Weston Arthur Goodspeed.

The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) online

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Carr, Mitcliell, Sweeney, Totten, Chlbert and Powell Clapton, rose
to be brigadier generals. The men among Price's Missonrians on
that day wlio ultimately rose to high rank were Joe Shelby, Colton
Greene', M. M. l\arsons, Williani Y. Slack, John B. Clark, Jr.,
and Francis INT. Cockrell, the present senator.

The losses among the higher ofilicers on the Union side had
been so great that the command, after Lyon's deatli, devolved on
Major Sturgis, who conducted the retreat to Springfield, anrl after-
ward to Rolla. AFcCulloch, on the plea that he was a confederate
officer, was charged wilh the defence of Ark'ansas and the Indian
Territory, and had no anthorit)- to iinade a stale still in the Union,
refused to join in the pursuit, allhongh ])ressctl urgently by Price
to do so, and as I'rice felt that he would be too weak to accom-
plish anything alone, Sturgis' forces retired practically unmolested.
Lyon's body, buried in Springfield soon after the battle, was
removed a few weeks later, and interred in Eastford, Conn., his
native state.

Lyon's death sent a wave of sorrow through Missouri and all
the rest of the loyal states. Lhidoubtedly, with his ability, daring
and dash, a 1)rilliant career would have been his had he lived to
the end of (he war. I'lit lie had ,ilrea.l\- done a great work for
stale and comili\. Said Col. Thomas 1 .. Sne.td, who fon.^ht under
Price al Wilson's I'reei-:, in speai^ing of l.M)n's death: "l!y
wisely planning, by boldly doing, and by bravely dying, he had
won the light for Missouri."

I'.ut mnch was to be done yet before the work gallantly begun
by Lyon was finished. On July 22, 1861, the day after the Union
defeat at Bull Run, and three. weeks before the Wilson Creek
disaster, the convention which adjourned in St. Louis in March
met at Jefferson City, declared vacant the seat of Sterling Price,
who had become commander of Governor Jackson's state guard,
and put Pobert'Wilson in his i)lace as i)resident of the conven-
tion ; dc])ost'd Governor Jackson and Lienlciiant (;oveTn(;r Reyn-
olds, \' ho liad also gMine ovtr to the Sonthern side, and made
IlauM, II k. Gamble provisional governor .and VVillard P. Hall
provi' I. Mi,d lieuleiiant governor ; declared the scats of the membeis
of the K jMslatnre, a large majority of whom had taken the South-



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,;,,' MISSOURI IN rilE CIVIL WAR. i6l

ern side, vacant, and annulled the laws passed by that legislature
which had enabled Jackson to make war on the national g-overn-
nient. All these wcvt revolutionary jjroceedings, but they were
justified by military necessity, they recognized facts, averted
anarchy, protected life and property, and saved the state to the
Union. During nearly all the time until after the election of
Thomas C. Fletcher as governor in 1864 the convention exercised
executive and legislative powers, and, considering the difficulties
of the situation, it did this with courage, al)ility and rare public
spirit.

(Governor Gamble issueil a proclamation on August 3, a week
before Wilson's Creek, reciting that the act of the legislature
which had created Jackson's and Price's state guard had been
set aside by the convention, ordering the state guards to disband,
and telling all Missourians who were in arms against the govern-
ment that they wouUl be iMotected if they surrendered and lived
peaceably thereafler. l>y a proclamation on August 24 Gamble
called for thirty-two thousand troops to enlist for six months, to
defend the lives antl property of the citizens of the state.

Jackson retaliated by issuing a declaration of independence for
Missouri and by calling the legislature in session at Neosho, in the
southwest part of the state, where it could be under the protection
of Price's troops. There a rump body, comprising less than a
quorum of each branch, met on October 21, passed what it called
an ordinance of secession, which was recognized by the govern-
ment at Richmond, which went through the form of admitting
Mi.ssouri iiitc, llu' confederacy, and the K-islature elected ]u\\\\ B.
elark, .Sr., and K. 1.. \'. Peyton to ihr con Ir.krate senate, and
seven j)ersons, including George Ci. \'est (who served from 1879
to 1903 in the United States senate) to the confederate house.

The state convention held one more session in 1861, beginning
on October 16, in St. Louis, at which it passed an act under which
the IMissouri state militia was organized on the Union side, and it
also enacted a law exempting from punishment those wlio, having
borne arms against the government or given aid and comfort to
its enemies, should, within sixty days, take an oath to support tho
national government and obey the government established by the
convention.

During all this time the military situation in IMissouri was

uiulergoiii;; >wift changes, (ien. John (.". I''rcin(-nl, who arrived

in St. I .1 on Julv -'S, iHfii, to takr command of the Western

Ihpiiitii. ill, (ompiii.mf; lilinoi;,, Mis.soini, and ,d! tlu- st,ili\s and

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l62 THE PROl'lS'CR AND THE STATES.

territories between the Mississippi and the Rocky mountains,
issued a proclamation on August 30, three weeks after Lyon's
defeat and death, in which he declared martial law throughout the
state, and prescribed that the property of all persons who had
taken up arms against the government should be confiscated and
their slaves set free. Lincoln asked Fremont to mo<lify that part
of the proclamation relating to the confiscation of property and
the freeing of the slaves, as he feared this would have a bad effect
on the loyal slaveholders of the border states, particularly of Ken-
tucky, and as I-'remont declined to comply, Lincoln set that aside
himself. Lincoln's action, though wise under the circumstances,
angered many anti-slavery men in Missouri and elsewhere, drew
them toward iMX-mont, and was one of the causes that put Fremont
forwaril as a candidate iuv preNident l>y the radical Republicans in
kS|)4 in opposition to Lincoln, though JMvmont withdrew from the
canvass in that \ear several weeks before the election.

Lut the I'nion men of Missouri were soon furnished with somcr
thing more exciting to talk ai)out dian Fremont's proclamation.
McCulloch, not long after Wilson's Creek, dropped back into
Arkansas and the Indian Territory, and Price marched nf)rthward
with about 8,000 men, captured Lexington, on the Missouri, on
September 30, garrisoned by General iAhdligan with 3,000 troops,
and then swung southward when he learned that Fremont was
marching in his direction with 20,000 men. I'remont followed
Price as far as Springfield, near which place Major Zagonyi, a
ILmgarian, commaniler of hVeniont's cavalry bodyguartl and of
\\ lute's Prairie Scouts, made ;i gallant charge on a larger force
of confederates, and defeated them. ( )n November 2, while at
Springliekl, I'Vemont was relieved by an order from Washington,
Gen. David Hunter being put in his place. Hunter himself was
superseded by Gen. Henry W. Halleck on November 7, and the
army soon afterward fell back to Rolla. Fremont received an
enthusiastic reception when he reached St. Louis. Pie had many
admirers, then and afterward, in that city. On November 7
Grant and Polk fought their indecisive battle at P>elmont, in
Southeast Missouri, which was Grant's first im()ortant fight of
the war.

Pushing southwestward from Lebanon, Laclede county, early in
1862, Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, with ten thousand Union tron])s,
drove i'ri' c Into Arkansas, where elfeeting a junction with McCul-
loch, the .i.ine force ,d e. Ml le.lerates an<l Missouri >,tate iMianls,
with (i.;. Mberl Pike's fni.T ,d" Indians ami hall hi.i.ls, mniil.er-
ing foni lei, 11 1 1 ;ou sand, all under coiiniiaiid nf Gen. l'"aii Van Dorn,



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MISSOURI IN Tllii CI I'll WAR. 163

attacked Curtis at Pea Ridj^v, in the nurtluvi?tcrn part uf that state.
In a battle lasting- through March 6, 7 and (S, in which ixjlh sides
lost heavily, Curtis drove his enemies from the field. McCuUoch
and IMcIntosh of the confederates and Cien. W. Y. Slack of Jack-
son's state gnartl, were killed.

Shortly after this defeat Trice and his divisit)n of Missourians
entered the confederate service i)n)i)er, ceasetl to be Missouri state
guards, fought under the stars and bars on man\ fields, |)rinci[)ally
east of the Mississippi, and remained in tlie service until after ;

Appoinatto.x. With the change of status of l^ice and his men
Jackson's state tr(X)ps virtually ceased to exist, jacksiju himself, '.

deposed by the convention, and an e.xile from his state, entered
the confederate service with the rank of a brigadier general was \

compelled to resign on account of ill health, and died near Little i

Rock on December 6, 1862, but resolute and loyal to the South to ;

the last.

.After Pea Ridge the confeileratis were never a serious menace j

to Missouri except during the few wetks in the fall of 1804 during
which Price was on his raid through the state. Marmaduke, >.

Shelby, I'oindexter, J elf Thompson, and others made forays into \

the state from time to time, and guerrilla warfare was waged in a J

desultory way on both sides of the Missouri. The official records \

indicate llial from the capture of the federal arsenal at Liberty, |

on April jo, i.S()|, to Xovemlier _'o, i(S()_', over three hundred I

fights of various dimensions, most of them of course, being |

skirmishes, took i)lace in Missouri. Probably more than that {

number weic fought in the ne\l Iwo yeais, or lo the end of lSO.[.
Tile greater pait of these iiglils had no effect whalevi'r on the
general result.

The most antl worst of these fights were waged on the western |

border of the state, and were a legacy frcjm the Kansas territorial
conflicts of the years immediately preceding- secession. There §

were raids in each tlirection, many of them by persons who wore
neither uniform, and who were not entitled to wear either. The
most hideous of these atrocities was the dash by Quantrell and
three hundred of his guerrillas, all mounted, into Lawrem e, Kan.,
on Aug^ust 21, 1863, in whiih nearly two hundred people, men,
women and children, were murdi'red, stores and banks were
robbed, and a large i)art of the town was burned.

In retali.ition, on August 26 (ien. Thomas Lwing, whose head-
quarter- .-.ir at Kansas ( 'ilv, issned ( )rder l\'o. 11, (-ommanding
everbod, li.nig in (ass, Jatkson, I'.ales and pari (d' \ernon
etinnlits to remove within lifti-en da)s out of the coniUies, excejit



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164 ■ 'fllE PROrih'CE .-IN!) THE STATES.

those rcsiiliii;^- in ihc larL;er tow ns, hut tli(.i;>c who cuiild i)r(jvc their
loyaUy were allowed to stay at the nearest nnHtar\- post or to
move into Kansas. All o-rain and hay were taken to the military
stations, for which |)a)nient was i^iven, and the rest of the
produce was to he hurned. 'Idiis ortler, which was desiL^ned to
stop the hushuackin-, had no such effect, and iullicled s^reat
har.ship on lliousand.. of persons, nioi^L of ihein lo\al I'niouisls.
'Jdic artist fol. (ieor-e (.". Min.^hani was a mcnihcr of iMvin-'s
staff, and protested aj^ainst the edict, ihouj^h \ainly. lie after-
ward painted a picture called "Order \o. 11," which had a great
vof^nie for years, a few copies of which are still in Missouri house-
liolds.

The state convention's session at Jefferson City wdiich hegan
on June 2, 1862, and lasted to June 14, adoi)ted a test oath pre-
venting anybody from voting in any election in the state until he
had taken an oath to defentl the constitution of the United States
and Afissouri's constitution, until he had promised to give no aid
and compact to the enemies of the I'nited States or of the jn'o-
visional government of Missouri, anil until he had sworn that he
had not borne arms against the United States or Missouri's pro-
visional government since f)ecember 17, 1861.

In the elections, therefore, which took place in Missouri in 1862
and in subsequent years while this test stood, none but Union
men could vote. l':niancii)alion was the chief issue in the contests
in that year, and the emancipationists won in the voting for con-
gress and for the legislature, lilair. Rollins, 11. '1\ lu'ow. [. \V.
McClurg and \\\ .\. Hall were among the nine mcuihers cliosen
by .Missouri to congress in 1802.

As the freeing of the slaves coukl not be decreed for several
years, however, under the constitutional method of procedure, one
of the things which the ct)nvention of 18G3 diil when it iriet, pur-
suant to the call of (iovernor Ciamble, on June (5 of that year,,
was to pass an ordinanci' on July i, decreeing emancipation on
July 4, 1870, with these (pialihcatii-ns : The slaves over forty on
i^hat day shoidd be subject to the control of their owmrs through
life, those under twelve until they were twenty-three, and those of
all other ages initil July 4, 1876. lUil manumission came before
either of those years. l!y operation of an ordinance of the con-
stitutionrd convintion which met early in Covernor hk tchi'r's
term eve; .lave in Mis.souri was freed on January 12, 1865.

July I, i."'>.v which saw the pass.i!'/- of the < ni;Muipalion ordi-
nance, alo koMiidil the cciivenli..!) to an end. It h;id I.een elected
*»" I'Vbi i\ 18, i8(.i, to determine wlulher Missoini should



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Missonu /.v THE cii'jl h'ar. 165

secede or stand by the Union; declared overwhelmingly for the
Union ; met in Jefferson City on February 28, and by successive
assemblages in that i-)laee and St. Louis, it continued to govern the
state, preserving- order, and contributing most of the one hundred
and nine thousand soldiers which Missouri furnished to the
armies of the Union in the four years of the war, Init on Jidy i,
1863, it adjourned sine die. Its power C(jnlinued beyond that
date, moreover, for the executive which it clectetl controlled the
state until the regularly chosen governor, Tlirjmas C. Fletcher,
entered office in 1865.

The year 1864 was a stirring time for Missouri. It brought
Governor Gamble's death, Price's raid, and the election of a gov-
ernor and a president. Gamble died on January 31, 1864, and
Willard P. Hall, the lieutenant governor, acted as governor for
the eleven months intervening before Fletcher's accession. Gamble
was born in Virginia, removed to Missouri at an early age, settling
in St. Louis a few years after he entere<l the state, was a success- _
ful lawyer, was successi\ely secretary of state, member of the
legislature and chief justice of the state's stiprenie court, and was
elected to the convention in 1861, and made governor when Jack-
son was (lei)osed. He was sixty-six years of age at the time of his
death. Hall, also a Virginian by birUi, but twenty-two years
younger than (i.mible, \\;is .'dso an old resi.leiu (.f tlu' stale, was
a soKlier in the Mexican war, was a I'.entoii Demoeial, was several
terms in cnngrt-ss, and was one of the members of the convention
chdsen in i8()i.

I'riee'.s r.iid into Missouri in iSoj was llu- most formidable con-
li-dei.Ue nnlilarv deiiion.sti .ilion wliieli ha. I l)een made in (he state
since the fall of 1801, when the same daring and skilful soldier
advanced to the Missouri, won several victories, and captured
General Mulligan and his force at Lexington. Many of the
Lhiion troops located in Missouri had been witlulrawn in the
spring and summer of iSf).\ for emplo)inent elsewhere, and
tho.se who were left in the state had a large territory to cover.
General Rosecrans, the commander of the department, however,
had learned about Price's intentions beforehand and had obtained
some re-enforcements, chiefly Gen. A. J. Smith and his division.

With Shelby, (dark and others who had been oi)erating in and
near the state since earl)' in the war, Price, with about twenty
thousand nun, whom he expected to increase by recruiting as he
advanced, struck Southeastern Missouri in September, 1864, and
madi- a d.. Ii northward and wi-stward, intending to capture the
great suppix depots of the national forces at Pilot Knob, JelTerson



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ir/; Til Li I'ROi'lNCLi AND TlUl STAIES.

City, Kolla and Sf)rinL;rickl, and to nicnaci' St. Louis. The fir.st
ob.strucliou wliirli lir t'licoiinli rid was at l'il(>t Kiioh, wlivrc lie
was j^allaiill)- resisted l)\ < ini. I lu-li .S. luvinj;-, with one thousand
two hundred troops. To c-scapc capture, however, luvinj;- ahan-
doned his position after t-pilcin.i;' his cannon and blowing' up liis
niag'azine, and retreated westward to RoUa, where he joined
General McNeil.

Pushinj^- iiorttuvard Trice cre)ssed tiie Meraniec, reached a ])oint
within forty miles (jf St. Louis, which he eviilentl)' feared to
attack, and then swuui;- westwarti, adxanced on jeherson City,
into which Kosecran.s had thrown all the troops that he could
spare from other points. Mntlinj,'' the capital pre[)ared to resist
him Price moved onward to lloonville and LexinL;'ton, his sub-
ordinates Shelby and (lark capturin;;- (llas^ow and other towns
on the wa)', and he himself defeating; L urtis at Little Ijlue on
October 21. Meanwhile Pleasanton, from Jefferson City, with a
large force, chiefly ca\alry, and A. j.\Smith with anf)ther body of
troops, chased Price, who, howe\er, delayed his pursuers bv l)urn-
in - the brid-es behind b.im. J'leasantoii defeated Price at Inde-
pendence, when the latter, feariui;- capture, innneiliatelv started
southward, ]>ursued rapidly by the L'uion forces, and escaped into
Arkansas.

The raid failed of its object. Price iiiarch.ed i,^-l^V| miles, foui^ht
forty-three battles auil skirmishes, received (),noo recruits where he
had e\p>ected t(j i^ain J5,()0;), destroyed accordint;- to his estimate,
ten million dollars of properly, but lo.st beax'ily in men b\ dealh and
capture, and left the I'nion forces in the stale much stronger ;md
more elfeclix-e iban he found tlnni. This was ihe last desp.airin.i;-
ellort oi the confederates ti) make headwav in Missouri. Guerrilla
figditing- was kept up till after Appomattox, bushwhackers and jay-
hawkers continued their demonstrations, and Pill Anderson and
his bandits on September 27, 1S64, robbed, burned and murdered
at Centr.dia, the victims of the murders being twenty-three
unarmed Union soldiers, followed by Anderson's annihilation of
one hundred and forty armed soldiers, but when Price fled across
the line into Arkansas in November of that year the serious opera-
tions of the war in Missouri were ended.

Wdiile the marching and fighting of 1<S().( were under way, one
of the most nittresting political c;impaigiis which the sl.ite ever
saw w:is m active progress. That was the one in which Lincoln
was re-e.'vied pri'sidenl and Idelclur was chosen lo be ;;o\ernor.
There w i.- a great (k'al of very complicated politics in Missouri
from the beginning of the war. To a delej;;ilioii of radical Pepub-



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MfSSOlfRl IN TUli Cli'lL ]l'AR. 167

licans from Missouri who callcfl on liim in October, 1863, to ask
hiin to remove Ck-neral ScliolieM, who was charL;"cil with favoring
disloyahsts, and to put (Jeneral Jlutler in command in the state,
Lincohi said, after referring- to the pecuhar conditions tliere : "It
thus becomes a t|uestit)n not of two sitles merely, but of at least
four sides, even anions;- those who are for the Ihiiiju, saying- noth-
intf of those who are aj^ainst it. ddms, those whcj are for the
Union with, but not without, slaver\ — lli(ise who are for it with-
out but not with — those for it with or without, but prefer it with,
and those ft)r it with or without, but prefer it without. Among
these again is a subdivision of those who are for gradual, but not
for immediate, and those who are for immediate but not for
gradual, extinction of slavery."

These cross currents affected every political contest in Mis-
souri during the war. In the campaign of 1864 there were two
divisions of the L'nion party of Missouri, r.oth sent representa-
tives to the national convention wdiich met in Ijaltlmore on June 7,
and which renominated Lincoln and i)ut u]) Andrew Johnson for
vice president. War Democrats were eligible to representation in
that convention. It was called a Union convention, though a
large majority of its delegates were Republicans, and the Repub-
licans cast most of the votes which elected its ticket. One of
the two bodies of Missourians wdiich demanded admissi(;n to
the national con\ention of i8'')4 was called the Radical I'nion
and tlie other tlie Unconditional Union delegation. The Radi-
cals to(^k I'remont's side when Lincoln in \W)\ abrfigated Fre-
mont's I'lnancipation edict. The\' wauled the iimuediate libera-
tion of all the slaves in e\'er\' state, outside as well as in the con-
federacy, c'ven before Lincoln issued his emancipation proclama-
tion of 1863 which applied only to the slaves in the ccjufederate
region. After a contest the Radical delegation was atlmitted to
the convention by a vote of 440 to 4, and the Unconditional
LInionists were shut out. The delegates at large of the Radicals
were Chauncey I. Inlley, Charles D. Drake and J. F. Lenjamin
of St. Louis, and Benjamin F. Loan of St. Joseph. They
undoubtedly represented a large majority of the Lhiion people
of the state. In the ballot for president in the convention, the
Missouri delegates, in accordance with instructions from home,
cast their votes for General Grant, and then transferred them to
Lincoln ;nid made his nomination unanimous.

In Mi ouri the Lincoln and Johnson ticket received 72,901
votes, as M.iiipared with 3l,o_'(j for MeUlellan, the Democratic
canditlate. Thomas C. Fletcher, the Union candidate for gov-



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l68 "•' 'l^iil^ I'h'Ol'JNCE AND TlIJi STATUS. j

!
ernor, got 71,531 votes, as against 30,406 for the Democrat, 1
Thomas L. Price. Governor Fletcher, who entered office on Janu- j
ary 2, 1865, was thirty-ei!_;ht years of age at the time, was Ihi; j
first native born governor (his birtliphice was Jeffersdu county) I
which Mis.^oini ever IkkK was a l\ei)uhHcan from the fcnnuhi- i
tion of the i»arty, and served in the army chning most uf the war,
rising to the rank of a hriga(Uer general.

The peace which came to the country during the early months
of Governor Fletcher's term, and which took I'rice, Cockrell,
Marmadnke, Vest, Clark and the other ex-confederate leaders j
back to the state, brought nj) issues almost as exciting as any
that had been precipitated during Jackson's and Gamble's serv-
ice. These will form the chief theme of the next chapter.



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'ill- ••



RECONSTRUCTION IN MISSOURI. 169



CHAPTKR XVll



Reconstruction in tlic State



MISSOURI had stood patriotically and intrepidly by the
Lhiion. She had furnished several thousands more than
her quotas of troops under Linc(jln'3 various calls. Yet
immediately after the war Missouri was put throu.^h a process
of reconstruction which caused ^M-eat commotion at the time,
which destroyed, in the case of thousands of good Ihiion men,
the i^artisan affiliations established during that strug[,de, and
which has afifected the course of politics in the state to this day.

( )n January 6, 1865, four days after Governor Fkiclier entered
oflicc, .-I convention pro\'i(led for by an act of the legislature of
l'\-l)ruary i,:^, 18(14, which had been ralilied by ^'(;,()0() majority
by a vote of the i)i'ople on November 8 ui that ) ear, the same



Online LibraryWeston Arthur GoodspeedThe province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom (Volume 4) → online text (page 17 of 53)