was changed to
St. Charles in 1784.

Missouri's growth was impeded for a few years by the uncer-
tainty as to the land titles of the iM-ench anil Spanish [leriod,
the troubles from the Indians, and, to a smaller degree, by the
earthquake of 1811-12, which did great damage at New Madrid,
]!ig and Little I'rairie and other points along the Mississi|)|:)i.
'J'hc land title matter was virtually settled b)' an act of con-
gress in 1814, which confirmed all the concessions made in the
French and Spanish days. The Indian tlisturbances were min-
iini7(.(l by President Madison's a])i)ointment of Lewis's jKirtner,
(uii. William Clark, as -o\cinor of i\l is.soiu 1. who assumed that
po^,t ill 181J, a >ear after the cre.ilion ni the Tenitorv, and who
held it during the entire i»eriod until the admission of I\lissouri
as a state in 1821.

Just before the organization of the Territory, the region along
the Missouri as far as the scattered little settlements extended,
eighty or a hundred miles from its confluence with the Missis-
sippi, and also a little farther westward, in the present Lloward
county, was harrassed by Indians. Bodies of rangers were
formed and a line of stockades was built, into which the people
of the surrounding territory would fly at the appearance of
danger. Many whites, however, were killed outside of those
defences. Cicncral Clark, the commander of the military forces in



Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 53)